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Lorient

Lorient is a town and seaport in the Morbihan "department" of Brittany in North-Western France. Beginning around 3000 BC, settlements in area of Lorient are attested by the presence of megalithic architecture. Ruins of Roman roads confirm Gallo-Roman presence. In 1664, Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded the French East Indies Company. In June 1666, an ordinance of Louis XIV granted lands of Port-Louis to the company, along with Faouédic on the other side of the roadstead. One of its directors, Denis Langlois, bought lands at the confluence of the Scorff and the Blavet rivers, built slipways. At first, it only served as a subsidiary of Port-Louis, where warehouses were located; the following years, the operation was abandoned, but in 1675, during the Franco-Dutch War, the French East Indies Company scrapped its base in Le Havre since it was too exposed during wartime, transferred its infrastructures to l'Enclot, out of which Lorient grew. The company erected a chapel, workshops and offices, leaving Port-Louis permanently.

The French Royal Navy opened a base there in 1690, under the command of Colbert de Seignelay, who inherited his father's position as Secretary of State of the Navy. At the same time, privateers from Saint-Malo took shelter there. In 1700, the town grew out of l'Enclot following a law forcing people to leave the domain to move to the Faouédic heath. In 1702, there were about 6,000 inhabitants in Lorient, though activities slowed, the town began to decline The town experienced a period of growth when John Law formed the Perpetual Company of the Indies by absorbing other chartered companies, chose Lorient as its operative base. Despite the economic bubble caused by the Company in 1720, the city was still growing as it took part in the Atlantic triangular slave trade. From 1720 to 1790, 156 ships deported an estimated 43,000 slaves. In 1732, the Company decided to transfer its sales headquarters from Nantes to Lorient, asked architect Jacques Gabriel to raise new buildings out of dimension stones to host these new activities, to embellish the L'Enclos domain.

Sales began in 1734. In 1769, the Company's monopoly ended with the scrapping of the company itself, under the influence of the physiocrats. Up until Company's closure, the city took advantage of its prosperity. In 1738, there were 14,000 inhabitants, or 20,000 considering the outlying villages of Kerentrech, Merville, La Perrière, Keryado, which are now neighbourhoods comprised in the present-day city limits. In 1735, new streets were laid down and in 1738, it was granted city status. Further work was undertaken as the streets began to be paved and slipways were built along the Faouédic river, thatched houses were replaced with stone buildings following 18th-century classical architecture style as it was the case for l'Enclos. In 1744, the city walls were erected, proved useful as Lorient was raided in September 1746. Following the demise of the Company, the city lost one-seventh of its population. In 1769, the city evolved into a full-scale naval base for the Royal Navy when the King bought out the Company's infrastructures for 17,500,000 livres tournois.

From 1775 on, the American revolutionary war brought a surge in activity, as many privateers hailed from Lorient. When the war ended, transatlantic lines opened to the United States, in 1785, a new commercial company started under Calonne's tutelage with the same goal as the previous entities, i.e. conducting trade in India and China, with again Lorient standing as its operative base. The French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic wars put an end to trade for nearly two decades. Maritime activities slowed at the start of the 19th century; the shipyards and the naval base reached a low. During this period, the city was more of an administrative center; the first secondary school opened in 1822, a lazaretto in 1823, barracks in 1839. The city began to modernize in the second quarter of the century. A sardine cannery opened the same year; the first gasworks was built in 1845. In the second half of the 19th century, the steam engine allowed the ports to strengthen their output; the first locomotive reached the city in 1865.

In 1861, the original drydock was enlarged. The same year, the ironclad Couronne was built on a design directly inspired by the Gloire class, though unlike her wooden-hull predecessors, she was made of iron, she was followed in 1876 by the ironclad Redoutable, the first ship in the world with a steel structure. In 1889, fishing expanded following the creation of the municipal fish market, the arrival of steam-powered fishing trawlers in 1900; the Keroman fishing port construction started in 1920. In 1941, the Germans occupying France, chose to establish one of their U-boat headquarters in Keroman, a neighborhood of Lorient, but the submarines became targets of constant bombing from Allied air forces. The Germans decided to build the largest U-boat base in Keroman, which would house the 2nd and the 10th U-boat flotillas for the bulk of the Battle of the Atlantic. Karl Dönitz supreme commander of the U-boat Arm, moved his staff in the Kernevel villa, just across the water from Keroman, in Larmor-Plage.

In 1943–1944, Lorient was nearly razed to the ground by Allied bombing, which failed to destroy the submarine pens, despite 4,000 tons of bombs dropped. According to the book, "Steel Boats, Iron Hearts", by former U-505 crewman Hans Goebeler, after t

Lund Observatory

Lund Observatory is the official English name for the astronomy department at Lund University. As of January 2010, Lund Observatory is part of the Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics at Lund University, it is located in Sweden. The institution was founded in 1749, but was preceded by an observatory built by astronomy professor Anders Spole in 1672, destroyed at the Battle of Lund in 1676; the now old observatory from 1867 is located in a cultural-heritage protected observatory park just outside the medieval city boundaries. The current Lund Observatory location is in a new building on the northern campus of Lund University, inaugurated in 2001; the history of astronomy in Lund through five centuries is told in the book Lundaögon mot stjärnornaToday Lund Observatory research activity focuses on observational and theoretical astrophysics. Areas covered include galaxy formation and evolution, exoplanet research, laboratory astrophysics, high-energy astrophysics, star clusters, astrometry.

Towards the middle 20th century astronomer professor Knut Lundmark, of the Lund Observatory in Sweden, supervised the two engineers Martin Kesküla and Tatjana Kesküla who painstakingly mapped the positions of about 7000 individual stars to create an unprecedented drawing of the Milky Way. The map took two years to complete, measures 2 m by 1 m, is known as the Lund Panorama of the Milky Way. Lund Observatory Lund Panorama of the Milky Way

Primorsko-Akhtarsky District

Primorsko-Akhtarsky District is an administrative district, one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Primorsko-Akhtarsky Municipal District, it is located in the west of the krai. The area of the district is 2,503.6 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the town of Primorsko-Akhtarsk. Population: 60,327 ; the population of Primorsko-Akhtarsk accounts for 53.5% of the district's total population. Управление по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Администрации Краснодарского края. Справочная информация №34.01-707/13-03 от 23 мая 2013 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц Краснодарского края».. Законодательное Собрание Краснодарского края. Закон №712-КЗ от 7 июня 2004 г «Об установлении границ муниципального образования Приморско-Ахтарский район, наделении его статусом муниципального района, образовании в его составе муниципальных образований — городского и сельских поселений — и установлении их границ», в ред.

Закона №2435-КЗ от 3 февраля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Краснодарского края об установлении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", №104, 30 июня 2004 г