Morey Stanley Mosk was an Associate Justice of the California Supreme Court for 37 years, holds the record for the longest-serving justice on that court. Before sitting on the Supreme Court, he served as Attorney General of California and as a trial court judge, among other governmental positions. Mosk was the last Justice of the California Supreme Court to have served in non-judicial elected office before his appointment to the bench; the Los Angeles County Courthouse is named after him. Mosk was born in Texas, his parents moved when he was three years old, he grew up in Rockford, Illinois. His parents and Minna, were Reform Jews who did not believe in strict religious observances. Since Rockford sits next to the Wisconsin border, Mosk's parents followed Wisconsin politics and were strong supporters of Progressive Wisconsin Senator Robert M. La Follette Sr. Mosk graduated from the University of Chicago in 1933 with a bachelor's degree in philosophy. Mosk's life was affected by the Great Depression.
Because his father's business in Rockford was floundering, his parents and brother relocated to Los Angeles, Mosk followed them after graduating from college, as they could not afford to support him in further studies in Chicago. At the time, it was possible to use the last year of a bachelor's degree as the first year of a three-year law degree program, so while living with his parents, Mosk was able to obtain a law degree in two years, he earned a LL. B was admitted to the bar that same year. Thanks to the Depression, no major Los Angeles firms were hiring. Mosk opened his solo practice, shared an office with four other solos, each maintaining separate practices. During those difficult years, Mosk was a general practitioner. While practicing law, Mosk assisted the Democratic politician Culbert Olson with campaigning, in 1939 was given the job of executive secretary to Olson, the first Democrat elected Governor of California in the 20th-century. During Olson's last days in office, after his defeat for re-election by Republican Earl Warren, he appointed Mosk a Los Angeles County Superior Court judge at the age of 31, the youngest in the state.
Mosk prevailed. In March 1945, Mosk left the Superior Court to volunteer for service in the U. S. Army during World War II as a private, but spent most of the war in a transportation unit in New Orleans and never went abroad. After honorable discharge in September 1945, he returned to California and resumed his judicial career. On October 18, 1945, actress Ava Gardner married bandleader Artie Shaw at Mosk's house. In 1947, as a Superior Court judge, he declared the enforcement of racial restrictive covenants unconstitutional before the Supreme Court of the United States did so in Shelley v. Kraemer, he presided over many reported cases. In 1958, he was elected Attorney General of California by the largest margin of any contested election in the country that year, was the first person of Jewish descent to serve as a statewide executive branch officer in California. In 1962, he was re-elected by a large margin, he served as the California National Committeeman to the Democratic National Committee and was an early supporter of John F. Kennedy for President.
He remained close to the Kennedy family. As attorney general for nearly six years, he issued two thousand written opinions, handled a series of landmark cases, on January 8, 1962, appeared before the U. S. Supreme Court in Arizona v. California. Mosk established the Attorney General's Civil Rights Division and fought to force the Professional Golfers' Association of America to amend its bylaws denying access to minority golfers, he established Consumer Rights, Constitutional Rights, Antitrust divisions. As California's chief law enforcement officer, he sponsored legislation creating the California Commission on Peace Officers' Standards and Training. Mosk commissioned a study of the resurgence of right-wing extremism in California, which famously characterized the secretive John Birch Society as a "cadre" of "wealthy businessmen, retired military officers and little old ladies in tennis shoes." While an early favorite to be elected to the United States Senate after the death of incumbent Clair Engle, Mosk was appointed to the California Supreme Court in September 1964 by Governor Edmund G. "Pat" Brown to succeed the elevated Roger J. Traynor.
Mosk was retained by the electorate in 1964, to three full twelve-year terms from 1974. Although Mosk was a self-described liberal, he displayed an independent streak that sometimes surprised his admirers and critics alike. For example, in Bakke v. Regents of the University of California, Mosk ruled that the minority admissions program at the University of California, Davis violated the equal protection clause of the U. S. Constitution; this decision was affirmed by the U. S. Supreme Court in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U. S. 265, unlike Mosk's opinion, held that race could be factored in admissions to promote ethnic diversity. The U. S. Supreme Court agreed with Mosk in rejecting racial quotas, he voted to uphold the constitutionality of a parental consent for abortion law—a law struck down by a majority of the court. Although opposed to the death penalty, Mosk voted to uphold death penalty convictions on a number of occasions, he believed he was obligated to enforce laws properly enacted by the people of the state of California though he did not approve of such la
Huntington Park, California
Huntington Park is a city in the Gateway Cities district of southeastern Los Angeles County, California. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 58,114, down from 61,348 at the 2000 census. Named for prominent industrialist Henry E. Huntington, Huntington Park was incorporated in 1906 as a streetcar suburb on the Los Angeles Railway for workers in the expanding industries to the southeast of downtown Los Angeles. To this day, about 30 % of its residents work at factories in nearby Commerce; the stretch of Pacific Boulevard in downtown Huntington Park was a major commercial district serving the city's working-class residents, as well as those of neighboring cities such as Bell, South Gate, Downey. As with most of the other cities along the corridor stretching along the Los Angeles River to the south and southeast of downtown Los Angeles, Huntington Park was an exclusively white community during most of its history; the changes that shaped Los Angeles from the late 1970s onward—the decline of American manufacturing that began in the 1970s.
The vacuum was filled entirely by two groups of Latinos: upwardly mobile families eager to leave the barrios of East Los Angeles, recent Mexican immigrants. Today, Pacific Boulevard is once again a thriving commercial strip, serving as a major retail center for working-class residents of southeastern Los Angeles County—but unlike its previous heyday of the 1930s, the signs along the avenue's storefronts are now in Spanish. Before California abolished judicial townships, Huntington Park was located in San Antonio Township. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.0 square miles, all land. Cities surrounding Huntington Park include Bell, Los Angeles, South Gate, Vernon. In addition unincorporated areas, including Florence-Graham and Walnut Park, are adjacent to Huntington Park. On average, there are 286 sunny days per year in California. Annually the snowfall is 0 inches; the July high is around 82 degrees. The January low is 48; as of 2015 the average high temperatures have risen raging from the low to mid 90's.
A 2012 study by the California Center for Public Health Advocacy found Huntington Park California had the highest percentage of overweight children in all of California with 53% of the city's child population being obese or overweight. The 2010 United States Census reported that Huntington Park had a population of 58,114; the population density was 19,270.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Huntington Park was 56,445 Hispanic or Latino, 29,776 White, 440 African American, 752 Native American, 393 Asian, 28 Pacific Islander, 24,535 from other races, 2,190 from two or more races; the Census reported that 57,859 people lived in households, 248 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 7 were institutionalized. There were 14,597 households, out of which 8,581 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 7,461 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 3,212 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,623 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,377 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 81 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
1,644 households were made up of individuals and 694 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.96. There were 12,296 families; the population was spread out with 18,439 people under the age of 18, 6,984 people aged 18 to 24, 17,886 people aged 25 to 44, 10,942 people aged 45 to 64, 3,863 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males. There were 15,151 housing units at an average density of 5,023.9 per square mile, of which 3,936 were owner-occupied, 10,661 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.5%. 18,054 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 39,805 people lived in rental housing units. During 2009–2013, Huntington Park had a median household income of $36,397, with 28.7% of the population living below the federal poverty line. According to the census of 2000, there were 61,348 people, 14,860 households, 12,660 families residing in the city.
The population density was 20,252.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,335 housing units at an average density of 5,062.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 41.4% White, 0.8% Black or African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 51.1% from other races, 4.9% from two or more races. 95.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of 2000, speakers of Spanish as their first language accounted for 90.77% of residents, while English was spoken by 9.17%, Chinese by 0.05% of the population. There were 14,860 househo
Pomona is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Pomona is located between the Inland Empire and the San Gabriel Valley; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 149,058. The area was occupied by the Tongva Native Americans; the city is named for the ancient Roman goddess of fruit. For horticulturist Solomon Gates, "Pomona" was the winning entry in a contest to name the city in 1875, before anyone had planted a fruit tree there; the city was first settled by Ricardo Vejar and Ygnacio Palomares in the 1830s, when California and much of the now-American Southwest were part of Mexico. The first Anglo-Americans arrived in prior to 1848 when the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo resulted in California becoming part of the United States. By the 1880s, the arrival of railroads and Coachella Valley water had made it the western anchor of the citrus-growing region. Pomona was incorporated on January 6, 1888. In the 1920s Pomona was known as the "Queen of the Citrus Belt", with one of the highest per-capita levels of income in the United States.
In the 1940s it was used as a movie-previewing location for major motion picture studios to see how their films would play to modally middle-class audiences around the country. Religious institutions are embedded in the history of Pomona. There are now more than 120 churches, representing most religions in today's society; the historical architectural styles of these churches provide glimpses of European church design and architecture from other eras. In 2005, Pomona citizens elected Norma Torres, the first woman of Guatemalan heritage to be elected to a mayoral post outside of Guatemala, she would become a U. S. congresswoman representing California's 35th congressional district in 2015. Pomona is 30 miles east of the Los Angeles area of Los Angeles County in the Pomona Valley, located at 34°3′39″N 117°45′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.964 square miles, over 99% of it land. Pomona is 30 miles east of downtown Los Angeles, 27 miles north of Santa Ana, 26 miles west of Riverside, 33 miles west of San Bernardino.
Pomona is bordered by the cities of San Dimas on the northwest, La Verne and Claremont on the north and Chino on the east, Chino Hills and Diamond Bar on the south, Walnut, South San Jose Hills, Industry on the southwest. The Los Angeles/San Bernardino county line forms most of the city's eastern boundaries. Pomona has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and mild, damp winters and a large amount of sunshine year-round. August is the warmest month with an average daytime high temperature of 92 °F. Summers are characterized by sunny days and little rainfall during the months of June through September. Fall brings cooler temperatures and occasional showers, as well as seasonal Santa Ana winds originating from the northeast. December is the coolest month with an average high temperature of 68 °F. Winter brings the majority of annual precipitation. Snowfall is unheard of, but frost can occur once or twice a year. Annual precipitation averages 17.32 inches. The 2010 United States Census reported that Pomona had a population of 149,058, a slight decline from the 2000 census population.
The population density was 6,491.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Pomona was 71,564 White, 10,924 African American, 1,763 Native American, 12,688 Asian, 282 Pacific Islander, 45,171 from other races, 6,666 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 105,135 persons; the Census reported that 144,920 people lived in households, 2,782 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 1,356 were institutionalized. There were 38,477 households, out of which 19,690 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 19,986 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,960 had a female householder with no husband present, 3,313 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,823 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 299 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 5,810 households were made up of individuals and 2,010 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.77. There were 30,259 families; the population was spread out with 43,853 people under the age of 18, 20,155 people aged 18 to 24, 42,311 people aged 25 to 44, 31,369 people aged 45 to 64, 11,370 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 29.5 years. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males. There were 39,620 housing units at an average density of 1,771.8 per square mile, of which 21,197 were owner-occupied, 17,280 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.0%. 80,968 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 63,952 people lived in rental housing units During 2009–2013, Pomona had a median household income of $49,474, with 21.6% of the population living below the federal poverty line. Since the 1980s, Pomona's newest neighborhood Phillips Ranch, experienced rapid growth with homes still being built in the hilly area between Downtown and Diamond Bar. Today, Phillips Ranch is nearly all residential. Northern
California courts of appeal
The California courts of appeal are the state intermediate appellate courts in the U. S. state of California. The state is geographically divided into six appellate districts; the courts of appeal form the largest state-level intermediate appellate court system in the United States, with 105 justices. The decisions of the courts of appeal are binding on the California superior courts, both the courts of appeal and the superior courts are bound by the decisions of the Supreme Court of California. Notably, all published; this is distinct from the practice in the federal courts and in other state court systems in which trial courts are bound only by the appellate decisions from the particular circuit in which it sits, as well as the Supreme Court of the United States or the state supreme court. In contrast, "there is no horizontal stare decisis in the California Court of Appeal". Thus, all superior courts are bound by the decision of a court of appeal if it is the only published California precedent that articulates a point of law relevant to a particular set of facts if the superior court would have decided differently if writing on a fresh slate.
However, another court of appeal division or district may rule differently on that point of law after a litigant seeks relief from an adverse trial court ruling that faithfully applied existing precedent. In that instance, all superior courts are free to pick and choose which precedent they wish to follow until the state supreme court settles the issue for the entire state, although a superior court confronted with such a conflict will follow the view of its own court of appeal, it is customary in federal courts and other state courts to indicate in case citations the particular circuit or district of an intermediate appellate court that issued the decision cited. But because the decisions of all six California appellate districts are binding upon all trial courts, district numbers are traditionally omitted in California citation style unless an actual interdistrict conflict is at issue. All California appellate courts are required by the California Constitution to decide criminal cases in writing with reasons stated.
Such procedure is not mandated for civil cases, but for certain types of civil cases where a liberty interest is implicated, the courts of appeal may, but are not required to, follow a similar procedure. Most Court of Appeal opinions have no precedential value. In addition, West Publishing traditionally included Court of Appeal opinions in its unofficial reporter, the Pacific Reporter. In 1959, West began publishing both Supreme Court and Court of Appeal opinions in West's California Reporter, no longer included Court of Appeal opinions in the Pacific Reporter. Due to their huge caseloads and volume of output, the courts of appeal in turn see the largest number of decisions appealed to the state supreme court and the Supreme Court of the United States. A few famous U. S. Supreme Court cases, such as Burnham v. Superior Court of California, came to the high court on writ of certiorari to one of the courts of appeal after the state supreme court had denied review. Many Court of Appeal opinions have become nationally prominent in their own right, such as the 1959 opinion that carved out the first judge-made exception to the at-will employment doctrine, the 1980 opinion that authorized a cause of action for wrongful life, the 1984 opinion that created the right to Cumis counsel.
The California Constitution made the Supreme Court the only appellate court for the whole state. As the state's population skyrocketed during the 19th century, the Supreme Court was expanded from three to seven justices, the Court began hearing the majority of appeals in three-justice panels; the Court became so overloaded that it issued summary dispositions in minor cases, meaning that it was saying "affirmed" or "reversed" without saying why. The state's second Constitution, enacted in 1879, halted that practice by expressly requiring the Court to issue every dispositive decision in writing "with reasons stated." In 1889, the Legislature authorized the Supreme Court to appoint five commissioners to help with its work. Despite implementing all these measures, the Supreme Court was no longer able to keep up with the state's growing appellate caseload by the end of the 19th century. Accordingly, in 1903, the Legislature proposed a constitutional amendment to create what were called the district courts of appeal.
On November 8, 1904, the electorate adopted the amendment. The district courts of appeal consisted of three appellate districts, headquartered in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Sacramento, with three justices each; these first nine justices were appointed by the Governor. Each district was assigned an ordinal number. In 1966, the word "district" was dropped from the official names of the courts of appeal by another constitutional amendment which extensively revised the sections governing the state judiciary; this left Florida as the sole state in the United States with "District Courts of Appeal." Since each of the courts of appeal has been named as "the Court of Appeal of the State of California" for a particular numb
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles – Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, Venice on the south; the Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736. Due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century; the city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism. The Santa Monica Pier and Pacific Park remain popular destinations. Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language; the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the city's name came to be.
One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, but her feast day is May 4. Another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety. In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. Following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848. In the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, a wharf out into the bay; the first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building a beer hall, now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure. By 1885, the town's first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel. Amusement piers became enormously popular in the first decades of the 20th century and the extensive Pacific Electric Railroad brought people to the city's beaches from across the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica and Venice; the two ethnic minorities were viewed differently by White Americans who were well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an integral economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community. Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, were greeted on their return September 23, 1924, by a crowd of 200,000; the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply. One report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000.
Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt. In the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica; the federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall. The main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects. Douglas's business grew astronomically with the onset of World War II, employing as many as 44,000 people in 1943. To defend against air attack, set designers from the Warner Brothers Studios prepared elaborate camouflage that disguised the factory and airfield; the RAND Corporation began as a project of the Douglas Company in 1945, spun off into an independent think tank on May 14, 1948. RAND acquired a 15-acre campus between the Civic Center and the pier entrance; the completion of the Santa Monica Freeway in 1966 brought the promise of new prosperity, though at the cost of decimating the Pico neighborhood, a leading African American enclave on the Westside. Beach volleyball is believed to have been developed by Duke Kahanamoku in Santa Monica during the 1920s.
The Santa Monica Looff Hippodrome is a National Historic Landmark. It sits on the Santa Monica Pier, built in 1909; the La Monica Ballroom on the pier was once the largest ballroom in the US and the source for many New Year's Eve national network broadcasts. The Santa Monica Civic Auditorium was an important music venue for several decades and hosted the Academy Awards in the 1960s. McCabe's Guitar Shop is a leading acoustic performance space as well as retail outlet. Bergamot Station is a city-owned art gallery compound; the city is home to the California Heritage Museum and the Angels Attic dollhouse and toy museum. The New West Symphony is the resident orchestra of Barnum Hall, they are resident orchestra of the Oxnard Performing Arts Center and the Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Plaza. Santa Monica has three main shopping districts: Montana Avenue on the north side, the Downtown District in the city's core, Main Street on the south end; each has personality. Montana Avenue is a stretch of luxury boutique stores and small offices that features more upscale shopping.
The Main Street district offers an eclectic mix of clothing and other specialty retail. The Downtown District is the home of the Third Street Promenade, a major outdoor pedestrian-on
West Los Angeles
West Los Angeles is a residential and commercial neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California. The neighborhood is divided by the Interstate 405 Freeway, each side is sometimes treated as a distinct neighborhood, mapped differently by different sources; each of them lies within the larger Westside region of Los Angeles County and together they comprise most of the 90025 zip code. The West Los Angeles Community Plan area recognized by the city of Los Angeles is bounded by Centinela Avenue on the west. Among the neighborhoods included within it are Sawtelle, Rancho Park, Cheviot Hills, Castle Heights, Century City; the community plan area. The Automobile Club of Southern California does not mark boundaries on its map, but centers the neighborhood of West Los Angeles proper as south of Santa Monica Boulevard, west of Interstate 405, north of Olympic Boulevard and east of Barrington Avenue; the borders of the official West Los Angeles Neighborhood Council correspond to this second definition.
Its district stretches from the 405 freeway in the east to Centinela Avenue in the west and Wilshire Boulevard in the north and the 10 freeway in the south. This is the same area labeled as "Sawtelle" in the Mapping L. A. website of the Los Angeles Times. However, according to the Mapping L. A. website of the Los Angeles Times, West Los Angeles lies south of Santa Monica Boulevard, west of Beverly Glen Boulevard, north of Pico Boulevard and east of Sepulveda Boulevard. The western and eastern portions together comprise a large portion of the official West Los Angeles Community Plan area. In 2003, a Los Angeles Times correspondent noted: The meaning of the term West Los Angeles varies widely; some use it to describe the entire Westside including Santa Monica and stretching east to Western Avenue. More though, it is the portion of incorporated Los Angeles between the Santa Monica city limits on the west, Wilshire Boulevard on the north, Century City to the east and extending just beyond National Boulevard on the south.
Sections of West L. A. run the gamut from stylish Cheviot Hills to a cluster of generic homes east of Bundy Drive. That report on the meaning of West Los Angeles included Rancho Park and the Westdale Trousdale area near National Boulevard and Barrington Avenue; this definition is similar to the one used by Frommer's, which described West Los Angeles as "a label that applies to everything that isn't one of the other Westside neighborhoods. It's the area south of Santa Monica Boulevard, north of Venice Boulevard, east of Santa Monica and Venice, west and south of Century City."The 2004 City of Los Angeles & Communities map by the Los Angeles Almanac shows West Los Angeles as the neighborhood south of Santa Monica Boulevard and north of Culver City and the neighborhood of Palms. Century City, Rancho Park, Cheviot Hills are shown as sub-neighborhoods in West Los Angeles. Excluded from the neighborhood is the area west of the I-405, shown as Sawtelle. For the area west of the 405 freeway, Mapping L.
A. gives the population of the 2.69 -square-mile "Sawtelle" neighborhood as 35,844 according to the 2000 U. S. census, with a rise to 38,698 in 2008 as estimated by the Los Angeles Department of City Planning. Its density of 13,319 people per square mile, about was average for the city of Los Angeles but among the highest densities for the county; the percentage of Asian people is high for the county and the area is diverse compared to both City of Los Angeles and County of Los Angeles averages. Mexico and Iran are the most common foreign places of birth. Notably, 49.8% of residents 25 and older have a four-year degree, high for the city of Los Angeles and high for the county. The percentages of never married males and never married females are among the county's highest. For the area east of the 405 freeway, Mapping L. A. gives the population of the 1.05-square-mile neighborhood as 12,659 according to the 2000 U. S. census, with a rise to 13,582 in 2008 as estimated by the Los Angeles Department of City Planning.
Its density of 12,061 people was about average for the city of Los Angeles. It had an high percentage of white people compared with the county at large, 76.7%, the neighborhood was not diverse for the county. Others ethnicities were Asian, 11.4%. The median household income in east Mapping L. A. area was $86,403 in 2008 dollars, considered high for both the city and the county. The percentage of households earning $125,000 and up was high for the county. Median age of residents was 38, old compared with other locality in the county; the average household size was 1.9, low for the county. 51% of residents rented their living quarters, 49% owned them. The percentage of widowed men and women was among the county's highest. Iranian and Russian were the most common ancestries; the east Mapping L. A. area was educated, with 60.4% of residents 25 and older holding a four-year degree, a higher ratio than found in the rest of the city or the county. Neighborhoods within the West Los Angeles subregion include: Beverlywood Castle Heights Century City Cheviot Hills Crestview Faircrest Heights La Cienega Heights Reynier Village Pico-Robertson Carthay Square Little Ethiopia Picfair Village South Carthay Wilshire Vista Rancho Park The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services SPA 5 West Area Health Office serves West Los Ange