The Sunset Limited is an Amtrak passenger train that for most of its history has run between New Orleans and Los Angeles, over the nation's second transcontinental route. However, up until Hurricane Katrina in 2005, it ran between Los Angeles, it is the oldest named train in the United States. This train is one of only two of Amtrak's 15 long-distance services which run only three days a week; the Sunset Limited carried the fewest passengers of any Amtrak train in fiscal year 2016, 98,079, a 2.6% decrease over FY2015. It had a total revenue of $10,769,179, giving it a 7.5% decrease over FY2015. For most of its existence, the Sunset Limited route was owned by the Southern Pacific Railroad; the name Sunset Limited traces its origins to the Galveston and San Antonio Railway, a Southern Pacific subsidiary, known as the Sunset Route as early as 1874. Most of the current route from New Orleans westward is now owned by the Union Pacific Railroad, which acquired Southern Pacific in 1996. However, most of the route within Louisiana itself was sold to BNSF Railway in 1995 in return for BNSF not objecting to the UP-SP merger.
On the portion of the route east of New Orleans, service was suspended after Hurricane Katrina. Those tracks, between New Orleans and Florida, include parts of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, the Louisville and Nashville Railroad—all now owned by CSX Transportation; the segment of the former Atlantic Coast Line Railroad between DeLand and Orlando is owned by Orlando's commuter service SunRail. The train uses the following route segments, identified here by the names of their original owners: Service on the Sunset Limited between New Orleans and Florida has been suspended since August 29, 2005 because the rail line in the path of Hurricane Katrina east of New Orleans was washed out; the operating railroad CSX restored the line itself between New Jacksonville. However, in 2006, Amtrak said it was deemed too expensive to rebuild to modern passenger rail standards. In 2016 Amtrak proposed to return the Sunset Limited service to Florida in the near future. Eastbound trains leave Los Angeles on Sunday and Friday.
Westbound trains leave New Orleans on Monday and Saturday. The journey takes two days to complete in each direction. At San Antonio, thru-cars from the Texas Eagle are combined with the Sunset Limited for the journey westward and split eastward; when combined with the Sunset Limited, the Texas Eagle is numbered as 421 westbound and 422 eastbound. A highlight of the trip is the crossing of the Huey P. Long Bridge just west of New Orleans; the bridge is one of the longest railroad bridges in the United States, at 4.5 miles. In its present form, the eastbound Sunset Limited leaves Los Angeles in the middle of the night, traveling overnight through Arizona before arriving at breakfast time in Tucson and mid-afternoon in El Paso. After traveling through west Texas overnight, it separates from the Texas Eagle in San Antonio. Resuming the second day of the trip, it arrives in Houston at lunchtime, Lafayette at rush hour, the middle of the night in New Orleans; the westbound train leaves New Orleans just after rush hour, arriving in Lafayette at lunchtime and just after the afternoon rush in Houston.
It joins the Texas Eagle just after midnight, travels overnight through west Texas before arriving in El Paso at lunchtime the following afternoon and dinner time in Tucson and Maricopa. After traveling overnight through Arizona and California, it arrives in Los Angeles before breakfast. Before the start of Amtrak on May 1, 1971, the Sunset Limited was operated by the Southern Pacific Railroad; the Sunset Limited is the oldest named train in the United States, operating since November 1894 along the Sunset Route. The Sunset Route is the southernmost of the three gateways to the West Coast envisioned through the Pacific Railroad Acts; the other two embarked from St. Louis. However, the Sunset Route had two major advantages over the other two routes, it was an all-weather, year-round route that didn’t face the crippling snows of the Wasatch or Sierra mountain ranges to reach the Pacific Coast. Additionally, the other two routes had to assault the front range of the Rockies. In addition, opened 20 years before the Panama Canal, the Sunset Route vastly shortened the time to reach the West Coast from the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, as New Orleans was an established seaport for Atlantic shipping lines’ passengers, seeking to reach the US interior.
The Sunset Limited allowed passengers to reach the West Coast in a few days, not weeks. The Sunset Limited was Southern Pacific's premier train; the Sunset Limited was an all-Pullman train, with sleeping cars and no coaches, running from New Orleans to San Francisco via Los Angeles. From its beginning in 1894, until streamlining in 1950, all the train's cars had 6-wheel trucks and dark olive green paint, with black roofs and trucks. In the summer of 1926, it was scheduled at 71 hr 40 min New Orleans to San Francisco. An 1895 consist included: A 4-4-0 American steam locomotiveComposite Baggage car with barber shop and buffet smoker lounge El Indio 7 Drawing Room Sleeper with ladies´ parlor lounge El Piloto 10 Section 2 Drawing Room Sleeper El Dorado Dining Car Gourmet 6 Section 1 Drawing Room 3 Compartment Sleeper Cliola 14 Section 1 Drawing Room Sleeper Los AngelesA 1929 consist included: A 4-6-2 P
Exposition Park, Los Angeles
The Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles is in the south region of Los Angeles, California. It is home to Exposition Park, which includes the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Banc of California Stadium, Exposition Rose Garden and three museums: the California African American Museum, the California Science Center and the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, it is home to a Science Center Academy. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, The Exposition Park 1.85-square-mile neighborhood is flanked by Adams-Normandie on the north, University Park on the northeast, Historic South Central on the east, Vermont Square on the south, Hyde Park and Leimert Park on the west. It is bounded by Jefferson Boulevard on the north, Vermont Avenue on the east, Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard on the south and Arlington Avenue on the west, to, added all of Exposition Park and additional land along both sides of Figueroa Street east and Exit 20A of the Interstate 110 Freeway.
A total of 31,062 residents counted in its 1.85 square miles, including the park land as well as Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum according to the 2000 U. S. census—an average of 16,819 people per square mile among the highest population densities for both the city and the county. By 2008 the population had increased to 33,458, the city has estimated; the median age was 26, considered young for both the city and the county, the percentages of residents aged birth through 18 were among the county's highest. There were 1,818 families headed by single parents. Within the neighborhood, Latinos made up 36.9% of the population, while African American were at 38.1%— both considered high percentages for the county. Other ethnicities were White, 2.2%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 38.5% of the residents who were born abroad, an average percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city as a whole. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $33,999, considered low for both the city and county.
The percentage of households earning $20,000 or less was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 3.3 people was about the same as in the city at large. Renters occupied 69% of the housing units, homeowners occupied the rest; the percentages of never-married people were among the county's highest—45.5% for men and 39.1% for women. Only 7.3% of the neighborhood residents aged 25 and older had a four-year degree, a low percentage for both the city and the county. The percentage of residents of that age with less than a high school diploma was high; the schools operating with the Exposition Park neighborhood boundaries are: Alliance College-Ready Academy High No. 5, 1729 West Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard Foshay Learning Center, 3751 South Harvard Boulevard Thurgood Marshall Charter Middle School, 3200 West Adams Boulevard Lenicia B. Weemes Elementary School, 1260 West 36th Place Dr. Theo T. Alexander Jr. Science Center, 3737 S. Figueroa Street, within Exposition Park, the school first opened on September 9, 2004 Martin Luther King Jr.
Elementary School, 3989 South Hobart Street Three Metro Expo Line stations are located within the Exposition Park neighborhood: Expo Park/USC station Vermont station Western station Two Olympic Games were held at various venues within Exposition Park. Exposition Park Denker Recreation Center, 1550 West 35th Place Martin Luther King Jr. Park, 3916 South Western Avenue Jackie Robinson, Hall of Fame and pioneer athlete Betty Hill, activist Loren Miller, Los Angeles County attorney and judge Eric Dolphy, jazz musician William J. Powell, aviator Reb Spikes, jazz musician Ramon Novarro, actor Noble Johnson, film producer List of districts and neighborhoods in Los Angeles List of parks in Los Angeles Neighborhood Spotlight: Exposition Park's sports and transit offerings make it a player to watch Expo Center website, Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks North Area Neighborhood Council Exposition Park neighborhood crime map and statistics
Ventura County Line
The Metrolink Ventura County Line is a commuter rail line serving Ventura County and the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles County and the City of Los Angeles, in the Southern California system. The line is the successor of the short lived CalTrain commuter rail line. Metrolink trains on the Ventura County Line run weekdays only during peak commuter hours, so with limited midday service. From Union Station—Downtown Los Angeles: East Venturasix trains total at peak hours, in the peak direction only each weekday, running to East Ventura station — northern end of line. Moorparkfour trains each weekday run to Moorpark Station — station for Amtrak Pacific Surfliner. Trains of the six East Ventura runs stop here. Chatsworththree trains each weekday run to Chatsworth Station — major transit hub, with the Amtrak Pacific Surfliner, the Metro Orange Line and Metro Local valley bus lines, the LADOT Commuter Express service. Trains of the six East Ventura and four Moorpark runs stop here. AirportAll 17 trains per weekday from Union Station stop at Hollywood Burbank Airport.
All 16 trains en route to Union Station per weekday stop at Hollywood Burbank Airport. Only three trains per day originate in East Ventura; the remaining 13 trains originate from different points along the Ventura County Line. Service is augmented during midday and on weekends by the Amtrak Pacific Surfliner line, serving most of the Metrolink stations on the Ventura County Line. AirportAdditional airport shuttle service operates between Union Station and Burbank Airport–South station as the Hollywood Burbank Airport Line—BUR. Metrolink numbers Airport Line trains in the 900 series. Metrolink owns the tracks between Los Angeles Union Station, it uses the Coast Line of the Union Pacific Railroad between Moorpark and Oxnard where the Santa Paula Branch splits from the rest of the Coast Line. The East Ventura Station and layover facility are on the Santa Paula branch line. Service on this line began in 1992 as one of Metrolink's original three lines, with service from Moorpark to Los Angeles Union Station in Downtown Los Angeles.
The line was extended to Camarillo and Oxnard in 1994 after the Northridge earthquake to East Ventura in 2002. At 4:23 p.m. on September 12, 2008, 25 people were killed in a collision between Metrolink commuter train 111 and a freight train. At least 130 people were injured, with at least one dying at a hospital; the crash occurred on the Ventura County Line near Heather Lee Lane, south of the Ronald Reagan Freeway and east of Topanga Canyon Boulevard. Both locomotives, the leading car of the commuter train, seven cars of the freight train were derailed. On 24 February 2015, according to Oxnard Police Sergeant Denise Shadinger, a Metrolink commuter train traveling from Ventura County to Los Angeles hit a road vehicle near Oxnard, California; the incident was reported at 5:44 A. M. Three cars derailed, at least one vehicle was engulfed at some point, the three derailed cars were on their sides. Little but scorched, mangled wreckage in an intersection and on the tracks was left of the truck. News helicopters and footage from CNN affiliate KABC showed footage of triage tarps lying in the 5th Street where on-scene firefighters were treating victims and monitoring the scene.
The National Transportation Safety Board, in a tweet, acknowledged the incident and stated they were launching an investigation. The train engineer died a week and 29 others were injured. A week after the incident, an Amtrak train collided with a vehicle in the same area as the first crash. Belmond, Sylvie. "Commuters praise trains, grade crossings improved". Simi Valley Acorn. Retrieved 2006-10-10. Metrolink Schedules Ventura County Line Route Map — on OpenStreetMap
Transportation planning is the process of defining future policies, goals and designs to prepare for future needs to move people and goods to destinations. As practiced today, it is a collaborative process that incorporates the input of many stakeholders including various government agencies, the public and private businesses. Transportation planners apply a multi-modal and/or comprehensive approach to analyzing the wide range of alternatives and impacts on the transportation system to influence beneficial outcomes. Transportation planning is commonly referred to as transport planning internationally, is involved with the evaluation, assessment and siting of transport facilities. Transportation planning, or transport planning, has followed the rational planning model of defining goals and objectives, identifying problems, generating alternatives, evaluating alternatives, developing plans. Other models for planning include rational actor, transit oriented development, incremental planning, organizational process, collaborative planning, political bargaining.
Planners are expected to adopt a multidisciplinary approach due to the rising importance of environmentalism. For example, the use of behavioural psychology to persuade drivers to abandon their automobiles and use public transport instead; the role of the transport planner is shifting from technical analysis to promoting sustainability through integrated transport policies. For example, in Hanoi, the increasing number of motorcycles is responsible for not only environmental damage but slowing down economic growth. In the long run, the plan is to reduce traffic through a change in urban planning. Through economic incentives and attractive alternatives experts hope to lighten traffic in the short run. In the United Kingdom, transport planning has traditionally been a branch of civil engineering. In the 1950s and the 1960s, it was believed that the motor car was an important element in the future of transport as economic growth spurred on car ownership figures; the role of the transport planner was to match motorway and rural road capacity against the demands of economic growth.
Urban areas would need to be redesigned for the motor vehicle or impose traffic containment and demand management to mitigate congestion and environmental impacts. The policies were popularised in Traffic in Towns; the contemporary Smeed Report on congestion pricing was promoted to manage demand but was deemed politically unacceptable. In more recent times, the approach has been caricatured as "predict and provide" to predict future transport demand and provide the network for it by building more roads; the publication of Planning Policy Guidance 13 in 1994, followed by A New Deal for Transport in 1998 and the white paper Transport Ten Year Plan 2000 again indicated an acceptance that unrestrained growth in road traffic was neither desirable nor feasible. The worries were threefold: concerns about congestion, concerns about the effect of road traffic on the environment and concerns that an emphasis on road transport discriminates against vulnerable groups in society such as the poor, the elderly and the disabled.
These documents reiterated the emphasis on integration: integration within and between different modes of transport integration with the environment integration with land use planning integration with policies for education and wealth creation. This attempt to reverse decades of underinvestment in the transport system has resulted in a severe shortage of transport planners, it was estimated in 2003 that 2,000 new planners would be required by 2010 to avoid jeopardising the success of the Transport Ten Year Plan. In 2006, the Transport Planning Society defined the key purpose of transport planning as: to plan, deliver and review transport, balancing the needs of society, the economy and the environment; the following key roles must be performed by transport planners: take account of the social and environmental context of their work understand the legal, regulatory policy and resource framework within which they work understand and create transport policies and plans that contribute to meeting social and environmental needs design the necessary transport projects and services understand the commercial aspects of operating transport systems and services know about and apply the relevant tools and techniques must be competent in all aspects of management, in particular communications, personal skills and project management.
The UK Treasury recognises and has published guidance on the systematic tendency for project appraisers to be overly optimistic in their initial estimates. Transportation planning in the United States is in the midst of a shift similar to that taking place in the United Kingdom, away from the single goal of moving vehicular traffic and towards an approach that takes into consideration the communities and lands through which streets and highways pass. More so, it places a greater emphasis on passenger rail networks, neglected until recently; this new approach, known as Context Sensitive Solutions, seeks to balance the need to move people efficiently and safely with other desirable outcomes, including historic preservation, environmental sustainability, the creation of vital public spaces. The initial guiding principles of CSS came out of the 1998 "Thinking Beyond the Pavement" conference as a means to describe and foster transportation projects that preserve and enhance the natural and built environments, as well as the economic and social assets of the neighbor
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is an agency that operates public transportation in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It was formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission, it is chartered under state law as a regional transportation planning agency. Metro directly operates light rail, heavy rail and bus rapid transit services, it directs planning for rail and freeway projects within Los Angeles County. It funds 27 local transit agencies as well as access paratransit services; the agency develops and oversees transportation plans, funding programs, both short-term and long-range solutions to mobility and environmental needs in the county. The agency is the primary transit provider for the City of Los Angeles, providing the bulk of such services, while the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation operates a much smaller system of its own: Commuter Express bus service to outlying suburbs in the city of Los Angeles and the popular DASH mini-bus service in downtown and other neighborhoods.
Metro's headquarters are in a high-rise building adjacent to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates the third-largest public transportation system in the United States by ridership with a 1,433 mi² operating area and 2,000 peak hour buses on the street any given business day. Metro operates 105 miles of urban rail service; the authority has 9,892 employees, making it one of the region's largest employers. The authority partially funds sixteen municipal bus operators and an array of transportation projects including bikeways and pedestrian facilities, local roads and highway improvements, goods movement, Metrolink regional commuter rail, Freeway Service Patrol and freeway call boxes within the greater metropolitan Los Angeles region. Security and law enforcement services on Metro property are provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Transit Services Bureau via contract, in conjunction with Metro Transit Enforcement Department, Los Angeles Police Department and Long Beach Police Department.
In 2006, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was named Outstanding Transportation System for 2006 by the American Public Transportation Association. Most buses and trains have "America's Best" decals affixed. Metro Rail is a rail mass transit system with four light rail lines; as of November 2016, the system runs a total of 105 miles, with 93 stations and over 316,000 daily weekday boardings. Starting in 2019, lines will be renamed with lettered designations, citing a lack of distinct colors available for future services; the Blue Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Long Beach. The Red Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los North Hollywood; the Green Line is a light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk in the median of the 105 Freeway. It provides indirect access to Los Angeles International Airport via a shuttle bus; the Purple Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and the Mid-Wilshire district of Los Angeles.
Most of its route is shared with the Red Line. The Gold Line is a light rail line running between East Los Angeles and Azusa via Downtown Los Angeles; the Expo Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Santa Monica. Metro Busway is an express bus system with characteristics of bus rapid transit with two lines operating on dedicated or shared-use busways; the system runs a total of 60 miles, with 28 stations and over 42,000 daily weekday boardings as of May 2016. The Metro Busway system is meant to mimic the Metro Rail system, both in the vehicle's design and in the operation of the line. Vehicles stop at dedicated stations, vehicles receive priority at intersections and are painted in a silver livery similar to Metro Rail vehicles; the Metro Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line running between North Chatsworth. The Metro Silver Line is a limited-stop bus line running between El Monte, Downtown Los Angeles, Harbor Gateway, with some buses serving San Pedro. Metro is the primary bus operator in the Los Angeles Basin, the San Fernando Valley, the western San Gabriel Valley.
Other transit providers operate more frequent service in the rest of the county. Regions in Los Angeles County that Metro Bus does not serve at all include rural regions, the Pomona Valley, the Santa Clarita Valley, the Antelope Valley. Metro operates two types of bus services. However, when mechanical problems or availability equipment occurs, a bus of any color may be substituted to continue service on the route. Metro Local buses are painted in an off-orange color which the agency has dubbed “California Poppy”; this type of service makes frequent stops along major thoroughfares. There are 18,500 stops on 189 bus lines; some Metro Local routes make limited stops along part of their trip but do not participate in the Rapid program. Some Metro Local bus lines are operated by contractors MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their bright red color which the agency has dubbed “Rapid Red”; this bus rapid transit service offers limited stops on many of the county's more heavi
Caltrans District 7 Headquarters
The Caltrans District 7 Headquarters building at 100 South Main Street in Downtown Los Angeles, California serves the California Department of Transportation and the Los Angeles Department of Transportation. Built on a $165 million budget it opened on September 24 2004, its futuristic and environmentally friendly design won its designer, Thom Mayne, the 2005 Pritzker Prize. The design and construction of the building was documented across four episodes on the History Channel series Modern Marvels, to demonstrate the unique challenges presented in the design and construction of large buildings over the past two centuries; the 13-story structure, bounded by First Street, Main Street, Second Street and Los Angeles Street, has 716,200 gross square feet for office spaces and an underground parking for 1142 vehicles. Special features include the public plaza named for Eli and Edythe Broad, the unique glass floor of the third-floor conference room, Code: Survey, urban landmarks, the Ten Past Five O’clock on the fourth floor.
Official dot.ca.gov website: District 7 HQ Building Tour Guide
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti