The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power is the largest municipal utility in the United States, serving over four million residents. It was founded in 1902 to supply water to residents and businesses in Los Angeles and surrounding communities. In 1917, it started to deliver electricity, it has been involved in a number of controversies and media portrayals over the years, including the 1928 St. Francis Dam failure and the books Water and Power and Cadillac Desert. LADWP can deliver a maximum of 7,880 megawatts of power and, in each year, 160 billion US gallons of water. By the middle of the 19th century, Los Angeles's rapid population growth magnified problems with the city's water distribution system. At that time a system of open ditches polluted, was reasonably effective at supplying water to agriculture but was not suited to providing water to homes. In 1853, the city council rejected as "excessive" a closed-pipe system that would serve homes directly; as a solution, the city allowed "water carriers with jugs and horse-drawn wagons…to serve the city's domestic needs."
It took until 1857 for the council to realize that the system needed to be updated, which led them to grant William G. Dryden franchise rights to provide homes with water through a system of underground water mains; the initial system served only a few homes using an unreliable network of wooden pipes. In December 1861, heavy rains destroyed Dryden gave up his franchise; the city attempted contracting out water distribution rights to others, but none of the systems that resulted from these contracts was successful. The city's previous unsuccessful attempts to allow others to develop a water system on its behalf prompted the city council to relinquish its rights to the water in the Los Angeles River in 1868, which benefited John S. Griffen, Solomon Lazard, Prudent Beaudry, three successful businessmen; this change was at the expense of the city of Los Angeles, which could no longer benefit from their municipal water distribution business. The three men created the Los Angeles City Water Company, which violated many of the provisions of its lease on the Los Angeles River, including secretly tunneling under the river to extract 150 times as much water as the lease allowed.
As the end of the lease drew near in the mid-1890s, popular support began to build for a return to complete municipal control of the local water supply. The leader in the fight to end private control of the water supply was Fred Eaton. Eaton proposed that tax revenues would enable the city of Los Angeles to provide water to its residents without charging them for the use of water directly. Eaton's views were powerful because of his distinguished record of achievement in both the private and public sector. During Eaton's nine-year term as the superintending engineer of the Los Angeles City Water Company, he headed a large expansion of the company's water system. Eaton left his position in 1886. In his new public position, Eaton devoted his time to expanding the sewer system. Eaton felt that the Los Angeles City Water Company was not serving the citizens of Los Angeles well because of high rates, because the company paid dividends to its stockholders instead of improving the water system. In early 1897, city engineers began creating plans for an updated water system while the city council informed the Los Angeles City Water Company that its lease would not be renewed beyond its expiration date, July 21, 1898.
In early 1898, the city began talks with the Los Angeles City Water Company about taking over the company's current water system. Throughout the negotiations, it became clear that it was necessary for the current senior employees of the Los Angeles City Water Company to keep their jobs in order to ensure that the water system could continue to operate, it was not guaranteed, that William Mulholland, Eaton's protégé and the man who took over the job of superintending engineer when Eaton was elected city engineer, would have a position working with the city-owned water system. Mulholland was not popular with city officials because he did not produce records that the city requested during negotiations. Near the end of the talks between the city and the water company, it was discovered that neither the requested records nor a map of the water system existed. Mulholland, supposed to be in charge of the non-existent records, was never a fan of paperwork and claimed that he had memorized all of the necessary information, including the size of every inch of pipe and the age and location of every valve.
Mulholland secured a job with the city when he demonstrated his ability to recall the information. After Mulholland was assured a job with the city, he intervened with the company's principal stockholder, advising him to accept the city's offer of two million dollars for the system; the LADWP first offered municipal electricity in 1917. 1, a hydroelectric power plant located in San Francisquito Canyon and, powered by the Los Angeles Aqueduct, began generating electricity. It produced 70.5 megawatts and is still in operation, producing 44.5 megawatts. Three years in 1920, Powerhouse No. 2 was added. The powerhouse was destroyed when the St. Francis Dam failed, but the plant was rebuilt and back in service by November 1928, it remains in operation today. On January 17, 1994, the city of Los Angeles experienced its one and only total system black-out as a result of the Northridge earthquake. Much of the power was restored within a few hours. In September 2005, a DWP worker accidentally cut power lines that caused over half of Los Angeles to be without power for one and on
YZ Ceti is a red dwarf star in the constellation Cetus. Although it is close to the Sun at just 12 light years, this star cannot be seen with the naked eye, it is classified as a flare star. YZ Ceti is 17 % of its radius; this star is unusually close to Tau Ceti, a star of spectral class G8. The two are only about 1.6 light years apart, a little more than a third of the distance from the Sun to the Solar System's nearest neighbor, Proxima Centauri. YZ Ceti is a variable star designation: the star shows occasional rapid and brief increases in brightness, sometimes reaching magnitude 12.03, caused by eruptions from the surface. This type of variable star is known as a UV Ceti star after its first member, or more colloquially as a flare star, it shows small periodic variations in brightness caused by starspots or chromospheric features moving as the star rotates. This class of variable stars are known as BY Draconis variables; the periodic variations allow the rotational period of the star to be measured at 68.3 days, although modelling of its planetary system gives a rotational period for the star of 83 days.
On 10 August 2017 three planets were announced to have been discovered around YZ Ceti and a possible fourth sub-Earth planet candidate, still needing confirmation, with 0.472±0.096 Earth masses at an orbital period of 1.04 days. The orbits of the three confirmed planets were determined to be too close to YZ Ceti to be within the star's habitable zone, with equilibrium temperatures ranging from 347–491 K, 299–423 K, 260–368 K for planets b, c, d, respectively. An August 2018 study reexamined the discovery measurements, confirming the orbit of YZ Ceti d, but finding a marginally longer orbital period of YZ Ceti b of 2.02 days rather than 1.97 days, additionally finding that YZ Ceti c orbits in only 0.75 days rather than 3.06 days. If the latter is true, YZ Ceti c would have a mass of only 0.58 Earth masses and a 10% chance of transiting YZ Ceti. List of nearest stars ARICNS
Not to be confused with his grandfather Charles Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Charles Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, was a German prince and head of the grand ducal house of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, he was born in Schloss Wilhelmsthal as the eldest son and heir of Wilhelm Ernst, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, his second wife, Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen. His father's reign came to an end on 9 November 1918, as a result of the German revolution; when his father died on 24 April 1923, Charles Augustus succeeded him as head of the House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Until 1922, Charles Augustus was third in line to the throne of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Charles Augustus died at Schienen and was succeeded as head of the grand ducal house by his son, Michael. Charles Augustus was married at the Wartburg Castle on 5 October 1944 to Baroness Elisabeth of Wangenheim-Winterstein, daughter of Othmar Baron von Wangenheim-Winterstein and wife, Maud von Truetzschler.
They had three children: Princess Elisabeth of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach she married Mindert Diderik de Kant on 10 July 1981 and they were divorced in 1983. Michael, Prince of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach he married Renate Henkel on 4 July 1970 and they were divorced in 1974, he remarried Dagmar Hennings in 1980. They have one daughter. Princess Beatrice-Maria of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach she married Martin Davidson on 9 December 1977, they have one daughter: Bettina Davidson