New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Oak Hill Cemetery (Washington, D.C.)
Oak Hill Cemetery is a historic 22-acre cemetery located in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. C. in the United States. It was founded in 1848 and completed in 1853, is a prime example of a garden cemetery. A large number of famous politicians, business people, military people and philanthropists are buried at Oak Hill, the cemetery has a number of Victorian-style memorials and monuments. Oak Hill has two structures which are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Oak Hill Cemetery Chapel and the Van Ness Mausoleum; the cemetery's interment of "Willie" Lincoln, deceased son of president Abraham Lincoln, was the inspiration for the Man Booker Prize-winning novel Lincoln in the Bardo by George Saunders. Oak Hill began in 1848 as part of the rural cemetery movement, directly inspired by the success of Mount Auburn Cemetery near Boston, when William Wilson Corcoran purchased 15 acres of land, he organized the Cemetery Company to oversee Oak Hill. Oak Hill's chapel was built in 1849 by noted architect James Renwick, who designed the Smithsonian Institution's Castle on Washington Mall and St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York.
His one-story rectangular chapel sits on the cemetery's highest ridge. It is built of black granite, in Gothic Revival style, with exterior trim in the same red Seneca sandstone used for the Castle. By 1851, landscape designer Captain George F. de la Roche finished laying out the winding paths and terraces descending into Rock Creek valley. When initial construction was completed in 1853, Corcoran had spent over $55,000 on the cemetery's landscaping and architecture. Dean Acheson Katherine Graham Herman Hollerith Willie Lincoln Adolf Cluss The cemetery was a part of the plot in the David Baldacci novel The Camel Club. Dodge, Andrew R.. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress: 1774–2005. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. ISBN 9780160731761. National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary "Washington, DC--Oak Hill Cemetery". National Park Service
Fort Monroe is a decommissioned military installation in Hampton, Virginia at Old Point Comfort, the southern tip of the Virginia Peninsula, United States. Along with Fort Wool, Fort Monroe guarded the navigation channel between the Chesapeake Bay and Hampton Roads—the natural roadstead at the confluence of the Elizabeth, the Nansemond and the James rivers; until disarmament in 1946, the areas protected by the fort were the entire Chesapeake Bay and Potomac River regions, including the water approaches to the cities of Washington, D. C. and Baltimore, along with important shipyards and naval bases in the Hampton Roads area. Surrounded by a moat, the six-sided bastion fort is the largest fort by area built in the United States. During the initial exploration by a mission headed by Captain Christopher Newport in the early 1600s, the earliest days of the Colony of Virginia, the site was identified as a strategic defensive location. Beginning by 1609, defensive fortifications were built at Old Point Comfort during Virginia's first two centuries.
The first was a wooden stockade named Fort Algernourne, followed by other small forts. However, the much more substantial facility of stone that became known as Fort Monroe were completed in 1834, as part of the third system of U. S. fortifications. The principal fort was named in honor of U. S. President James Monroe. Although Virginia became part of the Confederate States of America, Fort Monroe remained in Union hands throughout the American Civil War, it became notable as a historic and symbolic site of early freedom for former slaves under the provisions of contraband policies. For two years thereafter, the former Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, was imprisoned at the fort, his first months of confinement were spent in a cell of the casemated fort walls, now part of its Casemate Museum. Around the turn of the 20th century, numerous gun batteries were added in and near Fort Monroe under the Endicott program. In the 19th and 20th centuries it housed artillery schools, including the Coast Artillery School.
The Continental Army Command headquarters was at Fort Monroe, succeeded by the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command following a division of CONARC into TRADOC and United States Army Forces Command in 1973. CONARC was responsible for all active Army units in the continental United States. TRADOC was headquartered at the fort from 1973 until its decommissioning. Fort Monroe was decommissioned on September 15, 2011, many of its functions were transferred to nearby Fort Eustis. Several re-use plans for Fort Monroe are under development in the Hampton community. On November 1, 2011, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation to designate portions of Fort Monroe as a National Monument; this was the first time that President Obama exercised his authority under the Antiquities Act, a 1906 law to protect sites deemed to have natural, historical or scientific significance. Within the 565 acres of Fort Monroe are 170 historic buildings and nearly 200 acres of natural resources, including 8 miles of waterfront, 3.2 miles of beaches on the Chesapeake Bay, 110 acres of submerged lands and 85 acres of wetlands.
It has a 332-slip marina and shallow water inlet access to Mill Creek, suitable for small watercraft. The land area where Fort Monroe is became part of Elizabeth Cittie in 1619, Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, was included in Elizabeth City County when it was formed in 1643. Over 300 years in 1952, Elizabeth City County and the nearby Town of Phoebus agreed to consolidate with the smaller independent city of Hampton, which became one of the larger cities of Hampton Roads. Arriving with three ships under Captain Christopher Newport, Captain John Smith and the colonists of the Virginia Company established the settlement of Jamestown of the British Colony of Virginia on the James River in 1607. On their initial exploration, they recognized the strategic importance of the site at Old Point Comfort for purposes of coastal defense, they built Fort Algernourne at the location of the present Fort Monroe. It is assumed to have been a triangular stockade, based on the fort at Jamestown. Other small forts known as Fort Henry and Fort Charles were built nearby in 1610.
Fort Algernourne burned in 1612. In the latter part of August 1619, a Dutch ship, the White Lion, appeared off the coast of Old Point Comfort, its cargo included. Traded for work and supplies from the English, they were the first Africans to come ashore on British-occupied land in what would become the United States; the arrival of these Bantu Africans from Angola is considered to mark the beginning of slavery in America. Another fort, known only as "the fort at Old Point Comfort" was constructed in 1632. In 1728, Fort George was built on the site, its masonry walls were destroyed by a hurricane in 1749, but the wood buildings in the fort were used by a reduced force from circa 1755 until at least 1775. During the American Revolutionary War, as Patriot and French forces approached Yorktown in 1781, the British established batteries on the ruins of Fort George. Shortly afterward, during the Siege of Yorktown, the French West Indian fleet occupied these batteries. Throughout the Colonial period, fortifications were manned at the location from time to time.
Following the War of 1812, the United States realized the need to protect Hampton Roads and the inland waters from attack by sea. C. In Marc
Yuma Crossing is a site in Arizona and California, significant for its association with transportation and communication across the Colorado River. It connected New Spain and Las Californias in the Spanish Colonial period in and during the Western expansion of the United States. Features of the Arizona side include Yuma Territorial Prison. Features on the California Side include Fort Yuma, which protected the area from 1850 to 1885; the history of the Yuma Crossing began at the formation of two massive granite outcroppings on the Colorado River. The narrowing of the river provided the only crossing point for a thousand miles, thus making it a focal point for the Patayan tribes, the Quechan. In 1540, well before the British Europeans touched Plymouth Rock in 1620, Yuma's European history began here with the arrival of Spanish explorer Hernando de Alarcon, it was not until after the 17th and 18th century explorations of the padres Kino and Garcés that the crossing came to be used by the Spanish expeditions of Anza and others along this route from 1774.
This route, sometimes called the Sonora Road, ran from the Spanish Tubac Presidio, in Sonora to Alta California. An attempt to establish missions and colonize the area of the crossing was made by the Spanish soon after but it failed, when the friendly Quechan were angered to the point of a violent revolt that ended the missions, the colony and the use of the land route until the 19th century. Mexican expeditions mollified the Quechan and persuaded them to allow the use of the crossings, reopening the Sonora Road to Alta California from the 1820s. Much the Yuma Crossing became the focal point for travel to the Wild West, from the 1840s California Gold Rush era to the arrival of the railroad in the 1877, the Ocean-to-Ocean Bridge, which linked the East coast and the West coast in one land route. After the Mexican–American War in 1848, the U. S. Army built Fort Yuma here to protect travelers from Indians raiding the area, it was the center point of conflict in the Yuma War of 1850–53. From 1864–1890, the fort and nearby facilities was the main army base to support the US Army's efforts to control the Indians throughout the greater southwest.
At about the same time, the Butterfield Stage established a stagecoach station here for their main line coming from the east to California. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1966, under the name Yuma Crossing and Associated Sites; the Yuma Crossing National Heritage Area, located at Yuma Crossing, is a U. S. National Heritage Area, it was the only lower Colorado River crossing point in the 18th and 19th centuries for non-Native American travelers and immigrants. The Heritage Area is part of the Yuma Crossing and Associated Sites on the National Register of Historic Places and a National Historic Landmark, in Arizona and California; as with other U. S. National Heritage Areas, the Yuma Crossing National Heritage Area is a local entity in partnership with various stakeholders. At Yuma Crossing, the stakeholders are diverse, including Indian tribes, agricultural interests and wildlife non-profit organizations, as well as many federal and local agencies; the Yuma Crossing National Heritage Area includes the Yuma Quartermaster Depot State Historic Park, the Yuma Territorial Prison, Fort Yuma, other sites, all showcasing the area's history.
They are amidst the beautiful and vital Yuma East and West Wetlands, against the silhouetted backdrops of the Castle Dome and Chocolate Mountains. The heritage area's interpretive themes include Yuma's importance as a cultural crossroads, emphasizing the region's intersection of three major cultures: Anglo-American, Native American, Hispanic-Latino; the heritage area recognizes that this rich blend of traditions can best be sustained by their continued expression through architecture, music and folkways within the heritage area. The Yuma Crossing is one of the designated tour sights of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail, a National Park Service unit in the United States National Historic Trail and National Millennium Trail programs. A Brochure Map for driving and detailed Anza Maps by County, with a Historical destinations-events Guide and the official NPS: Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail website are all available for information about the historic 1776 Juan Bautista de Anza trail places.
The Yuma Heritage Area has championed a wetland and riparian habitat restoration project for the East Wetlands, including returning the Colorado's water flow, in a multiyear, multimillion-dollar effort. In 2004, heritage area partners secured a Clean Water Act permit from the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers to begin restoration work. More than 200 acres of nonnative invasive species vegetation have been removed and more than 130 acres have been replanted with cottonwoods, mesquite, native bunchgrasses, palo verde trees. A one-mile length of back channel has been excavated, some 20,000 new trees were planted in 2006. To date, ten different funding sources have provided $6 million toward the eventual goal of $18–20 million to complete the project; the current executive director of the heritage area is Charles W. Flynn. Fremont cottonwood – Populus fremontii Catclaw Acacia – Acacia greggii Blue Palo Verde – Parkinsonia florida Velvet mesquite – Prosopis velutina Screwbean Mesquite – Prosopis pubescens – "Tornillo" Honey Mesquite – Prosopis glandulosa Goodding's black willow – Salix gooddingii Arroyo Willow – Salix lasiolepis Alta California History of California through 1899 John Joel Glanton List of historic properties in Yuma, Arizona Mesquit
John E. Wool
John Ellis Wool was an officer in the United States Army during three consecutive U. S. wars: the War of 1812, the Mexican–American War and the American Civil War. By the time of the Mexican-American War, he was considered one of the most capable officers in the army and a superb organizer, he was one of the four general officers of the United States Army in 1861, was the one who had the most Civil War service. When the war began, age 77 and a brigadier general for 20 years, commanded the Department of the East, he was the oldest general on either side of the war. John Ellis Wool was born in New York; when he was orphaned at a young age, he went to live with his grandfather, James Wool, in Troy, New York. He, at the age of twelve, began working at a store in Troy, he read the law with an established firm in order to learn and be admitted to the bar. At the outbreak of the War of 1812, Wool was a practicing attorney in New York; when he volunteered at the age of 28, he was commissioned as a captain in the 13th United States Infantry Regiment on April 14, 1812.
He fought at the Battle of Queenston Heights in 1812. During the action, he led a group of American soldiers up a fisherman's path to the British artillery stationed on top of the heights. In the face of an infantry charge led by famed British general Isaac Brock, he rallied his men and they held their ground; the attack was repulsed, in. However, the Americans lost the battle. After recovering from his wound, Wool was promoted major of the 29th United States Infantry Regiment on April 13, 1813, which he led with distinction at the Battle of Plattsburgh in 1814. After the battle, he was a major of the 6th United States Infantry as of May 17, 1815; as this war was coming to an end, John Ellis Wool was promoted to the rank of Brevet Lieutenant Colonel on September 11, 1814. An orphan with little formal education, Wool remained in the military service and was sent to Europe to observe foreign military organizations and operations, he was promoted to colonel and Inspector General of the Army on April 29, 1816.
He participated in the removal of the Cherokee from Georgia and Tennessee in the 1830s. As part of this effort, he established Fort Butler at present-day Murphy, North Carolina as the eastern headquarters of the military removal of the Cherokee. In 1841, Wool was promoted to brigadier general in the U. S. Army and years in 1847 made commander of the Department of the East, he was assigned command of the Center Division and led the Chihuahuan Expedition, which resulted in the capture of Saltillo. After leading his troops 900 miles from San Antonio, Texas, he joined General Zachary Taylor at the Battle of Buena Vista. Wool's leadership was recognized with a Congressional sword, a vote of thanks, the brevet of major general. After the battle, he commanded the occupation forces of northern Mexico, he commanded both the Department of the East and the Department of the Pacific at the end of the war. The first he would command in 1847–1854 and again in 1857–1860. While in charge of the U. S. Army Department of the Pacific, General Wool contributed extensively to the settling of the Indian Wars in Oregon the Rogue River Indian War.
He came into the conflict late, after the Oregon territorial government was formed and the Volunteer Militias had committed many acts of genocide against the tribes in southwestern Oregon Territory. Based in California, General Wool wrote to local papers with his opinions of the Oregon situation, he defended the Indian tribes and condemned that acts of the militias. The federal government decided to undertake Indian removal to reservations in order to save them from further violence from the settlers, Wool was to carry it out. Wool wrote to the Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens about the conflicts:... the war against the Indians will be prosecuted with all vigor and efficiency, I am master of, at the same time without wasting, the means and resources at my disposal, by untimely and unproductive expeditions. With the additional force which arrived at Vancouver and the Dalles, I think I shall be able to bring the war to a close in a few months, provided the extermination of the Indians, which I do not approve of, is not determined on, private war prevented, volunteers withdrawn from the Walla Walla country.
Whilst I was in Oregon, it was reported to me, that many citizens, with due proportion of volunteers, two newspapers, advocated the extermination of the Indians- This principle has been acted on in several instances without discriminating between enemies and friends, the cause, in Southern Oregon, of sacrificing many innocent and worthy citizens, as in the case of Maj. Lupton and his party who killed 25 Indians, eighteen of whom were women and children; these were friendly Indians on their way to their reservation, where they expected protection from the whites. This barbarous act is the cause of the present war in the Rogue River country, as Capt. Judah, U. S. A. reports, is retaliatory of the conduct of Maj. Lupton. By the same mail which brought me your communication, I received one, now before me, from a person whom I think incapable of misrepresentation, which informs me that the friendly Cayuses are every day menaced with death by Gov. Curry's volunteers; the writer says that they have despoiled these Indians—who have so nobly followed the advice of Mr. Palmer, to remain faithful friends to the Americans—of their provi
Easton is a city in and the county seat of Northampton County, United States. The city's population was 26,800 as of the 2010 census. Easton is located at the confluence of the Delaware River and the Lehigh River 55 miles north of Philadelphia and 70 miles west of New York City. Easton is the easternmost city in the Lehigh Valley, a region of 731 square miles, home to more than 800,000 people. Together with Allentown and Bethlehem, the Valley embraces the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton metropolitan area, including Lehigh and Carbon counties within Pennsylvania, Warren County in the adjacent state of New Jersey. Easton is the smallest of the three Lehigh Valley cities, with one-fourth of the population of the largest Lehigh Valley city, Allentown. In turn, this metropolitan area comprises Pennsylvania's third-largest metropolitan area and the state's largest and most populous contribution to the greater New York City metropolitan area; the city is split up into four sections: Historic Downtown, which lies directly to the north of the Lehigh River, to the west of the Delaware River, continuing west to Sixth Street.
The boroughs of Wilson, West Easton, Glendon are directly adjacent to the city. The greater Easton area consists of the city, three townships, three boroughs. Centre Square, the town square of the city's Downtown neighborhood, is home to the Soldiers' & Sailors' Monument, a memorial for Easton area veterans killed during the American Civil War; the Peace Candle, a candle-like structure, is assembled and disassembled every year atop the Civil War monument for the Christmas season. The Norfolk Southern Railway's Lehigh Line, runs through Easton on its way to Bethlehem and Allentown heading west and to Phillipsburg, New Jersey just across the Delaware River; the Lenape Native Americans referred to the area as "Lechauwitank", or "The Place at the Forks". The site of the future city was part of the land obtained from the Delawares by the Walking Purchase. Thomas Penn set aside a 1,000 acres tract of land at the confluence of the Lehigh and Delaware rivers for a town. Easton was settled by Europeans in 1739 and founded in 1752, was so named at the request of Penn.
As Northampton County was being formed at this time, Easton was selected as its county seat. During the French and Indian War, the Treaty of Easton was signed here by the British colonial government of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Native American tribes in the Ohio Country, including the Shawnee and Lenape. Easton was an important military center during the American Revolutionary War. During the Revolutionary War, Easton had a military hospital. On 18 June 1779, General John Sullivan led 2,500 Continentals from Easton to engage British Indian allies on the frontier. Easton was one of the first three places, it is claimed that the Easton flag was flown during that reading, making it one of the first "Stars and Stripes" to fly over the colonies. This flag was used by a militia company during the War of 1812, serves as Easton's municipal flag. Sited at the confluence of the flowing Lehigh River's waters with the more stately waters of the deeper wider Delaware, Easton became a major commercial center during the canal and railroad periods of the 19th century, when it would become a transportation hub for the eastern steel industry.
The Delaware Canal, was built soon after the lower Lehigh Canal became effective in and reliably delivering much needed anthracite coal, into more settled lands along the rivers. And the Morris would serve to connect the developing Coal Regions to the north and west, to the fuel starved iron works to the west, the commercial port of Philadelphia to the south, to the many home owners seeking fuel for heat within Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York. Seeing other ways of exploiting the new fuel source, other entrepreneurs moved to connect across the Delaware River reaching into the New York City area to the east via a connection with the Morris Canal in Phillipsburg, New Jersey, so the town became a canal nexus or hub from which the Coal from Mauch Chunk reached the world; the early railroads were built to parallel and speed shipping along transportation corridors, by the late 1860s the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad and Lehigh Valley Railroad were built to augment the bulk traffic through the canals and provide lucrative passenger travel services.
The LVRR, known as'the Black Diamond Line' would boast the twice daily "Black Diamond Express" daily passenger trains to and from New York City and Buffalo, New York via Easton. The Central Railroad of New Jersey, would lease and operate the LH&S tracks from the 1870s until the Conrail consolidations absorbed both the Central Railroad of New Jersey and Lehigh Valley Railroad in 1966. Today, the Lehigh Valley Railroad's main line is the only major rail line that goes through Easton and is now known as the Lehigh Line.