Northern California is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area, the Greater Sacramento area, the Metropolitan Fresno area. Northern California contains redwood forests, along with the Sierra Nevada, including Yosemite Valley and part of Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta, most of the Central Valley, one of the world's most productive agricultural regions; the 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. Native Americans arrived in northern California at least as early as 8,000 to 5,000 BC and even much earlier, successive waves of arrivals led to one of the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries did not establish European settlements in northern California.
In 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a formal geographic designation. California's north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco. Popularly, though, "Northern California" refers to the state's northernmost 48 counties; because of California's large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well. For example, the Central Valley is a region, distinct both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in northern versus southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and most of the San Joaquin Valley are placed in northern California; the state is considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. Extreme northern residents have felt under-represented in state government and in 1941 attempted to form a new state with southwestern Oregon to be called Jefferson, or more to introduce legislation to split California into two or three states.
The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast, while the interior region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Northern California is the name of a proposed new state on the 2018 California ballot created by splitting the existing state into three parts. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the world's economic and cultural stages. From the development of gold mining techniques and logging practices in the 19th century that were adopted around the world, to the development of world-famous and online business models, northern California has been at the forefront of new ways of doing business. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, to breakthroughs in microchip technology. Cultural contributions include the works of Ansel Adams, George Lucas, Clint Eastwood, as well as beatniks, the Summer of Love, the cradle of the international environmental movement, the open, casual workplace first popularized in the Silicon Valley dot-com boom and now in use around the world.
Other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, the largest of California, Travis Air Force Base. Northern California's largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto. With expanding development in all these areas, the San Francisco Bay Area, Monterey Bay Area, central part of the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may now be viewed as part of a single megalopolis; the 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any metropolitan area in California; the state's larger inland cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts.
Important cities in the region not in major metropolitan areas include Eureka on the far North Coast, Redding, at the northern end of the Central Valley and Yuba City in the mid-north of the Valley, as well as Fresno and Visalia on the southern end. Though smaller in every case except for Fresno than the larger cities of the vast region, these smaller regional centers are of historical, inflated economic importance for their respective size, due to their locations, which are rural or otherwise isolated. Inhabited for millennia by Native Americans, from the Shasta tribe in the north, to the Miwoks in the central coast and Sierra Nevada, to the Yokuts of the southern Central Valley, northern California was among the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
The Native American Party, renamed the American Party in 1855 and known as the Know Nothing movement, was an American nativist political party that operated nationally in the mid-1850s. It was anti-Catholic and hostile to immigration, starting as a secret society; the movement emerged as a major political party in the form of the American Party. Adherents to the movement were to reply "I know nothing" when asked about its specifics by outsiders, thus providing the group with its common name; the Know Nothings believed a "Romanist" conspiracy was afoot to subvert civil and religious liberty in the United States and sought to politically organize native-born Protestants in what they described as a defense of their traditional religious and political values. It is remembered for this theme because of fears by Protestants that Catholic priests and bishops would control a large bloc of voters. In most places, Know Nothingism lasted only a year or two before disintegrating because of weak local leaders, few publicly declared national leaders and a deep split over the issue of slavery.
In the South, the party did not emphasize anti-Catholicism, but was the main alternative to the dominant Democratic Party. The collapse of the Whig Party after the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act left an opening for the emergence of a new major party in opposition to the Democrats; the Know Nothings elected congressman Nathaniel P. Banks of Massachusetts and several other individuals in the 1854 elections and created a new party organization known as the American Party. In the South, the American Party served as a vehicle for politicians opposed to the Democratic Party. Many hoped that it would seek a middle ground between the pro-slavery positions of many Democratic politicians and the anti-slavery positions of the emerging Republican Party; the American Party nominated former President Millard Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, although he kept quiet about his membership. Fillmore received 21.5% of the popular vote in the 1856 presidential election, finishing behind the Democratic and Republican nominees.
The party declined after the 1856 election. The 1857 Dred Scott v. Sandford decision further aroused opposition to slavery in the North, where many Know Nothings joined the Republicans. Most of the remaining members of the party supported the Constitutional Union Party in the 1860 presidential election. Anti-Catholicism had been a factor in colonial America but played a minor role in American politics until the arrival of large numbers of Irish and German Catholics in the 1840s, it reemerged in nativist attacks on Catholic immigration. It appeared in New York politics as early as 1843 under the banner of the American Republican Party; the movement spread to nearby states using that name or Native American Party or variants of it. They succeeded in a number of local and Congressional elections, notably in 1844 in Philadelphia, where the anti-Catholic orator Lewis Charles Levin, who went on to be the first Jewish congressman, was elected Representative from Pennsylvania's 1st district. In the early 1850s, numerous secret orders grew up, of which the Order of United Americans and the Order of the Star Spangled Banner came to be the most important.
They merged in New York in the early 1850s as a secret order that spread across the North, reaching non-Catholics those who were lower middle class or skilled workmen. The name "Know Nothing" originated in the semi-secret organization of the party; when a member was asked about his activities, he was supposed to reply, "I know nothing." Outsiders derisively called them "Know Nothings," and the name stuck. In 1855, the Know Nothings first entered politics under the American Party label; the immigration of large numbers of Irish and German Catholics to the United States in the period between 1830 and 1860 made religious differences between Catholics and Protestants a political issue. Violence erupted at the polls. Protestants alleged that Pope Pius IX had put down the failed liberal Revolutions of 1848 and that he was an opponent of liberty and republicanism. One Boston minister described Catholicism as "the ally of tyranny, the opponent of material prosperity, the foe of thrift, the enemy of the railroad, the caucus, the school".
These fears encouraged conspiracy theories regarding papal intentions of subjugating the United States through a continuing influx of Catholics controlled by Irish bishops obedient to and selected by the Pope. In 1849, an oath-bound secret society, the Order of the Star Spangled Banner, was created by Charles B. Allen in New York City. At its inception, the Order of the Star Spangled Banner only had about 36 members. Fear of Catholic immigration led to a dissatisfaction with the Democratic Party, whose leadership in many cities included Catholics of Irish descent. Activists formed secret groups, coordinating their votes and throwing their weight behind candidates sympathetic to their cause: Immigration during the first five years of the 1850s reached a level five times greater than a decade earlier. Most of the new arrivals were poor Catholic peasants or laborers from Ireland and Germany who crowded into the tenements of large cities. Crime and welfare costs soared. Cincinnati's crime rate, for example, tripled between 1846 and 1853 and its murder rate increased sevenfold.
Boston's expenditures for poor relief rose threefold during the same period. In spring 1854, the Know Nothings carried Boston and other New England cities, they swept the state of Massachusetts in the fall their biggest victory. The Whig candidate for mayor of Philadelphia, editor Robert T. Conrad, was soon revealed as a Know Nothing as he promised to crack down on crime, close saloons on Sund
Amasa Leland Stanford was an American tycoon, industrialist and the founder of Stanford University. Migrating to California from New York at the time of the Gold Rush, he became a successful merchant and wholesaler, continued to build his business empire, he spent one two-year term as Governor of California after his election in 1861, eight years as a United States Senator. As president of Southern Pacific Railroad and, beginning in 1861, Central Pacific, he had tremendous power in the region and a lasting impact on California, he is considered a robber baron. Stanford was born in 1824 in what was Watervliet, New York, he was one of eight children of Elizabeth Phillips Stanford. Among his siblings were New York State Senator Charles Stanford and Australian businessman and spiritualist Thomas Welton Stanford, his immigrant ancestor, Thomas Stanford, settled in Massachusetts, in the 17th century. Ancestors settled in the eastern Mohawk Valley of central New York about 1720. Stanford's father was a farmer of some means.
Stanford was raised on family farms in the Lisha Roessleville areas of Watervliet. The family home in Roessleville was called Elm Grove; the Elm Grove home was razed in the 1940s. Stanford attended the common school until 1836 and was tutored at home until 1839, he attended Clinton Liberal Institute, in Clinton, New York, studied law at Cazenovia Seminary in Cazenovia, New York, in 1841–45. In 1845, he entered the law office of Wheaton and Hadley in Albany. After being admitted to the bar in 1848, Stanford moved with many other settlers to Port Washington, where he began law practice with Wesley Pierce, his father presented him with a law library said to be the finest north of Milwaukee. In 1850, Stanford was nominated by the Whig Party as Wisconsin district attorney. On September 30, 1850, Stanford married Jane Elizabeth Lathrop in New York, she was the daughter of Dyer Lathrop, a merchant of that city, Jane Anne Lathrop. The couple did not have any children for years, until their only child, a son, Leland DeWitt Stanford, was born in 1868 when his father was forty-four.
In 1852, having lost his law library and other property to a fire, Stanford followed his five brothers to California during the California Gold Rush. His wife, returned temporarily to Albany and her family, he went into business with his brothers and became the keeper of a general store for miners at Michigan City, California the name changed to Michigan Bluff in Placer County. He served as a justice of the peace and helped organize the Sacramento Library Association, which became the Sacramento Public Library. In 1855, he returned to Albany to join his wife but found the pace of Eastern life too slow after the excitement of developing California. In 1856, he and Jane moved to Sacramento. Stanford was one of the four merchants known popularly as "The Big Four" who were the key investors in Chief Engineer Theodore Dehone Judah's plan for the Central Pacific Railroad, which the five of them incorporated on June 28, 1861, of which Stanford was elected president; the other three associates were Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins, Collis P. Huntington.
The railroad's first locomotive, named "Gov. Stanford" in his honor, is on display today at the California State Railroad Museum in Sacramento. Stanford ran unsuccessfully for governor of California in 1859, he won the election. He served one term limited to two years. In May 1868, he joined Lloyd Tevis, Darius Ogden Mills, H. D. Bacon and Crocker in forming the Pacific Union Express Company, it merged in 1870 with Wells Company. Stanford was a director of Wells Fargo and Company from 1870 to January 1884. After a brief retirement from the board, he served again from February 1884 until his death in June 1893. In May 1868, he started the Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Company and served as its first president from 1868 to 1876. While the Central Pacific was under construction and his associates in 1868 acquired control of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Stanford was elected president of the Southern Pacific, a post he held until 1890 when he was ousted by Collis Huntington; as head of the railroad company that built the western portion of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" over the Sierra Nevada mountains in California and Utah, Stanford presided at the ceremonial driving of "Last Spike" in Promontory, Utah on May 10, 1869.
The grade of the CPRR met that of the Union Pacific Railroad, built west from its western terminus at Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska. He was given the honor of driving the final spike. Stanford moved with his family from Sacramento to San Francisco in 1874, where he assumed presidency of the Occidental and Oriental Steamship Company, the steamship line to Japan and China associated with the Central Pacific; the Southern Pacific Company was organized in 1884 as a holding company for the Central Pacific-Southern Pacific system. Stanford was president of the Southern Pacific Company from 1885 until 1890 when he was forced out of that post by Collis Huntington; this was thought to be retaliation for Stanford's election to the United States Senate in 1885 over Huntington's friend, A. A. Sargent. Stanford was elected chairman of the Southern Pacific Railroad's executive committee in 18
Jefferson is a city in Jefferson County, United States, is its county seat. It is at the confluence of the Crawfish rivers; the population was 7,973 at the 2010 census. The city is bordered by the Town of Jefferson. Jefferson's location was selected to make use of the water power and transportation opportunities offered by the Rock River, it was the furthest point a steamboat could navigate the Rock in 1839. Bridges built downstream prevented such navigation. Jefferson's founders were settlers from New England Connecticut, rural Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Maine, as well some from upstate New York born to parents who had migrated there from New England shortly after the American Revolution; these people were "Yankees" descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s. They were part of a wave of New England farmers who headed west into what was the wilds of the Northwest Territory during the early 1800s. Most arrived as a result of the completion of the Erie Canal as well as the end of the Black Hawk War.
When they arrived in what is now Jefferson there was nothing but dense virgin forest and wild prairie, the New Englanders built farms and government buildings and established post routes. They brought many of their Yankee New England values, such as a passion for education, establishing many schools as well as staunch support for abolitionism, they were members of the Congregationalist Church though some were Episcopalian. Due to the second Great Awakening some had converted to Methodism and others had become Baptists before moving to what is now Jefferson. Jefferson, like much of Wisconsin, would be culturally continuous with early New England culture for most of its early history. During World War II, Camp Jefferson, a prison camp for German POWs, was erected at the Jefferson County Fairgrounds; the Jefferson County Fairgrounds hosted horse buggy racing prior to the renovations to the new fairgrounds. Jefferson is located at 43°0′11″N 88°48′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.93 square miles, of which 5.72 square miles is land and 0.21 square miles is water.
Jefferson's elevation is 797 ft at the center of downtown. As of the census of 2010, there were 7,973 people, 3,132 households, 1,989 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,393.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,378 housing units at an average density of 590.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.2% White, 0.7% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.4% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.8% of the population. There were 3,132 households of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.5% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age in the city was 37.5 years.
24.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.8% male and 50.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,338 people, 2,816 households, 1,819 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,645.9 people per square mile. There were 2,934 housing units at an average density of 658.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.28% White, 0.53% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 3.04% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. 6.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,816 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.8% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.96.
In the city, the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,962, the median income for a family was $47,737. Males had a median income of $32,500 versus $25,142 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,124. About 5.4% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.2% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over In Jefferson there are six schools: two elementary schools, one middle school, one high school, two private schools. The names of the schools are East Elementary, West Elementary, Jefferson Middle School, Jefferson High School, St. John's Catholic, St. John's Lutheran. East Elementary School was built as a public works project in 1939 during the Great Depression.
Valero Renewables is an ethanol plant located in Jefferson. There is a Purina cat food manufacturing plant and a Generac Power Systems plant. City of Jefferson official website Jefferson Area Chamber of Commerce Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1884 1892 1898 1904 1909 1914
Hydraulic mining, or hydraulicking, is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment. In the placer mining of gold or tin, the resulting water-sediment slurry is directed through sluice boxes to remove the gold, it is used in mining kaolin and coal. Hydraulic mining originated out of ancient Roman techniques that used water to excavate soft underground deposits, its modern form, using pressurized water jets produced by a nozzle called a "monitor", came about in the 1850s during the California Gold Rush in the United States. Though successful in extracting gold-rich minerals, the widespread use of the process resulted in extensive environmental damage, such as increased flooding and erosion, sediment blocking waterways and covering over farm fields; these problems led to its legal regulation. Hydraulic mining has since been used in various forms around the world. Hydraulic mining had its precursor in the practice of ground sluicing, a development of, known as "hushing", in which surface streams of water were diverted so as to erode gold-bearing gravels.
This was used in the Roman empire in the first centuries AD and BC, expanded throughout the empire wherever alluvial deposits occurred. The Romans used ground sluicing to remove overburden and the gold-bearing debris in Las Médulas of Spain, Dolaucothi in Britain; the method was used in Elizabethan England and Wales for developing lead and copper mines. Water was used on a large scale by Roman engineers in the first centuries BC and AD when the Roman empire was expanding in Europe. Using a process known as hushing, the Romans stored a large volume of water in a reservoir above the area to be mined; the resulting wave of water removed exposed bedrock. Gold veins in the bedrock were worked using a number of techniques, water power was used again to remove debris; the remains at Las Médulas and in surrounding areas show badland scenery on a gigantic scale owing to hydraulicking of the rich alluvial gold deposits. Las Médulas is now a UNESCO World Heritage site; the site shows the remains of at least seven large aqueducts of up to 30 miles in length feeding large supplies of water into the site.
The gold-mining operations were described in vivid terms by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia published in the first century AD. Pliny was a procurator in Hispania Terraconensis in the 70s AD and must have witnessed for himself the operations; the use of hushing has been confirmed by field survey and archaeology at Dolaucothi in South Wales, the only known Roman gold mine in Britain. The modern form of hydraulic mining, using jets of water directed under high pressure through hoses and nozzles at gold-bearing upland paleogravels, was first used by Edward Matteson near Nevada City, California in 1853 during the California Gold Rush. Matteson used canvas hose, replaced with crinoline hose by the 1860s. In California, hydraulic mining brought water from higher locations for long distances to holding ponds several hundred feet above the area to be mined. California hydraulic mining exploited gravel deposits. Early placer miners in California discovered that the more gravel they could process, the more gold they were to find.
Instead of working with pans, sluice boxes, long toms, rockers, miners collaborated to find ways to process larger quantities of gravel more rapidly. Hydraulic mining became the largest-scale, most devastating, form of placer mining. Water was redirected into an ever-narrowing channel, through a large canvas hose, out through a giant iron nozzle, called a "monitor"; the high pressure stream was used to wash entire hillsides through enormous sluices. By the early 1860s, while hydraulic mining was at its height, small-scale placer mining had exhausted the rich surface placers, the mining industry turned to hard rock or hydraulic mining, which required larger organizations and much more capital. By the mid-1880s, it is estimated that 11 million ounces of gold had been recovered by hydraulic mining in the California Gold Rush. While generating millions of dollars in tax revenues for the state and supporting a large population of miners in the mountains, hydraulic mining had a devastating effect on riparian natural environment and agricultural systems in California.
Millions of tons of earth and water were delivered to mountain streams that fed rivers flowing into the Sacramento Valley. Once the rivers reached the flat valley, the water slowed, the rivers widened, the sediment was deposited in the floodplains and river beds causing them to rise, shift to new channels, overflow their banks, causing major flooding during the spring melt. Cities and towns in the Sacramento Valley experienced an increasing number of devastating floods, while the rising riverbeds made navigation on the rivers difficult. No other city experienced the boon and the bane of gold mining as much as Marysville. Situated at the confluence of the Yuba and Feather rivers, Marysville was the final "jumping off" point for miners heading to the northern foothills to seek their fortune. Steamboats from San Francisco, carrying miners and supplies, navigated up the Sacramento River the Feather River to Marysville where they would unload their passengers and cargo. Marysville constructed a complex levee system to protect the city from floods and sediment.
Hydraulic mining exacerbated the problem of flooding in Marysville and shoaled the waters of the Feather River so severely