Le Havre, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France. It is situated on the right bank of the estuary of the river Seine on the Channel southwest of the Pays de Caux. Modern Le Havre remains influenced by its employment and maritime traditions, its port is the second largest in France, after that of Marseille, for total traffic, the largest French container port. The name Le Havre means "the harbour" or "the port", its inhabitants are known as Havraises. Administratively the commune is located in the Normandy region and, with Dieppe, is one of the two sub-prefectures of the Seine-Maritime department. Le Havre is the capital of the canton. Le Havre is the most populous commune of Upper Normandy, although the total population of the greater Le Havre conurbation is smaller than that of Rouen, it is the second largest subprefecture in France. The city and port were founded by King Francis I in 1517. Economic development in the Early modern period was hampered by religious wars, conflicts with the English and storms.
It was from the end of the 18th century that Le Havre started growing and the port took off first with the slave trade other international trade. After the 1944 bombings the firm of Auguste Perret began to rebuild the city in concrete; the oil and automotive industries were dynamic during the Trente Glorieuses but the 1970s marked the end of the golden age of ocean liners and the beginning of the economic crisis: the population declined, unemployment increased and remains at a high level today. Changes in years 1990–2000 were numerous; the right won the municipal elections and committed the city to the path of reconversion, seeking to develop the service sector and new industries. The Port 2000 project increased the container capacity to compete with ports of northern Europe, transformed the southern districts of the city, ocean liners returned. In 2005 UNESCO inscribed the central city of Le Havre as a World Heritage Site; the André Malraux Modern Art Museum is the second of France for the number of impressionist paintings.
The city has been awarded two flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Le Havre is a major French city located some 50 kilometres west of Rouen on the shore of the English Channel and at the mouth of the Seine. Numerous roads link to Le Havre with the main access roads being the A29 autoroute from Amiens and the A13 autoroute from Paris linking to the A131 autoroute. Administratively, Le Havre is a commune in the Normandy region in the west of the department of Seine-Maritime; the urban area of Le Havre corresponds to the territory of the Agglomeration community of Le Havre which includes 17 communes and 250,000 people. It occupies the south-western tip of the natural region of Pays de Caux where it is the largest city. Le Havre is sandwiched between the coast of the Channel from south-west to north-west and the estuary of the Seine to the south. Le Havre belongs to the Paris Basin, formed in the Mesozoic period; the Paris Basin consists of sedimentary rocks.
The commune of Le Havre consists of two areas separated by a natural cliff edge: one part in the lower part of the town to the south including the harbour, the city centre and the suburbs. It was built on former marshland and mudflats; the soil consists of several metres of silt deposited by the Seine. The city centre was rebuilt after the Second World War using a metre of flattened rubble as a foundation; the upper town to the north, is part of the cauchois plateau: the neighbourhood of Dollemard is its highest point. The plateau is covered with a fertile silt; the bedrock consists of a large thickness of chalk measuring up to 200 m deep. Because of the slope the coast is affected by the risk of landslides. Due to its location on the coast of the Channel, the climate of Le Havre is temperate oceanic. Days without wind are rare. There are maritime influences throughout the year. According to the records of the meteorological station of the Cap de la Heve, the temperature drops below 0 °C on 24.9 days per year and it rises above 25 °C on 11.3 days per year.
The average annual sunshine duration is 1,785.8 hours per year. Precipitation is distributed with a maximum in autumn and winter; the months of June and July are marked by some thunderstorms on average 2 days per month. One of the characteristics of the region is the high variability of the temperature during the day; the prevailing winds are from the southwest sector for strong winds and north-north-east for breezes, snowstorms occur in winter in January and February. The absolute speed record for wind at Le Havre – Cap de la Heve was recorded on 16 October 1987 at 180 kilometres per hour; the main natural hazards are floods and storm surges. The lower town is subject to a rising water table; the lack of watercourses within the commune prevents flooding from overflows. Le Havre's beach may experience flooding known as "flooding from storms"; these are caused by the combination of strong winds, high waves, a large tidal range. Weather Data for Le Havre A study by Aphekom comparing ten large French cities showed that Le Havre is the least polluted urban commune of France.
Le Havre is the third best city in France with more than 100,000 inhabitants for air quality. A Carbon accounting showed i
Old Gold (cigarette)
Old Gold is an American brand of cigarette owned and manufactured by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. Old Gold was introduced in 1926 by the Lorillard Tobacco Company and, upon release, would become one of its star products. By 1930, with the aid of a campaign from Lennen & Mitchell that featured exuberant flappers and the slogan "Not a cough in a carload", Old Gold won 7% of the market. During the 1930s, Lennen & Mitchell built the Old Gold brand on radio by advertising in music programming targeting young people. In 1941, Lorillard moved the Old Gold account to J. Walter Thompson Co. which changed the brand's slogan to "Something new has been added". On TV, in the 1950s, Old Gold was known for its dancing cigarette packages, which tapped in time to an Old Gold jingle. Lennen & Mitchell handled TV for Old Gold. In 1953, Lorillard began advertising king-size Old Gold side by side with the standard brand. In 1957, it added a filtered variety as well. In 1957, Kent received the lion's share of Lorillard's $20 million advertising budget.
In 1958, it introduced Old Gold Straights with reduced tar and nicotine levels with a campaign from L&N in newspapers in more than 140 markets and on radio and TV. In 1966, Lorillard spent $36.4 million advertising its products, with Kent the most advertised at $15.5 million. Half of the Kent money went to network TV. Runner-up media included spot TV and spot radio. Lorillard's No. 2 cigarette brand in terms of spending was its chief menthol entry. Measured media spending for Newport in 1965 exceeded $10.5 million, with network TV the chief beneficiary. Next in line was Old Gold, recording $4 million in measured media, followed by Spring with $1.5 million. In 1967, Lorillard increased overall ad spending to $41.5 million. At that time, Lorillard's agencies included Cone & Belding for True and Danville filter. In 1970, Congress banned all tobacco advertising from radio; the following year, Lorillard introduced Maverick, its first new full-flavor cigarette since Old Gold, making heavy use of free samples.
As part of its venture in alternative forms of advertising, early in the 1970s Lorillard tried advertising Kent and True in paperback books. Lorillad stopped advertising Old Gold around 1975. In the 2010s, the Old Gold non-filter variant was discontinued. Lorillard was acquired by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in 2015. Old Gold while hard to find is available in the United States. Lorillard made many poster and magazine advertisements to promote the Old Gold brand, from the 1930s to the 1970s, when Lorillard stopped advertising the brand. Besides poster and magazine adverts, TV advertisements were made to promote the cigarettes, until the 1970s when TV advertisement was banned; the slogan used in the ads was "The cigarette for independent people". In the 1920s, American professional Baseball player Babe Ruth advertised Old Gold cigarettes. In one of the ads left, Ruth is shown swinging his bat and giving his endorsement to Old Golds in a "blindfold test". In the blindfold test portion of the ad, he is quoted as saying: "Old Gold's mildness and smoothness marked it'right off the bat' as the best", signed: "Babe Ruth".
In the 1950s, with studies suggesting that smoking may be linked with lung cancer, Lorillard introduced Halloween-themed adverts that were trying to downplay the effects smoking has on one's health. The ads included slogans like "We don’t try to scare you with medical claims... Old Gold cures just one thing... The World’s Best Tobacco" and "Scare claims fool no one so... Trust Old Gold for a TREAT instead of a TREATMENT" to claim that the reports were false, that smoking wasn't bad for the health. In July 1942, a complaint was made by the Federal Trade Commission against Lorillard because they made a claim in the Reader's Digest that Old Gold cigarettes were lower in nicotine and throat irritating tars and resins than other leading brands at the time; these health claims however, were not substantiated and thus the FTC filed a complaint about misleading advertising towards Lorillard. In the Mad Men episode "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes," Don Draper speaks with a waiter who says he favours Old Gold cigarettes.
Camp Old Gold was one of the American Army camps established near Le Havre, France in World War II. As explained in "Introduction: The Cigarette Camps" at the website, The Cigarette Camps: The U. S. Army Camps in the Le Havre Area: The staging-area camps were named after various brands of American cigarettes; the names of cigarettes and cities were chosen for two reasons: First, for security. Referring to the camps without an indication of their geographical location went a long way to ensuring that the enemy would not know where they were. Anybody eavesdropping or listening to radio traffic would think that cigarettes were being discussed or the camp was stateside regarding the city camps. Secondly, there was a subtle psychological reason, the premise being that troops heading into battle wouldn't mind staying at a place where cigarettes must be plentiful and troops about to depart for combat would be somehow comforted in places with familiar names of cities back home. By war's end, all of the cigarette and city camps were devoted to departees.
Many processed liberated American POWs and some held German POWs for a while. Cigarette Tobacco smoking
Imperial Brands plc Imperial Tobacco Group plc, is a British multinational tobacco company headquartered in Bristol, United Kingdom. It is the world’s fourth-largest international cigarette company measured by market share after Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Japan Tobacco, the world's largest producer of cigars, fine-cut tobacco, tobacco papers. Imperial Brands produces over 320 billion cigarettes per year, has 51 factories worldwide, its products are sold in over 160 countries, its brands include Davidoff, Gauloises Blondes, Golden Virginia and Rizla. Imperial Brands is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalization around £24.3 billion as of 23 December 2011, the 19th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Imperial Tobacco Canada has no relationship to Imperial Tobacco Group plc. Imperial Tobacco Canada is the Canadian subsidiary of British American Tobacco; the Imperial Tobacco Company was created in 1901 through the amalgamation of 13 British tobacco and cigarette companies: W.
D. & H. O. Wills of Bristol, John Player & Sons of Nottingham, 11 other independent family businesses, which were in competition with companies from the United States by the American Tobacco Company. First W. D. & H. O. Wills of Bristol merged with Stephen Son of Glasgow. Subsequently, other smaller companies including Lambert & Butler, William Clarke & Son, Franklyn Davey, Edwards Ringer & Bigg, Hignett Brothers, Hignett's Tobacco, Adkins & Sons, Richmond Cavendish, D&J MacDoland, F&J Smith joined in the amalgamation. In 1904, James & Finlay Bell Ltd merged with Stephen Son; the Company's first chairman was Sir William Henry Wills, Bt. of the Wills Company. In 1902, the Imperial Tobacco Company and the American Tobacco Company agreed to form a joint venture: the British-American Tobacco Company Ltd; the parent companies agreed not to trade in each other's domestic territory and to assign trademarks, export businesses, overseas subsidiaries to the joint venture. It built the Imperial Tobacco Company Building at Mullins, South Carolina, between 1908 and 1913.
American Tobacco sold its share in 1911, but Imperial maintained an interest in British American Tobacco until 1980. In 1973, the Imperial Tobacco Company, having become diversified by acquisition of restaurant chains, food services and distribution businesses, changed its name to Imperial Group. In 1910, Imperial Tobacco formed the Imperial Tobacco Company of India. In 1985, the company acquired the Peoples Drugstore chain and all subsidiaries from A. C. Israel. In 1986 the Company was acquired by the conglomerate Hanson Trust plc for £2.5billion. Divestments during the period of ownership by Hanson included Courage Brewery to Elders, Golden Wonder to Dalgety, Finlays to Arunbhai J. Patel, the wholesaling arm of Sinclair & Collis to Palmer & Harvey, Imperial Hotels and Catering to Trust House Forte and Ross Frozen Foods to United Biscuits; this led to a dispute over pension payments to employees, as seen in Imperial Group Pension Trust Ltd v Imperial Tobacco Ltd. In 1996, following a decision to concentrate on core tobacco activities, Hanson de-merged Imperial and it was listed as an independent company on the UK stock exchange.
In 2003, Imperial acquired the world's fourth-largest tobacco company, Reemtsma Cigarettenfabriken GmbH of Germany: the deal added brands such as Davidoff, Peter Stuyvesant, West to its portfolio. In 2007, Imperial Tobacco entered the United States tobacco market with its $1.9-billion acquisition of Commonwealth Brands Inc. the fourth-largest tobacco company in the US. In February 2008, Imperial acquired the world's fifth-largest tobacco company, whose brands included Fortuna, Gauloises Blondes, Gitanes. A number of factory closures were subsequently announced, including the long-running cigar factory in Bristol. Following the Scottish Parliament's decision in January 2010 to ban the display of tobacco products in shops, as well as the availability of tobacco vending machines in public buildings with effect from autumn 2011, Imperial Tobacco attempted to challenge the change in the law on the grounds that regulations of the sale goods rested with the Houses of Parliament in Westminster. However, this case was dismissed on 30 September 2010 by Lord Bracadale in the Court of Session in Edinburgh.
In 2011, Altadis USA Inc. said it would add to its Fort Lauderdale, Florida and move Commonwealth Brands Inc. employees from Bowling Green, Kentucky. The company's name changed to Commonwealth-Altadis Inc. In 2013, Imperial opened a new global headquarters in Bristol. In April 2014, Imperial announced the closure of its long-running Horizon factory in Nottingham; the factory closed in 2016. On 15 July 2014, Reynolds American agreed to buy Greensboro, North Carolina-based Lorillard Tobacco Company, for $27.4 billion. The deal included the sale of the Kool, Winston and blu eCigs brands to Imperial for $7.1 billion. In November 2014, Imperial said Commonwealth-Altadis and the Lorillard operations being acquired would be called ITG Brands LLC; the deal with Lorillard was completed on 12 June 2015, as part of the deal, Greensboro became the location of the ITG headquarters. On 1 November 2018, ITG announced production would move from the former American Tobacco Company plant in Reidsville, North Carolina, built in 1892 and expanded, to Greensboro by 2020.
The plant made USA Gold, Sonoma, Mo
An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is a handheld electronic device that simulates the experience of smoking a cigarette. It works by heating a liquid which generates an aerosol, or "vapor", inhaled by the user. Using e-cigarettes is referred to as vaping; the liquid in the e-cigarette, called e-liquid, or e-juice, is made of nicotine, propylene glycol and flavorings. Not all e-liquids contain nicotine; the health risks of e-cigarettes are uncertain. They are safer than tobacco cigarettes but are of unclear effect in relation to other methods of stopping smoking, their long-term health effects are not known. They may help some smokers quit; when used by non-smokers, e-cigarettes can lead to nicotine addiction, there is concern that children could start smoking after using e-cigarettes. So far, no serious adverse effects have been reported in trials. Less serious adverse effects include throat and mouth irritation, vomiting and coughing; the majority of toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke are absent in e-cigarette aerosol.
Those present are below 1% of the corresponding levels in tobacco smoke. The aerosol can contain toxicants and traces of heavy metals at levels permissible in inhalation medicines, harmful chemicals not found in tobacco smoke at concentrations permissible by workplace safety standards. However, chemical concentrations may exceed the stricter public safety limits; the modern e-cigarette was invented in 2003 by Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik. As of 2018 most e-cigarettes are made in China, their global use has risen exponentially since they were first sold in 2004. Reasons for using e-cigarettes include trying to quit smoking, reduce risk, or save money, though some use them recreationally; as of 2014, the majority of users still smoke tobacco. There are concerns that dual use of tobacco products and e-cigarettes may "delay or deter quitting". About 60% of UK users are smokers and 40% are ex-smokers. In the UK use among never-smokers was negligible; because of overlap with tobacco laws and medical drug policies, e-cigarette legislation is debated in many countries.
A European directive of 2016 set standards for liquids, vaporizers and child-proof liquid containers. As of August 2016, the US FDA extended its regulatory power to include e-cigarettes. There are with global sales in excess of US$7 billion. Electronic cigarettes are known as e-cigarettes, e-cigs, EC, electronic nicotine delivery systems or electronic non-nicotine delivery systems, electronic smoking devices, personal vaporizers, or PVs, they are handheld devices made to look like conventional cigarettes, used in a similar way. E-liquid or juice are names for the flavored solution. An aerosol, or vapor, is produced by heating the e-liquid. Irish public health discussions refer to NMNDS; when the FDA commissioned their 2018 report on ENDS which they label as a Tobacco Product, the authors use the term e-cigarettes for devices using e-liquid without nicotine. Between their introduction to the market in 2004 and 2015, global usage of e-cigarettes rose exponentially. By 2013, there were several million users globally.
Awareness and use of e-cigarettes increased in a short period of time. Growth rates in the US and UK slowed in 2015. Most users have a history of smoking regular cigarettes. At least 52% of smokers or ex-smokers in one area have vaped. Of smokers who have, one British study reported that less than 15% became everyday e-cigarette users. Though e-cigarette use among those who have never smoked is low, it continues to rise. One United States survey of e-cigarette users conducted from 2011–2012 found that only 1% of respondents used liquid without nicotine. Everyday use is common among e-cigarette users. Many e-cigarette users are middle-aged men who smoke traditional cigarettes. E-cigarette use is rising among women. In the US, as of 2014, 12.6% of adults had used an e-cigarette at least once and 3.7% were still using them. 1.1% of adults were daily users. Non-smokers and former smokers who had quit more than four years earlier were unlikely to be current users. Former smokers who had quit were more than four times as to be daily users as current smokers.
Experimentation was more common among younger adults, but daily users were more to be older adults. In the UK, there were about 2.6 million users in 2015 ---, about 18% of current smokers and about 5% of the population. 59 % of current smokers said. Among those who had never smoked, 1.1 % said 0.2 % still use them. In France in 2014, between 7.7 and 9.2 million people have tried e-cigarettes and 1.1 to 1.9 million use them on a daily basis. 67 % of French smokers use e-cigarettes to quit smoking. Of French people who have tried e-cigarettes, 9% have never smoked tobacco. Of the 1.2% who had stopped tobacco smoking at the time of the survey, 84% credited e-cigarettes as essential in quitting. E-cigarette users report several reasons for use: Recreational use. Marketing aimed at smokers focuses on these motivations; this marketing does influence people to try them. When users were asked why they had first tried e-cigarettes, reasons given were curiosity or experimentation.
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
A cigarette known colloquially as a fag in British English, is a narrow cylinder containing psychoactive material tobacco, rolled into thin paper for smoking. Most cigarettes contain a "reconstituted tobacco" product known as "sheet", which consists of "recycled stems, scraps, collected dust, floor sweepings", to which are added glue and fillers; the cigarette is ignited at one end, causing it to smolder and allowing smoke to be inhaled from the other end, held in or to the mouth. Most modern cigarettes are filtered. Cigarette manufacturers have described cigarettes as a drug administration system for the delivery of nicotine in acceptable and attractive form. Cigarettes are addictive and cause cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, other health problems; the term cigarette, as used, refers to a tobacco cigarette but is sometimes used to refer to other substances, such as a cannabis cigarette. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of processed leaf, paper wrapping, white.
Cigar wrappers are composed of tobacco leaf or paper dipped in tobacco extract. Smoking rates have declined in the developed world, but continue to rise in developing nations. Cigarettes carry serious health risks, which are more prevalent than with other tobacco products, nicotine is highly addictive. About half of cigarette smokers lose on average 14 years of life. Cigarette use by pregnant women has been shown to cause birth defects, including low birth weight, fetal abnormalities, premature birth. Second-hand smoke from cigarettes causes many of the same health problems as smoking, including cancer, which has led to legislation and policy that has prohibited smoking in many workplaces and public areas. Cigarette smoke contains over 7,000 chemical compounds, including arsenic, cyanide, nicotine, carbon monoxide and other poisonous substances. Over 70 of these are carcinogenic. Additionally, cigarettes are a frequent source of mortality-associated fires in private homes, which prompted both the European Union and the United States to ban cigarettes that are not fire-standard compliant from 2011 onwards.
The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to the cigar. Cigarettes appear to have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes; the Maya, the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and other psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in the Caribbean and Central and South America until recent times; the North American, Central American, South American cigarette used various plant wrappers. The resulting product was called papelate and is documented in Goya's paintings La Cometa, La Merienda en el Manzanares, El juego de la pelota a pala. By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France; the French word was adopted by English in the 1840s. Some American reformers promoted the spelling cigaret, but this was never widespread and is now abandoned; the first patented cigarette-making machine was invented by Juan Nepomuceno Adorno of Mexico in 1847.
However, production climbed markedly when another cigarette-making machine was developed in the 1880s by James Albert Bonsack, which vastly increased the productivity of cigarette companies, which went from making about 40,000 hand-rolled cigarettes daily to around 4 million. In the English-speaking world, the use of tobacco in cigarette form became widespread during and after the Crimean War, when British soldiers began emulating their Ottoman Turkish comrades and Russian enemies, who had begun rolling and smoking tobacco in strips of old newspaper for lack of proper cigar-rolling leaf; this was helped by the development of tobaccos suitable for cigarette use, by the development of the Egyptian cigarette export industry. Cigarettes may have been used in a manner similar to pipes and cigarillos and not inhaled; as cigarette tobacco became milder and more acidic, inhaling may have become perceived as more agreeable. However, Moltke noticed in the 1830s that Ottomans inhaled the Turkish tobacco and Latakia from their pipes.
The widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is a 20th-century phenomenon. At the start of the 20th century, the per capita annual consumption in the U. S. was 54 cigarettes, consumption there peaked at 4,259 per capita in 1965. At that time, about 50% of men and 33% of women smoked. By 2000, consumption had fallen to 2,092 per capita, corresponding to about 30% of men and 22% of women smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year, by 2006 per capita consumption had declined to 1,691; the adverse health effects of cigarettes were known by the mid-19th century when they became known as coffins nails
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, animal foods & feed and veterinary products; as of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is paid by people who consume pharmaceutical products, due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Human Services. Scott Gottlieb, M. D. is the current commissioner, who took over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in Maryland; the agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. In 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom. In recent years, the agency began undertaking a large-scale effort to consolidate its 25 operations in the Washington metropolitan area, moving from its main headquarters in Rockville and several fragmented office buildings to the former site of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the White Oak area of Silver Spring, Maryland; the site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak. The first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the naval facility was kept.
All other buildings are new construction. The project is slated to be completed by 2021, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. area as part of the Headquarters divisions, two offices – the Office of Regulatory Affairs and the Office of Criminal Investigations – are field offices with a workforce spread across the country. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the "eyes and ears" of the agency, conducting the vast majority of the FDA's work in the field. Consumer Safety Officers, more called Investigators, are the individuals who inspect production and warehousing facilities, investigate complaints, illnesses, or outbreaks, review documentation in the case of medical devices, biological products, other items where it may be difficult to conduct a physical examination or take a physical sample of the product; the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based on the geographic divisions of the federal court system.
Each district comprises a main district office and a number of Resident Posts, which are FDA remote offices that serve a particular geographic area. ORA includes the Agency's network of regulatory laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs and radiation-emitting devices; the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases. Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, don't focus on technical aspects of the regulated industries. OCI agents pursue and develop cases where individuals and companies have committed criminal actions, such as fraudulent claims, or knowingly and willfully shipping known adulterated goods in interstate commerce. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, in addition to prohibited acts as defined in Chapter III of the FD&C Act. OCI Special Agents come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, work with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, Interpol.
OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, the FBI—and works with ORA Investigators to help develop the technical and science-based aspects of a case. OCI is a smaller branch; the FDA works with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection, Consumer Product Safety Commission. Local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections and enforcement action; the FDA regulates more than US$2.4 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States. This includes $466 billion in food sales, $275 billion in drugs, $60 billion in cosmetics and $18 billion in vitamin supplements. Much of these expenditures are for goods imported into the United States; the FDA's federal budget request for fiscal year 2012 totaled $4.36 billion, while the proposed 2014 budget is $4.7 billion. About $2 billion of this budget is generated by user fees.
Pharmaceutical firms pay th