California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Whitley Heights, Los Angeles
Whitley Heights is a residential neighborhood and historic preservation overlay zone in the Hollywood Hills neighborhood of Central Los Angeles, California. Known as a residential area for actors and other people in the motion-picture industry, it is divided between a hillside single-family district and an apartment area, it is notable for an attempt by its homeowners' group and the city to close off public streets to outside traffic, an effort, ruled illegal by the courts The preservation zone is split into two parts by the Hollywood Freeway running through the Cahuenga Pass. Streets within the zone's northern part are a one-block portion of Cahuenga Boulevard, Iris Drive and some of Whitley Avenue; the southern zone, about 80% of the original plot, embraces Fairfield Avenue, Wedgewood Place, Whitley Avenue, Cerritos Place, Hollyhill Terrace, Grace Avenue, Emmet Terrace, Las Palmas Avenue and Milner Road and is exclusively zoned for apartments. It is within walking distance of the Hollywood Bowl, Hollywood Boulevard is nearby.
Hobart Johnstone Whitley bought the hillside area in 1901-03 and hired architect Arthur Barnes to build houses in a Mediterranean style which he thought would suit Southern California's climate. Five years Whitley Heights was seen as a "magnificent hill of forty acres situated in the center of Hollywood and overlooking the entire city." On June 30, 1907, a fire kindled by a resident at the foot of the hill swept over the land, covered by a heavy growth of wild mustard and barley, destroyed "many rare and valuable trees and shrubs" that Whitley had planted. It threatened a large reservoir owned by the United Hollywood Water Company atop the rise and burned several tons of hay; the fire was quenched the same day by the volunteer Hollywood fire department headed by E. Fossler. A contemporary account noted that "This hill has been one of the show places of Hollywood for some time. Here Mr. Whitley intends erecting a handsome home at some future date, toward this end he has cultivated and beautified the grounds, laying them out in winding roads and planting a great variety of rare trees and shrubs, some of which were imported from the Hawaiian Islands and Mexico."Whitley had sold some of his land for one dollar to the water company for the reservoir about 1904 and bought it back sixteen years at a cost of $30,000.
In 1918, Whitley commissioned architect A. S. Barnes to design Whitley Heights as a Mediterranean village on the steep hillsides above Hollywood Boulevard. Whitley sent Barnes to tour the Mediterranean area to study its architecture and landscaping of Italy's historic hill towns before returning to the Southland, where he designed most of the Whitley Heights houses between 1918 and 1928; the development grew during the 1920s, it became the first Hollywood celebrity community. The streets in the development were dedicated to public use in 1920 and 1921, they were improved by the city between 1924 and 1927. Most of them had no sidewalks, with stairways built from level to level to encourage walking. On the evening of June 23, 1920, the residential subdivision of Whitley Heights was opened with a festive barbecue that gathered an assemblage of businessmen and politicians; the Times noted that "The occasion was attended with a special significance as it was the scene of a reunion of many men who were connected with Mr. Whitley in his first efforts to make the vegetable gardens into a wealthy city more than twenty years ago, men who had gathered at a similar affair in 1902 to watch the turning on of the first electric lights in Hollywood."
The subdivision had several homes on the terraces that divided the hill into foiur grades. Three years in 1923, the Whitley Heights Civic Association was founded. In 1982 Whitley Heights was made a state historic district by the California Historical Resources Commission after research done by actor Brian Moore, president of Whitley Heights Homeowners. Moore traced property titles in the area, gathered old photographs and articles and read through the papers of Hobard J. Whitley, which were housed in the special collections library at the University of California, Los Angeles, he was impelled to begin his research in 1981 after a bungalow was demolished by a developer who wanted to build tract homes. To qualify for the designation, an area had to be at least fifty years old and retain many of its original characteristics. At the time all of the homes, with their red tile roofs and arched windows and doorways, were original; the district was made a national historic place, the first such in Hollywood.
In 2004 the area was made into a Los Angeles city historic preservation overlay zone. Over time, the placid nature of Whitley Heights and its 168 homes changed. In April 1983 the Whitley Heights Civic Association was incensed at a developer's plans to build an apartment complex on Las Palmas Avenue, which stirred up a community surge on behalf of fencing off streets around the neighborhood as protection against what one resident called "animal people" who walked up the hill to burglarize homes.. By 1985, there were burglaries, assaults and car thefts. Prostitutes came up from nearby Hollywood Boulevard to work in parked cars, the area extending north from Hollywood Boulevard into Whitley Heights had the highest crime rate in Hollywood. For four years, residents had been beseeching the city of Los Angeles to approve the installation of 10 gates across the public streets leading into the community, in May 1985 the Public Works Committee of the City Council agreed with the area's City Council representative, Peggy Stevenson, recommended that streets to the enclave be closed to non-residents.
In 1991, the City of Los Angeles issued
Spanish Colonial Revival architecture
The Spanish Colonial Revival Style is an architectural stylistic movement arising in the early 20th century based on the Spanish Colonial architecture of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. The Panama-California Exposition of 1915 in San Diego, highlighting the work of architect Bertram Goodhue, is credited with giving the style national exposure. Embraced principally in California and Florida, the Spanish Colonial Revival movement enjoyed its greatest popularity between 1915 and 1931; the antecedents of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style can be traced to the Mediterranean Revival architectural style. For St. Augustine, three northeastern architects, New Yorkers John Carrère and Thomas Hastings of Carrère and Hastings and Bostonian Franklin W. Smith, designed grand, elaborately detailed hotels in the Mediterranean Revival and Spanish Revival styles in the 1880s. With the advent of the Ponce de Leon Hotel, the Alcazar Hotel and the Casa Monica Hotel thousands of winter visitors to'the Sunshine State' began to experience the charm and romance of Spanish influenced architecture.
These three hotels were influenced not only by the centuries-old buildings remaining from the Spanish rule in St. Augustine but by The Old City House, constructed in 1873 and still standing, an excellent example of early Spanish Colonial Revival architecture; the possibilities of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style were brought to the attention of architects attending late 19th and early 20th centuries international expositions. For example, California's Mission Revival style Pavilion in white stucco at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, the Mission Inn, along with the Electric Tower of the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo in 1900 introduced the potential of Spanish Colonial Revival, they integrated porticoes and colonnades influenced by Beaux Arts classicism as well. By the early years of the 1910s, architects in Florida had begun to work in a Spanish Colonial Revival style. Frederick H. Trimble's Farmer's Bank in Vero Beach, completed in 1914, is a mature early example of the style.
The city of St. Cloud, espoused the style both for homes and commercial structures and has a fine collection of subtle stucco buildings reminiscent of colonial Mexico. Many of these were designed by architectural partners Ida Annah Isabel Roberts; the major location of design and construction in the Spanish Colonial Revival style was California in the coastal cities. In 1915 the San Diego Panama-California Exposition, with architects Bertram Goodhue and Carleton Winslow Sr. popularized the style in the state and nation. It is built as the grand entrance to that Exposition. In the early 1920s, architect Lilian Jeannette Rice designed the style in the development of the town of Rancho Santa Fe in San Diego County; the city of Santa Barbara adopted the style to give it a unified Spanish character after widespread destruction in the 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake. The County Courthouse, designed by William Mooser III, is a prime example. Real estate developer Ole Hanson favored the Spanish Colonial Revival style in his founding and development of San Clemente, California in 1928.
The Pasadena City Hall by John Bakewell, Jr. and Arthur Brown, Jr. the Sonoma City Hall, the Beverly Hills City Hall by Harry G. Koerner and William J. Gage are other notable civic examples in California. Between 1922 and 1931, architect Robert H. Spurgeon constructed 32 Spanish colonial revival houses in Riverside and many of them have been preserved; the Spanish Colonial Revival of Mexico has a distinct origin from the style developed in the United States. Following the Mexican Revolution, there was a wave of nationalism that emphasized national culture, including in architecture; the neocolonial style arose as a response to European eclecticism. The 1915 book La patria y la arquitectura nacional by Federico Mariscal was influential in advocating viceregal architecture as integral to national identity. During the government of President Venustiano Carranza, tax exemptions were offered to those that built houses in a colonial style. In the early 1920s there was a surge of houses built with Plateresque elements.
Secretary of Education José Vasconcelos was an active promoter of neocolonial architecture. Traditional materials such as tezontle and Talavera tiles were incorporated into neocolonial buildings; the colonial-era National Palace was altered between 1926 and 1929: the addition of a third floor and changes to the facade. The modifications were done in a manner corresponding to the original style; the colonial Mexico City government building was remodeled in the 1920s and a neocolonial companion building was built in the 1940s. The style, as developed in the United States, came full circle to its geographic point of inspiration as in the late 1930s, single-family houses were built in Mexico City's then-new upscale neighborhoods in what is known in Mexico as colonial californiano; that is, a Mexican reinterpretation of the California interpretation of Spanish Colonial Revival. Many houses of this style can still be seen in the Colonia Nápoles, Condesa and Lomas de Chapultepec areas of Mexico City.
After colonial rule by Spain for over 300 years, for the most part being administered under the province of New Spain, the Philippines received Iberian and Latin-American influences in its architecture. By the time the
Highland Park, Los Angeles
Highland Park is a historic neighborhood in Northeast Los Angeles. It was one of the first subdivisions of Los Angeles, is inhabited by a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups; the 2000 U. S. census counted 56,566 residents in the 3,42-square-mile neighborhood—an average of 16,835 people per square mile, one of the highest densities in Los Angeles. In 2008 the city estimated that the population had increased to 60,841; the median age for residents was 28, considered young. Highland Park was considered moderately diverse ethnically; the breakdown was Latinos, 72.4%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 57.8% of the residents who were born abroad, a figure, considered high compared to the city as a whole. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $45,478, about average for Los Angeles, a high percentage of households earned $40,000 or less; the average household size of 3.3 people was high for the city of Los Angeles. Renters occupied 60.9% of the housing units, house- or apartment owners the rest.
The percentage of never-married men was among the county's highest. The 2000 census found 2,705 families headed by single parents, a high rate for both the city and the county. There were 4.9 %, a low figure for Los Angeles. Highland Park is a hilly neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, located in the San Rafael Hills and along the Arroyo Seco, it is situated within. Its boundaries are the Arroyo Seco Parkway on the southeast, the city limits of Pasadena on the northeast, Oak Grove Drive on the north, Avenue 51 on the west. Primary thoroughfares include Figueroa Street. Highland Park sits within the Northeast Los Angeles region of LA along with Mt Washington, Cypress Park, Glassell Park and Eagle Rock; the area was discovered thousands of years ago by ancestors of the Chumash people, would be settled by the Tongva. After the founding of Los Angeles in 1784, the Corporal of the Guard at the San Gabriel mission, Jose Maria Verdugo, was granted the 36,403 acre Rancho San Rafael which included the present day Highland Park.
Drought in the late 1800s resulted in economic hardship for the Verdugo family, Rancho San Rafael was auctioned off in 1869 for $3,500 over an unpaid loan. The San Rafael tract was purchased by Andrew Glassell and Albert J. Chapman, who leased it out to sheep herders. In 1885 during the 1880s land boom, it was sold to George Morgan and Albert Judson, who combined it with other parcels they had purchased from the Verdugo family to create the Highland Park tract in 1886. Two rail lines were built to Highland Park, which helped the town to survive as the 1880s land boom ended. Highland Park was annexed to Los Angeles in 1895. In the early 20th century, Highland Park and neighboring Pasadena became havens for artists and intellectuals who led the Arts and Crafts movement. Temple Beth Israel of Highland Park and Eagle Rock was founded in Highland Park in 1923 and constructed its building in 1930, it is the second oldest synagogue in Los Angeles still operating in its original location, after the Wilshire Boulevard Temple.
With the completion of Arroyo Seco Parkway in 1940, Highland Park began to change. By the 1950s, the artsy enclave experienced white flight, losing residents to the Mid-Wilshire district and newer neighborhoods in Temple City and in the San Fernando Valley. By the mid-1960s, it was becoming a Latino enclave. Mexican immigrants and their American-born children began owning and renting in Highland Park, with its schools and parks become places where residents debated how to fight discrimination and advance civil rights. In the final decades of the 20th century, Highland Park suffered waves of gang violence, as a consequence of the Avenues street gang claiming the adjacent Glassell Park neighborhood and parts of Highland Park as its turf. At the dawn of the 21st century, the city attorney intensified efforts to rid Highland Park and Glassell Park of the Avenues. In 2006, four members of the gang were convicted of violating federal hate crime laws. In June 2009, police launched a major raid against the gang, rooting out many leaders of the gang with a federal racketeering indictment.
By 2009, the city demolished the gang's Glassell Park stronghold. Law enforcement, coupled with community awareness efforts such as the annual Peace in the Northeast March, have led to a drastic decrease in violent crime in the 2010s. Starting in the early 2000s, a diverse mix of people began arriving to Highland Park to seek out and revitalize Craftsman homes, some which had suffered neglect over the decades. Many of Highland Park's oldest homes were razed during the 1960s. One architecturally significant home made its way to Heritage Square Museum, thanks to the efforts of local activists dedicated to saving Victorian homes scheduled for demolition. Like Echo Park and Eagle Rock, Highland Park has seen some gentrification. People from across the region have been attracted to the historic Craftsman homes that escaped demolition, its low rents have made it popular among young people who value the walkable urban lifestyle afforded by the older style of neighborhood. Once again, Highland Park is building a reputation as a mecca for artists, with trendy shops, galleries and restaurants opening throughout the neighborhood.
One of the last typewriter shops in the City of Los Angeles, U. S. Office Machine Company, specializes in repairing antique typewriters and has restored a few for movie studios, it is one of three businesses located in the old Sunb
Gregory Ain was an American architect active in the mid-20th century. Working in the Los Angeles area, Ain is best known for bringing elements of modern architecture to lower- and medium-cost housing, he addressed "the common architectural problems of common people". Esther McCoy said "Ain was an idealist who gave the better part of ten years to combatting outmoded planning and building codes, hoary real estate practices." Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1908, Ain was raised in the Lincoln Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles. For a short time during his childhood, the Ain family lived at Llano del Rio, an experimental collective farming colony in the Antelope Valley of California, he was inspired to become an architect after visiting the Schindler House as a teenager. He attended the University of Southern California School of Architecture in 1927–28, but dropped out after feeling limited by the school's Beaux Arts training, his primary influences were Richard Neutra. He worked for Neutra from 1930 to 1935, along with fellow apprentice Harwell Hamilton Harris, contributed to Neutra's major projects of that period.
Following his collaborative relationship with Richard Neutra, in 1935 Ain cultivated an individual practice designing modest houses for working-class and middle class clients. Ain was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1940 to study housing. During World War II, Ain was Chief Engineer for Charles and Ray Eames in the development of their well-known leg-splints and plywood chairs, including the DCW and LCW series; the 1930s and 1940s represented Ain's most productive period. During this period, his principled quest to address "the common architectural problems of common people", prompted the implementation of flexible floor plans and open kitchens. In the 1940s, he formed a partnership with Joseph Johnson and Alfred Day in order to design large housing tracts. Major projects of this period included Community Homes, Park Planned Homes, Avenel Homes, Mar Vista Housing, he collaborated with landscape architect Garrett Eckbo on each of these projects. They were an expression of Mid-century modern design.
Ain practiced in a "loose partnership" with James Garrott, they built a small office building together on Hyperion Avenue in the Silver Lake neighborhood. These projects attracted the attention of Philip Johnson, the curator of architecture at the Museum of Modern Art, who commissioned Ain to design and construct MoMA's second exhibition house in the museum's garden in 1950, following that of Marcel Breuer in 1949. In the late early 50s, Ain's practice was diminished. For example, in 1949 he was listed by the California Senate Factfinding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities as "among the committee's most notorious critics." The growing "Red Scare" caused him to lose several opportunities, including participation in John Entenza's Case Study Program. Ain taught architecture at USC after the war. From 1963 to 1967, he served as the Dean of the Pennsylvania State University School of Architecture, he returned to Los Angeles and died in 1988. Ain's papers are kept at the Architecture and Design Collection, at the Art, Design & Architecture Museum, at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
1936: Edwards House, Los Angeles, California 1937: Ernst House, Los Angeles, California 1937: Byler House, Mt. Washington, California 1937–39: Dunsmuir Flats, Los Angeles, California 1938: Brownfield Medical Building, Los Angeles, California 1938: Beckman House, Los Angeles, California 1939: Daniel House, Silver Lake, California 1939: Margaret and Harry Hay House, North Hollywood, California 1939: Tierman House, Silver Lake, California 1939: Vorkapich Garden House, for Slavko Vorkapich, Beverly Hills, California 1941: Ain House, California 1941: Orans House, Silver Lake, California 1942: Jocelyn and Jan Domela House, California 1946: Park Planned Homes, California 1947–48: Mar Vista Housing, Mar Vista, California designated as a Historic Preservation Overlay Zone by the city of Los Angeles in 2003. 1948: Avenel Homes, Silver Lake, Los Angeles, California listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. 1948: Albert Tarter House, Los Feliz, Los Angeles, California 1948: Hollywood Guilds and Unions Office Building, Los Angeles, California 1948: Miller House, Beverly Hills, California 1948: Community Homes, California 1949: Ain & Garrott Office, Silver Lake, Los Angeles, California 1949: Schairer House, Los Angeles, California 1950: Beckman House II, Sherman Oaks, California 1950: Hurschler House, California 1950: MOMA Exhibition House, New York City 1950: Ralphs House, California 1951: Ben Margolis House, Los Angeles, California 1951: Mesner House, Sherman Oaks, California 1952: Richard "Dick" Tufeld House, Los Angeles, California 1953: Feldman House, Beverly Crest/Beverly Hills PO, California 1962–63: Ernst House II, California 1963: Kaye House, California 1967: Ginoza House, State College, Pennsylvania Guggenheim Fellowship, 1940 American Institute of Architects College of Fellows www.marvistatract.org - Gregory Ain Mar Vista Tract Web Site Gregory Ain Model Home Redo & Add On LA Obscura: Ain Projects Modern San Diego biography Gregory Ain - Mar Vista Residence.
Recreation in "Second Life" Gregory Ain Mar Vista Home - flickr set
West Adams, Los Angeles
West Adams is a historic neighborhood in the South Los Angeles region of Los Angeles, California. The area is known for its large number of historic buildings and notable houses and mansions throughout Los Angeles, it is a youthful, densely populated area with a high percentage of African American and Latino residents. The neighborhood has several private schools. West Adams is one of the oldest neighborhoods in the city of Los Angeles, with most of its buildings erected between 1880 and 1925, including the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library. West Adams was developed by railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington and wealthy industrialist Hulett C. Merritt of Pasadena, it was once the wealthiest district in the city, with its Victorian mansions and sturdy Craftsman bungalows, a home to Downtown businessmen and professors and academicians at USC. Several historic areas of West Adams, Harvard Heights, Lafayette Square, Pico-Union, West Adams Terrace, were designated as Historic Preservation Overlay Zones by the city of Los Angeles, in recognition of their outstanding architectural heritage.
Menlo Avenue-West Twenty-ninth Street Historic District, North University Park Historic District, Twentieth Street Historic District, Van Buren Place Historic District and St. James Park Historic District, all with houses of architectural significance, are located in West Adams; the development of the West Side, Beverly Hills and Hollywood, beginning in the 1910s, siphoned away much of West Adams' upper-class white population. One symbol of the area's emergence as a center of black wealth at this time is the landmark 1949 headquarters building of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, a late-period Moderne structure at Adams and Western designed by renowned black architect Paul Williams, it housed. West Adams' transformation into an affluent black area was sped by the Supreme Court's 1948 invalidation of segregationist covenants on property ownership; the area was a favorite among black celebrities in the 1950s. Singer Ray Charles's business headquarters, including his RPM studio, is located at 2107 Washington Boulevard.
The intersection of Washington Boulevard and Westmoreland Boulevard, at the studio, is named "Ray Charles Square" in his honor. Many African-American gays have moved into the neighborhood, it has become the center of black gay life in Los Angeles earning the nickname of "the black West Hollywood" or "the black Silver Lake" Many of the neighborhoods are experiencing a renaissance of sorts with their historic houses being restored to their previous elegance. In total, more than 70 sites in West Adams have received recognition as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, a California Historical Landmark, or listing on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, a total of 21,764 people lived in West Adams's 1.48 square miles, according to the 2000 U. S. census—averaging 14,686 people per square mile, among the highest population densities in the city as a whole. Population was estimated at 22,857 in 2008; the median age was 28, considered young.
The percentages of residents aged birth to 18 were among the county's highest. Latinos made up 56.2% of the population, with black people at 37.6%, white people 2.4%, Asian 1.7%, other 2%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 36.9% of the residents who were born abroad, an average percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city or county as a whole. The $38,209 median household income in 2008 dollars was considered low for the county; the percentage of households earning $20,000 or less was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 3.1 people was about average for the city. Renters occupied 62.8% of the housing units, homeowners occupied the rest. In 2000, there were 1,078 families headed by single parents, or 21.8%, a rate, high for the county and the city. The percentages of never-married women and divorced women were among the county's highest. According to the "Mapping L. A." project of the Los Angeles Times, West Adams is flanked by Mid-City to the north—across the Santa Monica Freeway—Jefferson Park to the east, Baldwin Hills/Crenshaw to the south and Palms to the west.
The neighborhood's street boundaries are the Santa Monica Freeway on the north, Crenshaw Boulevard on the east and Jefferson Boulevards on the south and the Culver City line on the west. Project leader Doug Smith reported that, in response by the public to advance posting of the proposed maps, "Among the bitter rifts we encountered were the competing claims to the name West Adams." Historical purists would reserve the designation West Adams for the once-upper-crust district of Victorian mansions now falling in the shadow of USC. But residents farther west have appropriated the name for that hard-to-define area between the 10 Freeway and Baldwin Hills. To bolster their case, the area's Neighborhood Empowerment Zone bears that name; the discussion has taken on powerful emotional content in recent years as part of a larger debate over gentrification and changing demographics in that part of the city. We resolved the argument as best we could, using the West Adams label for the region west of Crenshaw Boulevard and including the old mansions east of Ve
Mid-century modern is the design movement in interior, graphic design and urban development from 1933 to 1965. The term, employed as a style descriptor as early as the mid-1950s, was reaffirmed in 1983 by Cara Greenberg in the title of her book, Mid-Century Modern: Furniture of the 1950s, celebrating the style, now recognized by scholars and museums worldwide as a significant design movement; the Mid-Century modern movement in the U. S. was an American reflection of the International and Bauhaus movements, including the works of Gropius, Florence Knoll, Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Although the American component was more organic in form and less formal than the International Style, it is more related to it than any other. Brazilian and Scandinavian architects were influential at this time, with a style characterized by clean simplicity and integration with nature. Like many of Wright's designs, Mid-Century architecture was employed in residential structures with the goal of bringing modernism into America's post-war suburbs.
This style emphasized creating structures with ample windows and open floor plans, with the intention of opening up interior spaces and bringing the outdoors in. Many Mid-century houses utilized then-groundbreaking post and beam architectural design that eliminated bulky support walls in favor of walls made of glass. Function was as important as form in Mid-Century designs, with an emphasis placed on targeting the needs of the average American family. In Europe the influence of Le Corbusier and the CIAM resulted in an architectural orthodoxy manifest across most parts of post-war Europe, challenged by the radical agendas of the architectural wings of the avant-garde Situationist International, COBRA, as well as Archigram in London. A critical but sympathetic reappraisal of the internationalist oeuvre, inspired by Scandinavian Moderns such as Alvar Aalto, Sigurd Lewerentz and Arne Jacobsen, the late work of Le Corbusier himself, was reinterpreted by groups such as Team X, including structuralist architects such as Aldo van Eyck, Ralph Erskine, Denys Lasdun, Jorn Utzon and the movement known in the United Kingdom as New Brutalism.
Pioneering builder and real estate developer Joseph Eichler was instrumental in bringing Mid-Century Modern architecture to subdivisions in the Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay region of California, select housing developments on the east coast. George Fred Keck, his brother Willam Keck, Henry P. Glass, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Edward Humrich created Mid-Century Modern residences in the Chicago area. Mies van der Rohe's Farnsworth House is difficult to heat or cool, while Keck and Keck were pioneers in the incorporation of passive solar features in their houses to compensate for their large glass windows; the city of Palm Springs, California is noted for its many examples of Mid-century modern architecture. Architects include: Welton Becket: Bullock's Palm Springs John Porter Clark: Welwood Murray Library. J. Robinson House. John Lautner: Desert Hot Springs Motel. John Black Lee: Specialized in residential houses. Lee House 1, Lee House 2 for which he won the Award of Merit from the American Institute of Architects, Day House, * System House, Rogers House, Ravello Frederick Monhoff: Palm Springs Biltmore Resort Richard Neutra: Grace Lewis Miller house.
M. Schindler: Paul and Betty Popenoe Cabin, Coachella. Home develope