Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Intelligent transportation system
An intelligent transportation system is an advanced application which, without embodying intelligence as such, aims to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and'smarter' use of transport networks. Although ITS may refer to all modes of transport, the directive of the European Union 2010/40/EU, made on the 7 July 2010, defined ITS as systems in which information and communication technologies are applied in the field of road transport, including infrastructure and users, in traffic management and mobility management, as well as for interfaces with other modes of transport. ITS may improve the efficiency of transport in a number of situations, i.e. road transport, traffic management, etc. Recent governmental activity in the area of ITS — is further motivated by an increasing focus on homeland security. Many of the proposed ITS systems involve surveillance of the roadways, a priority of homeland security.
Funding of many systems comes either directly through homeland security organisations or with their approval. Further, ITS can play a role in the rapid mass evacuation of people in urban centers after large casualty events such as a result of a natural disaster or threat. Much of the infrastructure and planning involved with ITS parallels the need for homeland security systems. In the developing world, the migration from rural to urbanized habitats has progressed differently. Many areas of the developing world have urbanised without significant motorisation and the formation of suburbs. A small portion of the population can afford automobiles, but the automobiles increase congestion in these multimodal transportation systems, they produce considerable air pollution, pose a significant safety risk, exacerbate feelings of inequities in the society. High population density could be supported by a multimodal system of walking, bicycle transportation, motorcycles and trains. Other parts of the developing world, such as China and Brazil remain rural but are urbanising and industrialising.
In these areas a motorised infrastructure is being developed alongside motorisation of the population. Great disparity of wealth means that only a fraction of the population can motorise, therefore the dense multimodal transportation system for the poor is cross-cut by the motorised transportation system for the rich. Intelligent transport systems vary in technologies applied, from basic management systems such as car navigation. Additionally, predictive techniques are being developed to allow advanced modelling and comparison with historical baseline data; some of these technologies are described in the following sections. Various forms of wireless communications technologies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. Radio modem communication on UHF and VHF frequencies are used for short and long range communication within ITS. Short-range communications of 350 m can be accomplished using IEEE 802.11 protocols WAVE or the Dedicated Short Range Communications standard being promoted by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and the United States Department of Transportation.
Theoretically, the range of these protocols can be extended using Mobile ad hoc networks or Mesh networking. Longer range communications have been proposed using infrastructure networks such as WiMAX, Global System for Mobile Communications, or 3G. Long-range communications using these methods are well established, unlike the short-range protocols, these methods require extensive and expensive infrastructure deployment. There is lack of consensus as to. Auto insurance companies have utilised ad hoc solutions to support eCall and behavioural tracking functionalities in the form of Telematics 2.0. Recent advances in vehicle electronics have led to a move towards fewer, more capable computer processors on a vehicle. A typical vehicle in the early 2000s would have between 20 and 100 individual networked microcontroller/Programmable logic controller modules with non-real-time operating systems; the current trend is toward fewer, more costly microprocessor modules with hardware memory management and real-time operating systems.
The new embedded system platforms allow for more sophisticated software applications to be implemented, including model-based process control, artificial intelligence, ubiquitous computing. The most important of these for Intelligent Transportation Systems is artificial intelligence. "Floating car" or "probe" data collected other transport routes. Broadly speaking, four methods have been used to obtain the raw data: Triangulation method. In developed countries a high proportion of cars contain one or more mobile phones; the phones periodically transmit their presence information to the mobile phone network when no voice connection is established. In the mid-2000s, attempts were made to use mobile phones as anonymous traffic probes; as a car moves, so does the signal of any mobile phones that are inside the vehicle. By measuring and analysing network data using triangulation, pattern matching or cell-sector statistics, the data was converted into traffic flow information. With more congestion, there are
Paratransit is recognized in North America as special transportation services for people with disabilities provided as a supplement to fixed-route bus and rail systems by public transit agencies. Paratransit services may vary on the degree of flexibility they provide their customers. At their simplest they may consist of a taxi or small bus that will run along a more or less defined route and stop to pick up or discharge passengers on request. At the other end of the spectrum—fully demand responsive transport—the most flexible paratransit systems offer on-demand call-up door-to-door service from any origin to any destination in a service area. In addition to public transit agencies, Paratransit services are operated by community groups or not-for-profit organizations, for-profit private companies or operators. Minibuses are used to provide paratransit service. Most paratransit vehicles are equipped with wheelchair ramps to facilitate access. In the United States, private transportation companies provide paratransit service in cities and metropolitan areas under contract to local public transportation agencies.
Transdev, First Transit and MV Transportation are among the largest private contractors of paratransit services in the United States and Canada. "Definition: any type of public transportation, distinct from conventional transit, such as flexibly scheduled and routed services such as airport limousines, etc. Etymology: para-'alongside of' + transit" The use of "paratransit" has evolved and taken on two somewhat separate broad sets of meaning and application; the more general meaning involved projects starting in the early 1970s, documented by the Urban Institute in the 1974 book Para-transit: Neglected options for urban mobility, followed a year by the first international overview, Paratransit: Survey of International Experience and Prospects. Robert Cervero's 1997 book, Paratransit in America: Redefining Mass Transportation, embraced this wider definition of paratransit, arguing that America's mass transit sector should enlarge to include micro-vehicles and shared-taxi services found in many developing cities.
Paratransit, as an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules, are common and offer the only mechanized mobility options for the poor in many parts of the developing world. Since the early 1980s in North America, the term began to be used to describe the second meaning: special transport services for people with disabilities. In this respect, paratransit has become a business in its own right; the term paratransit is used outside of North America. In 2013, the Canadian Urban Transit Association compared the eligibility requirements of paratransit services in Canada and the United States. Annually, the Canadian Urban Transit Association publishes a fact book providing statistics for all of the Ontario specialized public transit services as of 2015 there were 79 in operation. Before passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, paratransit was provided by not-for-profit human service agencies and public transit agencies in response to the requirements in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
Section 504 prohibited the exclusion of the disabled from "any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance". In Title 49 Part 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Federal Transit Administration defined requirements for making buses accessible or providing complementary paratransit services within public transit service areas. Most transit agencies did not see fixed route accessibility as desirable and opted for a flexible system of small paratransit vehicles operating parallel to a system of larger, fixed-route buses; the expectation was that the paratransit services would not be used, making a flexible system of small vehicles a less expensive alternative for accessibility than options with larger, fixed-route vehicles. This however ended up not being the case. Paratransit services were being filled up to their capacity. In some cases, leaving individuals who were in need of the door to door service provided by paratransit unable to utilize it due to the fact that disabled people who could use fixed-route vehicles found themselves using these paratransit services.
With the passage of the ADA, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act was extended to include all activities of state and local government. Its provisions were not limited to programs receiving federal funds and applied to all public transit services, regardless of how the services were funded or managed. Title II of the ADA more defined a disabled person's right to equal participation in transit programs, the provider's responsibility to make that participation possible. In revisions to Title 49 Part 37, the Federal Transit Administration defined the combined requirements of the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act for transit providers; these requirements included "complementary" paratransit to destinations within 3/4 mile of all fixed routes and submission of a plan for complying with complementary paratransit service regulations. Paratransit service is an unfunded mandate. Under the ADA, complementary paratransit service is required for passengers who are 1) Unable to navigate the public bus system, 2) unable to get to a point from which they could access the public bus system, or 3) have a temporary need for these services because of injury or some type of limited duration cause of disability.
Title 49 Part 37 details the eligibility rules along with requirements governing how the service must be provided and managed. In the United States, paratransit service is now
General William J. Fox Airfield
General William J. Fox Airfield is a county-owned, public airport in Los Angeles County, five miles northwest of Lancaster, California. Locally known as Fox Field, the airport serves the Antelope Valley; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a general aviation facility. The airport has limited scheduled cargo operations; the U. S. Forest Service has a fixed wing airtanker base on the airfield which becomes one of the main hubs in the region for aerial firefighting suppression efforts during fire season. Fox Field had scheduled passenger air service as early as the late 1950s operated by Southwest Airways with Douglas DC-3 aircraft to the Los Angeles International Airport. Southwest Airways changed its name to Pacific Air Lines which in 1959 was operating new Fairchild F-27 turboprops from the airport nonstop to Las Vegas and to Burbank Airport on a daily basis as well as operating Martin 4-0-4 and DC-3 prop aircraft on flights to LAX. By 1960, Pacific was operating daily F-27 propjet flights to San Francisco from Fox Field via a stop in Bakersfield and nonstop to LAX.
In 1968, Pacific Air Lines merged with Bonanza Air Lines and West Coast Airlines to form Air West which in turn continued to serve the airport with F-27 flights to LAX. In 1968, Cable Commuter Airlines was operating de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter service to LAX. Air West changed its name to Hughes Airwest which continued to operate scheduled passenger service with the Fairchild F-27 turboprop to Los Angeles International Airport during the early 1970s with several nonstop flights a day. By 1983, Mojave Airlines was operating flights to LAX, San Diego and Mammoth Yosemite Airport with Beechcraft C99 turboprops. In 1985, commuter air carrier Desert Sun Airlines was operating up to five flights a day nonstop to LAX with Beechcraft 99 turboprops. Fox Field does not have any scheduled passenger flights with the nearest airline service being available at the Bob Hope Airport in Burbank. General William J. Fox Airfield covers 1,217 acres at an elevation of 2,351 feet above sea level, its one runway, 6/24, is 7,201 by 150 feet asphalt.
In the year ending August 10, 2011 the airport had 81,851 aircraft operations, average 224 per day: 97% general aviation, 2% air taxi, 1% military. 157 aircraft were based at this airport: 89% single-engine, 8% multi-engine, 2% helicopter, 1% jet. Aerial image from USGS The National Map FAA Airport Diagram, effective March 28, 2019 FAA Terminal Procedures for WJF, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for WJF AirNav airport information for KWJF ASN accident history for WJF FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
The Higgins Building is a proto-Modernist concrete framed building rendered in the Beaux-Arts style located in downtown Los Angeles, California. Completed in 1910 by owner Thomas Higgins, an Irish American, the 10-story building was used for office space; the Engineers and Architects were Albert C. Martin, Sr. and A. L. Haley, it has been designated as a historical monument by the City as Historic-Cultural Monument #873. Although designed as an eight story high building, it was decided during the construction stage to add two additional floors in order to hold the reputation as being the highest building in the city centre. Thomas Higgins was born on 12th. July in 1844 in Boyle, County Roscommon in Ireland, son of Patrick Higgins, a farmer and Hanora Flanagan, he received some education in Ireland. He traveled out west seeking his fortune in the late 1800s, his first stop was in Troy. Another member of his family, Mary Keefe, lived there, he worked as a lumberjack in Mosinee, Wisconsin for the years 1867-1870.
He worked on dock building in Chicago, hard heavy work, poorly paid. On hearing that all the adventurers were heading for the Klondyke looking for gold he decided that so many guys were heading that way that there would be no gold for him, he headed south down river to St. Louis. In Louisiana he met some levee contractors from Ireland, with them became a foreman. During the summer they worked for the Iron Mountain Railway, he decided to head west, towards the Rocky Mountains and stayed alive by avoiding Indian attacks by not sleeping beside his open fire at night. He prospected for gold and diamonds in Washington without much success, he heard that there were fortunes to be won in Peru and Arizona and tossed a coin to decide which direction to go. There were three towns in Arizona at that time, Tucson and Phoenix, he reached Bisbee near the Mexican border in 1877 where he found a rich vein of copper which he worked until 1900. He sold up the mining business and moved to 1199 Magnolia Avenue in L.
A. from where he ran a property business. Tom Higgins visited ireland in 1907, he was a philanthropist and supported Boyle Heights Orphanage, St. Thomas's Church in Pico Heights, St. Vincent's College, he died after a long illness in 1920. The building was designed with natural air conditioning, using a ventilation shaft that allowed sunshine and fresh air to filter into offices; the Los Angeles Times reported in 2006: "The building's grand size, marble-lined hallways, zinc-lined doors and window frames, black-and-white mosaic tile lobby and'wholesome and healthful' water -- purified through filters in the sub-basement -- attracted prominent businessmen. Martin, who would emerge as one of the most successful architects and structural engineers in Southern California, based his company there for 35 years." The Higgins Building basement contained the city's first owned power plant. General Petroleum occupied six floors of the building for 15 years beginning in 1934; the building housed the Los Angeles County Engineer Department for 25 years from 1952 until 1977.
In addition to its architect Albert C. Martin, Sr. previous tenants included Clarence Darrow as well as the chancery office of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles. After spending many years derelict and underwater, the building was rescued by entrepreneurs Andrew Meieran and Marc Smith. Developer Barry Shy converted the upstairs offices into rental lofts in 2003; the Higgins Building has been a filming location for films and television series. Higgins The Edison
An ocean is a body of water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World Ocean; these are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Indian and Arctic Oceans. The word "ocean" is used interchangeably with "sea" in American English. Speaking, a sea is a body of water or enclosed by land, though "the sea" refers to the oceans. Saline water covers 361,000,000 km2 and is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas, with the ocean covering 71% of Earth's surface and 90% of the Earth's biosphere; the ocean contains 97% of Earth's water, oceanographers have stated that less than 5% of the World Ocean has been explored. The total volume is 1.35 billion cubic kilometers with an average depth of nearly 3,700 meters. As the world ocean is the principal component of Earth's hydrosphere, it is integral to life, forms part of the carbon cycle, influences climate and weather patterns; the World Ocean is the habitat of 230,000 known species, but because much of it is unexplored, the number of species that exist in the ocean is much larger over two million.
The origin of Earth's oceans is unknown. Extraterrestrial oceans may be composed of water or other compounds; the only confirmed large stable bodies of extraterrestrial surface liquids are the lakes of Titan, although there is evidence for the existence of oceans elsewhere in the Solar System. Early in their geologic histories and Venus are theorized to have had large water oceans; the Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, a runaway greenhouse effect may have boiled away the global ocean of Venus. Compounds such as salts and ammonia dissolved in water lower its freezing point so that water might exist in large quantities in extraterrestrial environments as brine or convecting ice. Unconfirmed oceans are speculated beneath the surface of natural satellites; the Solar System's giant planets are thought to have liquid atmospheric layers of yet to be confirmed compositions. Oceans may exist on exoplanets and exomoons, including surface oceans of liquid water within a circumstellar habitable zone.
Ocean planets are a hypothetical type of planet with a surface covered with liquid. The word ocean comes from the figure in classical antiquity, the elder of the Titans in classical Greek mythology, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world; the concept of Ōkeanós has an Indo-European connection. Greek Ōkeanós has been compared to the Vedic epithet ā-śáyāna-, predicated of the dragon Vṛtra-, who captured the cows/rivers. Related to this notion, the Okeanos is represented with a dragon-tail on some early Greek vases. Though described as several separate oceans, the global, interconnected body of salt water is sometimes referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean; the concept of a continuous body of water with free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography. The major oceanic divisions – listed below in descending order of area and volume – are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, other criteria.
Oceans are fringed by smaller, adjoining bodies of water such as seas, bays and straits. The mid-ocean ridges of the world are connected and form a single global mid-oceanic ridge system, part of every ocean and the longest mountain range in the world; the continuous mountain range is 65,000 km long. The total mass of the hydrosphere is about 1.4 quintillion metric tons, about 0.023% of Earth's total mass. Less than 3% is freshwater; the area of the World Ocean is about 361.9 million square kilometers, which covers about 70.9% of Earth's surface, its volume is 1.335 billion cubic kilometers. This can be thought of as a cube of water with an edge length of 1,101 kilometers, its average depth is about 3,688 meters, its maximum depth is 10,994 meters at the Mariana Trench. Nearly half of the world's marine waters are over 3,000 meters deep; the vast expanses of deep ocean cover about 66% of Earth's surface. This does not include seas not connected to the World Ocean, such as the Caspian Sea; the bluish ocean color is a composite of several contributing agents.
Prominent contributors include dissolved organic chlorophyll. Mariners and other seafarers have reported that the ocean emits a visible glow which extends for miles at night. In 2005, scientists announced that for the first time, they had obtained photographic evidence of this glow, it is most caused by bioluminescence. Oceanographers divide the ocean into different vertical zones defined by physical and biological conditions; the pelagic zone includes all open ocean regions, can be divided into further regions categorized by depth and light abundance. The photic zone includes the oceans from the surface to a depth of
A building code is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission from a local council; the main purpose of building codes is to protect public health and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are intended to be applied by architects, interior designers and regulators but are used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers and others. Codes regulate the construction of structures where adopted into law. Examples of building codes began in ancient times. In the USA the main codes are the International Commercial or Residential Code, electrical codes and plumbing, mechanical codes.
Fifty states and the District of Columbia have adopted the I-Codes at the state or jurisdictional level. In Canada, national model codes are published by the National Research Council of Canada; the practice of developing and enforcing building codes varies among nations. In some countries building codes are developed by the government agencies or quasi-governmental standards organizations and enforced across the country by the central government; such codes are known as the national building codes. In other countries, where the power of regulating construction and fire safety is vested in local authorities, a system of model building codes is used. Model building codes have no legal status unless adopted or adapted by an authority having jurisdiction; the developers of model codes urge public authorities to reference model codes in their laws, ordinances and administrative orders. When referenced in any of these legal instruments, a particular model code becomes law; this practice is known as adoption by reference.
When an adopting authority decides to delete, add, or revise any portions of the model code adopted, it is required by the model code developer to follow a formal adoption procedure in which those modifications can be documented for legal purposes. There are instances. At some point in time all major cities in the United States had their own building codes. However, due to increasing complexity and cost of developing building regulations all municipalities in the country have chosen to adopt model codes instead. For example, in 2008 New York City abandoned its proprietary 1968 New York City Building Code in favor of a customized version of the International Building Code; the City of Chicago remains the only municipality in America that continues to use a building code the city developed on its own as part of the Municipal Code of Chicago. In Europe, the Eurocode is a pan-European building code that has superseded the older national building codes; each country now has National Annexes to localize the contents of the Eurocode.
In India, each municipality and urban development authority has its own building code, mandatory for all construction within their jurisdiction. All these local building codes are variants of a National Building Code, which serves as model code proving guidelines for regulating building construction activity. Building codes have a long history; the earliest known written building code is included in the Code of Hammurabi, which dates from circa 1772 BC. The book of Deuteronomy in the Hebrew Bible stipulated that parapets must be constructed on all houses to prevent people from falling off. After the Great Fire of London in 1666, able to spread so through the densely built timber housing of the city, the Rebuilding of London Act was passed in the same year as the first significant building regulation. Drawn up by Sir Matthew Hale, the Act regulated the rebuilding of the city, required housing to have some fire resistance capacity and authorised the City of London Corporation to reopen and widen roads.
The Laws of the Indies were passed in the 1680s by the Spanish Crown to regulate the urban planning for colonies throughout Spain's worldwide imperial possessions. The first systematic national building standard was established with the London Building Act of 1844. Among the provisions, builders were required to give the district surveyor two days' notice before building, regulations regarding the thickness of walls, height of rooms, the materials used in repairs, the dividing of existing buildings and the placing and design of chimneys and drains were to be enforced and streets had to be built to minimum requirements; the Metropolitan Buildings Office was formed to regulate the construction and use of buildings throughout London. Surveyors were empowered to enforce building regulations, which sought to improve the standard of houses and business premises, to regulate activities that might threaten public health. In 1855 the assets and responsibilities of the office passed to the Metropolitan Board of Works.
The City of Baltimore passed its first building code in 1859. The Great Baltimore Fire occurred in February, 1904. Subsequent changes were made that matched other cities. In 1904, a Handbook of the Baltimore City Building Laws was published, it served as the building code for four years. Soon, a formal building code was drafted and adopted in 1908. In Paris, under the reconstruction o