The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum is an American outdoor sports stadium located in the Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Conceived as a hallmark of civic pride, the Coliseum was commissioned in 1921 as a memorial to L. A. veterans of World War I. Completed in 1923, it will be the first stadium to have hosted the Summer Olympics three times: 1932, 1984, 2028, it was declared a National Historic Landmark on July 27, 1984, the day before the opening ceremony of the 1984 Summer Olympics. The stadium serves as the home to the University of Southern California Trojans football team of the Pac-12 Conference. USC, which operates and manages the Coliseum, granted naming rights to United Airlines in January 2018; the stadium is located in Exposition Park, owned by the State of California, across the street from USC. The Coliseum is jointly owned by the State of California, Los Angeles County, City of Los Angeles and is managed and operated by the Auxiliary Services Department of the University of Southern California.
It was the home of the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League from 1946 to 1979, when they moved to Anaheim Stadium in Anaheim. The Coliseum served as their home stadium again from 2016 to 2019 prior to the team’s move to SoFi Stadium in Inglewood; the facility had a permanent seating capacity of 93,607 for USC football and Rams games, making it the largest football stadium in the Pac-12 Conference and the NFL. The stadium was the temporary home of the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball from 1958 to 1961 and was the host venue for games 3, 4, 5 of the 1959 World Series, it was the site of the First AFL-NFL World Championship Game called Super Bowl I, Super Bowl VII. Additionally, it has served as a home field for a number of other teams, including the 1960 inaugural season for the Los Angeles Chargers, Los Angeles Raiders of the NFL, UCLA Bruins football. From 1959 to 2016, the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena was located adjacent to the Coliseum. Banc of California Stadium, a soccer-specific stadium and home of Major League Soccer's Los Angeles FC, was constructed on the former Sports Arena site and opened in April 2018.
USC began a major renovation of the stadium in early 2018. During the renovation project the seating capacity was 78,467 and became 77,500 upon completion in 2019; the $315 million project was completed by the 2019 football season and was the first major upgrade of the stadium in twenty years. The project included replacing the seating along with the addition of luxury boxes and club suites; the Coliseum is the home of the USC Trojans football team. Most of USC's regular home games the alternating games with rivals UCLA and Notre Dame, attract a capacity crowd; the current official capacity of the Coliseum is 77,500 with 42 suites, 1,100 club seats, 24 loge boxes, 500-person rooftop terrace. USC's women lacrosse and soccer teams use the Coliseum for selected games involving major opponents and televised games. USC rents the Coliseum to various events, including international soccer games, musical concerts and other large outdoor events; the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission, which consists of six voting members appointed by the three ownership interests and meets on a monthly basis, provides public oversight of the master lease agreement with USC.
Under the lease the University has day-to-day management and operation responsibility for both the Coliseum and Banc of California Stadium properties. Up until 2013, USC had a series of one- and two-year leases with the commission. In July 2013, USC gained the master lease of the Coliseum, after the governing owner Coliseum Commission failed to deliver promised renovations; the 98 year long agreement requires the University to make $100 million in physical repairs to the Coliseum and in addition requires USC pay $1.3 million each year in rent to the State of California for the state owned land the Coliseum property occupies in Exposition Park, maintain the Coliseum's physical condition at the same standard used on the USC Campus, assume all financial obligations for the operations and maintenance of the Coliseum and Banc of California Stadium Complex. The Coliseum was commissioned in 1921 as a memorial to L. A. veterans of World War I. The groundbreaking ceremony took place on December 21, 1921, with construction being completed in just over 16 months, on May 1, 1923.
Designed by John and Donald Parkinson, the original bowl's initial construction costs were $954,873. When the Coliseum opened in 1923, it was the largest stadium in Los Angeles with a capacity of 75,144. In 1930, with the Olympics due in two years, the stadium was extended upward to seventy-nine rows seats with two tiers of tunnels, expanding the seating capacity to 101,574; the now-signature Olympic torch was added. For a time it was known as Olympic Stadium; the Olympic cauldron torch which burned through both Games remains above the peristyle at the east end of the stadium as a reminder of this, as do the Olympic rings symbols over one of the main entrances. The football field runs east to west with the press box on the south side of the stadium; the current jumbotrons to each side of the peristyle were installed in 2017 and replaced a scoreboard and video screen that towered over the peristyle dating back to 1983.
Staff Sergeant Reckless, a decorated war horse who held official rank in the United States military, was a mare of Mongolian horse breeding. Out of a race horse dam, she was purchased in October 1952 for $250 from a Korean stableboy at the Seoul racetrack who needed money to buy an artificial leg for his sister. Reckless was bought by members of the United States Marine Corps and trained to be a pack horse for the Recoilless Rifle Platoon, Anti-Tank Company, 5th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, she became part of the unit and was allowed to roam through camp, entering the Marines' tents, where she would sleep on cold nights, was known for her willingness to eat nearly anything, including scrambled eggs, Coca-Cola and, about $30 worth of poker chips. She served in numerous combat actions during the Korean War, carrying supplies and ammunition, was used to evacuate wounded. Learning each supply route after only a couple of trips, she traveled to deliver supplies to the troops on her own, without benefit of a handler.
The highlight of her nine-month military career came in late March 1953 during the Battle for Outpost Vegas when, in a single day, she made 51 solo trips to resupply multiple front line units. She was wounded in combat twice, given the battlefield rank of corporal in 1953, a battlefield promotion to sergeant in 1954, several months after the war ended, she became the first horse in the Marine Corps known to have participated in an amphibious landing, following the war was awarded two Purple Hearts, a Marine Corps Good Conduct Medal, was included in her unit's Presidential Unit Citations from two countries, as well as other military honors. Her wartime service record was featured in The Saturday Evening Post, LIFE magazine recognized her as one of America's 100 all-time heroes, she was retired and brought to the United States after the war, where she made appearances on television and participated in the United States Marine Corps birthday ball. She was promoted to staff sergeant in 1959 by the Commandant of the Marine Corps.
She gave birth to four foals in America and died in May 1968. A plaque and photo were dedicated in her honor at the Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton stables and a statue of her was dedicated on July 26, 2013 at the National Museum of the Marine Corps in Quantico, Virginia. On May 12, 2018, a bronze statue of Sergeant Reckless was placed and dedicated in the Kentucky Horse Park, Lexington Kentucky. Sergeant Reckless was chestnut colored with three white stockings, her date of birth and parentage are unconfirmed, but she was estimated to be around three or four years old when she was purchased by members of the United States Marine Corps in October 1952. She was sold to the Marines by her owner, a young Korean stableboy called Kim Huk-moon, though, not his real name; the horse was known as named "아침해" in Korean, which translates to "Morning Sun" or "Sun-of-the-Morning" knows as "여명" in Korean, which translates to "light of dawn", "Morning Flame" or "Flame-of-the-Morning" reputed to be the name of her dam, a racehorse at the track in Seoul.
Kim Huk-moon sold the horse, whom he had nicknamed "Flame", to Lieutenant Eric Pedersen for $250 in order to buy a leg prosthesis for his sister, who had stepped on a land mine. The horse's breeding was thought to be Mongolian though she did have some features the shape of her head, that were similar to horses of Thoroughbred lineage, she was small, weighing 900 pounds. In October 1952, Pedersen received permission from Colonel Eustace P. Smoak to purchase a horse for his platoon. Based in mountainous terrain, Pederson needed a pack animal capable of carrying up to nine of the heavy 24-pound shells needed to supply the recoilless rifles used by his unit, the Recoilless Rifle Platoon of the 5th Marine Regiment; the day after he received permission, on October 26, 1952, Sergeant Willard Berry, Corporal Philip Carter drove a jeep with a trailer to the Seoul racetrack. Pedersen paid for the horse with his own money. Moon was reluctant to sell the horse, though he needed to, cried when "Flame" departed.
The Marines renamed her "Reckless" as a contraction of the name of the Recoilless rifle and a nod to the daredevil attitude associated with those who used the gun. Her primary trainer and the person Reckless was closest to was platoon Gunnery Sergeant Joseph Latham. Private First Class Monroe Coleman was her primary caretaker. In addition to Pedersen and Coleman, Lieutenant Bill Riley and Sergeant Elmer Lively were involved with the training and care of Reckless. Pedersen had his wife ship a pack saddle from their home in California so Reckless could better fulfill her primary role as a pack animal; the recoilless rifle platoon had its own medical corpsman, Navy Hospitalman First Class George "Doc" Mitchell, who provided the majority of medical care for Reckless. The Marines Latham, taught Reckless battlefield survival skills such as how not to become entangled in barbed wire and to lie down when under fire, she learned to run for a bunker upon hearing the cry, "incoming!" The platoon called it her "hoof training" and "hoof camp".
The horse was kept in a pasture near the encampment. Reckless had a gentle disposition and soon developed such a rapport with the troops that she was allowed to roam about the camp and entered tents at will, sometimes sleeping inside with the troops, lying down next to Latham's warm tent stove on cold nights, she was fond of a wide variety of foodstuffs, entertaining the platoon by eating scrambled eggs and drinking Coca-Cola an
Goodell Creek is a tributary of the Skagit River in the U. S. state of Washington. For most of its length Goodell Creek flows through North Cascades National Park, it originates in the Picket Range of the North Cascades. Its headwaters drain the west sides of the high peaks around Mount Fury; the creek flows south collecting the waters of numerous tributaries, many of which are glacial fed. Crescent Creek drains the southwestern slopes of Mount Terror flows west to join Goodell Creek. Below the Crescent Creek confluence Goodell Creek turns to the southeast, collecting tributaries draining Mount Despair and Mount Triumph to the west. Terror Creek, which drains the southern slopes of Mount Terror, joins Goodell Creek from the north. In its last reach Goodell Creek passes between Trappers Peak to Mount Ross to the east; the creek enters Ross Lake National Recreation Area and empties into the Skagit River near Newhalem. List of rivers of Washington