The Los Angeles Chargers are a professional American football team based in the Greater Los Angeles area. The Chargers compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference West division; the team was founded on August 14, 1959, began play on September 10, 1960, as a charter member of the American Football League, spent its first season in Los Angeles, before moving to San Diego in 1961 to become the San Diego Chargers. The Chargers joined the NFL as result of the AFL–NFL merger in 1970, played their home games at SDCCU Stadium; the return of the Chargers to Los Angeles was announced for the 2017 season, just one year after the Rams had moved back to the city from St. Louis; the Chargers played their home games at Dignity Health Sports Park named StubHub Center, from 2017 to 2019. Starting in 2020, they will play their home games at SoFi Stadium, which they will share with the Los Angeles Rams; the Chargers won one AFL title in 1963 and reached the AFL playoffs five times and the AFL Championship four times before joining the NFL as part of the AFL–NFL merger.
In the 43 years since the Chargers have made 13 trips to the playoffs and four appearances in the AFC Championship game. In 1994, the Chargers won their lone AFC championship and faced the San Francisco 49ers in Super Bowl XXIX, losing 49–26; the Chargers have eight players and one coach enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio: wide receiver Lance Alworth, defensive end Fred Dean, quarterback Dan Fouts, head coach–general manager Sid Gillman, wide receiver Charlie Joiner, offensive lineman Ron Mix, tight end Kellen Winslow, linebacker Junior Seau, running back LaDainian Tomlinson. The Chargers were established with seven other American Football League teams in 1959, they began AFL play in Los Angeles the following year in 1960. The Chargers' original owner was hotel heir Barron Hilton, son of Hilton Hotels founder Conrad Hilton. According to the official website of the Pro Football Hall of Fame, Barron Hilton agreed after his general manager, Frank Leahy, picked the Chargers name when he purchased an AFL franchise for Los Angeles: "I liked it because they were yelling ‘charge’ and sounding the bugle at Dodger Stadium and at USC games."
The Chargers played their first year in Los Angeles, but moved to San Diego the following year, where they would be based for the next 56 seasons. They played for the whole ten-season existence in the AFL before the upstart league merged with the older NFL, their only coach for the ten-year life of the AFL was Sid Gillman, a Hall of Famer, recognized as a great offensive innovator. The early AFL years of the San Diego Chargers were highlighted by the outstanding play of wide receiver Lance "Bambi" Alworth with 543 receptions for 10,266 yards in his 11-AFL/NFL-season career. In addition he set the pro football record of consecutive games with a reception during his career. With players such as Alworth, Paul Lowe, Keith Lincoln and John Hadl, the high-scoring Chargers won divisional crowns five of the league's first six seasons and the AFL title in 1963 with a 51–10 victory over the Boston Patriots, they played great defense, as indicated by their professional football record 49 pass interceptions in 1961, featured AFL Rookie of the Year defensive end Earl Faison.
The Chargers were the originators of the term "Fearsome Foursome" to describe their all-star defensive line, anchored by Faison and Ernie Ladd. In 1970, the Chargers were placed into the AFC West division after the completion of the AFL/NFL merger, but by the Chargers fell on hard times. The Chargers acquired veteran players like Johnny Unitas. During the 1973 season, the Chargers were involved in the first major drug scandal in the NFL; that same year, however, a rookie quarterback from Oregon named Dan Fouts would serve as the catalyst to the Chargers' return to prominence as the 1970s wore on. San Diego hired head coach Don Coryell in 1978, who would remain coaching the team until 1986. Coryell developed an offensive scheme and philosophy known as Air Coryell known as the "Coryell offense" or the "vertical offense". With Dan Fouts as quarterback, the San Diego Chargers' offense was among the greatest and most exciting passing offenses in NFL history, setting league and individual offensive records.
The Chargers led the league in passing yards an NFL record six consecutive years from 1978 to 1983 and again in 1985. They led the league in total yards in offense 1978–83 and 1985. Under the tutelage of Coryell, Dan Fouts, wide receiver Charlie Joiner, tight end Kellen Winslow blossomed on the field and would all be inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame; the Chargers earned four consecutive playoff appearances during the Air Coryell era, including three AFC West division championships. However, they came short of making it to the Super Bowl, including two straight losses in the AFC Championship game in 1980 and 1981. Despite making the playoffs again during the strike-shortened 1982 season, the Chargers missed the playoffs every season from 1983 to 1991. In 1984, Klein cut salary in preparation of selling the team, sending defensive linemen Johnson and Kelcher to San Francisco, where they would join Dean and offensive tackle Billy Shields for another 49ers championship in Super Bowl XIX.
Alex Spanos purchased a maj
Orlando Fernández, a.k.a. "The Puerto Rican Aquaman", is the first Puerto Rican swimmer to cross the Strait of Gibraltar. Fernández was born in a section of San Juan, the capital city of Puerto Rico. There he received his primary and secondary education. Fernández learned to swim when he was four years old at the swimming pools of El Escambron and Sheraton hotels in San Juan, he learned to surf by the age of ten. In 1991, he earned a bachelor's degree in marketing from the Universidad Metropolitana or "UMET" as it is known by its initials; the Strait of Gibraltar is a narrow body of water that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa. Europe and Africa are separated by 7.7 nautical miles of ocean at the strait's narrowest point. The Strait's depth ranges between 300 and 900 meters which interacted with the lower mean sea level of the last major glaciation 20,000 years ago when the level of the sea is believed to have been lower than the present level by 110–120 m.
Fernández was inspired and motivated to represent his country in international swimming events by his long-distance swimming coach Marcos Díaz, a native of the Dominican Republic. Fernández holds various records in long distance swimming, among them the long swimming records of 20 kilometers at Key West, 25 kilometers in Indiana; when he decided to attempt the crossing of the Strait of Gibraltar, he requested and received the help and training of Pedro Díaz. Díaz coached Fernández on the physical training required before and after the crossing of the strait. On May 19, 2011, Fernández departed from Cadiz and swam the Strait for three hours and 57 minutes covering a distance of 18 kilometers in 65° Fahrenheit waters, he reached Point Cires, accomplishing his lifelong dream and becoming the first Puerto Rican to do so. On September 4, 2011, the city of Ponce in Puerto Rico dedicated its 30th annual Bahía de Ponce international swimming competition, Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahía de Ponce, to Fernández in recognition of his accomplishments.
The dedication took place at the Parque Enrique González in Playa de Ponce. Fernández resides in Hato Rey, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Among other sports he practices are kayaking, spinning and surfing, he serves as a motivational speaker at public schools and private enterprises. Fernandez plans on swimming from Vieques to Palmas del Mar in Humacao, in a benefit drive to help the Children with Cancer Foundation. List of Puerto Ricans Sports in Puerto Rico
Miss Venezuela 1992 was the 39th Miss Venezuela pageant, was held in Caracas, Venezuela on September 8, 1992, after weeks of events. The winner of the pageant was Miss Aragua; the pageant was broadcast live on Venevision from the Poliedro de Caracas in Venezuela. At the conclusion of the final night of competition, outgoing titleholder Carolina Izsak, crowned Milka Chulina of Aragua as the new Miss Venezuela. Miss Venezuela 1992 - Milka Chulina Miss World Venezuela 1992 - Francis Gago Miss Venezuela International 1992 - Maria Eugenia Rodriguez The runners-up were: 1st runner-up - Nelitza León 2nd runner-up - Natalia Streignard 3rd runner-up - Vanessa Mittermayer 4th runner-up - Laura Gaerste 5th runner-up - Michelle Badillo Miss Photogenic - Milka Chulina Miss Congeniality - Delia Hernández Miss Elegance - Pilar Martínez Most Beautiful Eyes - Nelitza León Best Smile - Francis Gago The Miss Venezuela 1992 delegates are: Miss Venezuela official website
Joan Vokins or Joan Bunce was a British Quaker preacher and traveller. Vokins was born as Joan Bunce, her father Thomas Bunce was a yeoman of Charney Bassett in Berkshire. She married another local farmer, Richard Vokins, of West Challow and she joined the Quakers, she was an enthusiastic evangelist for Quakerism. She persuaded her family and set about to preach. In February 1680 she went to America, she visited Long Island, Rhode Island, Boston and West Jersey, Pennsylvania. On the return journey she went to the West Indian islands including Barbados and Nevis, Even after she returned to England on 3 June 1681 she continued preaching in Kent. Five years she travelled in Ireland, she was at the annual meeting in London in 1690, died at Reading, on her way home, on 22 July. Her husband was not with her. Besides three sons, one of whom predeceased her, she had three daughters, her writings were collected by her brother-in-law, Oliver Sansom, in ‘God's Mighty Power Magnified,’ London, 1691, 8vo.
James Joseph Lawlor known as Jimmy Lawlor or Jim Lawlor, was an Irish professional footballer who played in both Ireland and England as a centre half. Born in Finglas Bridge, Ireland, Lawlor spent his early career with Transport, Shamrock Rovers and Drumcondra. In August 1952, he was signed for English club Doncaster Rovers by manager Peter Doherty, he made his debut for Doncaster on 16 October 1954 in a 5–1 defeat against Lincoln City, made a total of nine appearances in the Football League for Doncaster during the 1954–55 season. He scored two goals in a friendly match against Scottish club Celtic on 18 November 1952. After leaving Doncaster, Lawlor had a spell in Northern Ireland with Coleraine, before signing with English club Bradford City in March 1957. After scoring five goals in 153 appearances in the Football League for them, 176 appearances in all competitions, Lawlor retired at the age of 28 in 1962, due to a broken leg injury. Lawlor died on 5 April 2012, at the age of 78, following a period of illness
Dina Abramowicz was a librarian at YIVO and a Yiddish language expert. Abramowicz was born in Vilnius under Russian rule, her parents were teachers. Though her first language was Russian, when the Germans occupied Vilnius during World War I, they allowed Jews to establish their own schools. Abramowicz's parents sent her to a Yiddish-language high schools. During her university years she studied Polish literature. In 1936 Abramowicz graduated from Stefan Bathory University with a degree in humanities, her first job was at a children's library in the Kinderbibliotek. Soon after its founding she joined YIVO. During World War II, Vilnius's Jews were put in ghettos. A librarian, Herman Kruk, asked Abramowicz to staff it. "How can we think of a library under these conditions, who will come to read books there?" she remembered asking a fellow librarian. "Since there was nothing one could do about this absurd situation, what was the use of talking and wondering?" was the response. During its initial year, the ghetto library lent 100,000 books of escapist fiction to relieve the suffering of the ghetto residents.
The Vilnius ghetto was liquidated in 1943. Abramowicz's mother was sent to Treblinka. Abramowicz was to be sent to a labor camp, but when the train car door opened on the Vilnius platform, she walked out unnoticed and made her escape working in a camp devoted to processing winter coats for the German army, she joined Jewish resistance fighters as a nurse's helper. After the war she made her way to New York City. There she encountered Max Weinreich, one of YIVO's founders, together they worked to reconstitute YIVO. In 1947 Abramowicz was appointed assistant librarian at YIVO. In 1953 Abramowicz received her Masters in Science from the School of Library Science at Columbia University, she became the head librarian at YIVO in 1962, a position she held until 1987. When she was appointed research librarian, a position she held until her death. People recalled Abramowicz as having a phenomenal memory and as being a knowledgeable source for information on the Yiddish culture of Eastern Europe. After her death, YIVO established the Dina Abramowicz Emerging Scholar Fellowship for postdoctoral research in Eastern European Jewish Studies.
Dr. Chaim Zhitlowsky Prize, 1987, Yiddisher Kultur Farband. Dr. Berl Frimer Prize for Cultural Achievement, 1992, Congress for Jewish Culture. Leonard Wertheimer Multicultural Public Library Service Award, 1994, Public Library Association of the American Library Association. Yiddish literature in English translation. New York: Yivo Institute for Jewish Research, 1967. Yiddish literature in English translation: list of books in print. New York: Yivo Institute for Jewish Research, 1976. ISBN 0914512366 "Die Bibliothek im Wilnaer Ghetto, 1941-1943" in: Bücher und Bibliotheken in Ghettos und Lagern. Kleine historische Reihe der Zeitschrift Laurentius, Band 3. Hannover: Laurentius, 1991. "The library in the Vilna ghetto" in: The Holocaust and the book: destruction and preservation, edited by Jonathan Rose. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001. ISBN 9781558496439 Guardians of a tragic heritage: reminiscences and observations of an eyewitness. New York: National Foundation for Jewish Culture/Council of Archives and Research Libraries in Jewish Studies, 1999.
"Di Geto-Biblyotek in Vilne". In Lite. Vol. 1, edited by Mendel Sudarsky, Uriah Katzenelenbogen, J. Kissin, cols. 1671-1678. "Ethnic Survival in the New World: Yiddish Juvenilia." Wilson Library Bulletin 50, no. 2: 138-145. "The World of My Parents: Reminiscences." YIVO Annual 23: 105-157. "The YIVO Library." Jewish Book Annual 24: 87-102. "Yom Kippur, 1941-1945: Memories of the Vilna Ghetto." Jewish Frontier 14, no. 1: 18-22