Los Angeles Public Library

The Los Angeles Public Library system serves the residents of the City of Los Angeles. The system holds more than six million volumes, with over 18 million residents in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area, it serves the largest population of any publicly funded library system in the United States; the system is overseen by a Board of Library Commissioners with five members appointed by the mayor of Los Angeles in staggered terms in accordance with the city charter. Library cards are free to California residents. Circulating books, periodicals, computer access, audiovisual materials are available to patrons. Books and audiobooks are loaned for three weeks. Music cassettes, music CDs, documentary videos, documentary DVDs are loaned for one week. Entertainment videos and entertainment DVDs are loaned for four days. Fines are charged. There is a loan limit of 10 books, 10 magazines, 4 DVDs or videos at one time up to maximum of 30 items on the patron's record. Items checked out from Los Angeles Public Library may be returned to any of its 72 branches or to the Central Library.

Most items may be renewed a maximum of two times. Entertainment DVDs and videos may be renewed one time; the Los Angeles Public Library has many community support organizations which work with the library to raise funds and sponsor programs to enhance library service throughout the community. The Library's Rare Books Department is located in its downtown Los Angeles location. There is an extensive selection of databases covering a wide variety of topics, many of which are available to remote users who hold an LAPL library card. Examples include full-text databases of periodicals, business directories, language learning tools; the Central Library at 630 West 5th Street, between Grand Avenue and Flower Street in Downtown Los Angeles, remains an important research library, despite the development of accessible databases and public access to the Internet. The library offers an online program that allows adult patrons who have not completed high school to earn their high school diploma; the Los Angeles Library Association was formed in late 1872, by early 1873, a well-stocked reading room had opened under the first librarian, John Littlefield.

Aggressive expansion and growth of the system began in the 1920s. Under Library Board of Commissioners Chairman Orra E. Monnette, the system was improved with a large network of branch libraries with new buildings. Thelma Jackman founded the Business & Economics section of the library sometime prior to 1970. 1873 to 1879: John Littlefield 1879 to 1880: Patrick Connolly 1880 to 1884: Mary Foy 1884 to 1889: Jessie Gavitt 1889 to 1889: Lydia Prescott 1889 to 1895: Tessa Kelso 1895 to 1897: Clara Bell Fowler 1897 to 1900: Harriet Child Wadleigh 1900 to 1905: Mary Letitia Jones 1905 to 1910: Charles Fletcher Lummis 1910 to 1911: Purd Wright 1911 to 1933: Everett Robbins Perry 1933 to 1947: Althea Warren 1947 to 1969: Harold Hamill 1969 to 1990: Wyman Jones 1990 to 1994: Elizabeth Martinez 1995 to 2004: Susan Goldberg Kent 2004 to 2008: Fontaine Holmes 2009 to 2012: Martin Gomez 2012 to present: John SzaboMary Jones, appointed Librarian in 1905, was fired by the library board in favour of Charles Fletcher Lummis.

This provoked'The Great Library War'. Women in Los Angeles petitioned and marched in support of Jones but she was forced out; the historic Central Library Goodhue building was constructed in 1926 and is a Downtown Los Angeles landmark. The Central Library was designed by Bertram Goodhue; the Richard Riordan Central Library complex is the third largest public library in the United States in terms of book and periodical holdings. Named the Central Library, the building was first renamed in honor of the longtime president of the Board of Library Commissioners and President of the University of Southern California, Rufus B. von KleinSmid. The new wing of Central Library, completed in 1993, was named in honor of former mayor Tom Bradley; the complex was subsequently renamed in 2001 for former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, as the Richard Riordan Central Library. The Los Angeles Public Library received the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, the nation's highest honor given to museums and libraries for service to the community.

City Librarian John F. Szabo and community member Sergio Sanchez accepted the award on behalf of the library from First Lady Michelle Obama during a White House Ceremony on May 20, 2015; the Los Angeles Public Library was selected for its success in meeting the needs of Angelenos and providing a level of social and cultural services unmatched by any other public institution in the city. The award recognizes the library's programs that help people on their path to citizenship, earn their high school diploma, manage personal finances and access health and well-being services and resources. Architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue designed the original Los Angeles Central Library with influences of ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Revival architecture; the central tower is topped with a tiled mosaic pyramid with suns on the sides with a hand holding a torch representing the "Light of Learning" at the apex. Other elements include sphinxes and celestial mosaics, it has sculptural elements by the preeminent American architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie, similar to the Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln, Nebraska designed by Goodhue.

The interior of the library is decorated with various figures, statues and grilles, notably a four-part mural by illustrator Dean Cornwell depicting stages of the History of California, completed around 1


CLUPI is a miniaturized camera system on board the planned European Space Agency Rosalind Franklin rover. CLUPI was designed to acquire high-resolution close-up images in colour of soils, rocks, drill fines and drill core samples, as well as and the search for potential biosignature structures and patterns; this camera assembly is part of the science payload on board the European Space Agency's Rosalind Franklin rover, tasked to search for biosignatures and biomarkers on Mars. The rover is planned to be launched in August–October 2022 and land on Mars in spring 2023; the CLUPI instrument is being developed by a Swiss–French consortium supported by the Swiss Space Office and the French Space Agency. Its Principal Investigator is Jean-Luc Josset, from the Space Exploration Institute, Neuchatel in Switzerland. Frances Westall and Beda Hofmann are Co-PIs; the science team includes scientists from Canada and Russia for biosignature recognition. Instrument field tests started in 2009 with preliminary CLUPI systems tested during several Arctic winters.

CLUPI will be mounted on the movable rover's drill box and it will acquire high-resolution, close-up images in colour of the texture and morphology of rocks and soil. The resolution will be similar to what geologists would obtain by using a hand-held magnifying lens: at a distance of 10 cm from the target, the maximum resolution is 7 µm/pixel, its field of view can be changed by the use of two fixed mirrors – one flat and one concave. The CLUPI visual images will complement those provided by PanCam to provide the context necessary for interpretation of mineralogy and potential visible biosignatures. CLUPI will observe the drilling area closely from different angles to help characterise rock structures such as embedded crystals and fractures. After the drill has been used and retracted, CLUPI will be used to image the amount and appearance of dislodged fines. From the high position, the camera will be able to observe the borehole to a depth of 10 cm, depending on the local illumination conditions.

CLUPI will be used to image the collected core prior to delivery to the rovers' internal analytical instruments for further processing and analyses. Astrobiology Life on Mars Planetary habitability

Lebanese identity card

The Lebanese identity card is a compulsory Identity document issued to citizens of the Republic of Lebanon by the police on behalf of the Lebanese Ministry of Interior or in Lebanese embassies/consulates free of charge. It is proof of identity and residence of the Lebanese citizens; the Lebanese identity card may be used to verify identity and nationality having the same effect as a valid Lebanese passport, may be used as a travel document within Syria and Jordan in lieu of a Lebanese passport. In domestic non-electronic identification the driving licence has remained in a leading position. A driving licence is valid for every situation where non-electronic personal identification is needed though they are not recognized as such; the Republic of Lebanon's Identity Card is the main form of identification on the territory of the Republic of Lebanon. All Lebanese are obliged by law to carry their identity cards with them at all times and are subject to fines should they not. According to the Lebanese obligation of identification, it is compulsory for all Lebanese citizens habitually resident in the Republic of Lebanon, aged 15 or older, to possess either an identity card or a passport noting that the earlier offers no benefits compared to the passport with the exception of being easier to carry in a wallet or a handbag.

It enables bearers to log into certain services on the Internet, local computers or add a digital signatures into LibreOffice ODF documents or create DigiDoc formatted containers that allows encryption during content transfer. While police officers and some other officials have a right to demand to see one of these documents, the law does not state that one is obliged to submit the document at that moment. In domestic non-electronic identification the driving licence has remained in a leading position, since most of the population have to have a licence anyway, a driving licence is valid for every situation where non-electronic personal identification is needed; the Lebanese Identity Card, which uniquely identifies the individual based on biometric features, can be used by the individual for the verification and authentication of identity in the following situations: Health Delivery: The Personal Identification Number and biometrics/personal information is cross-checked with the existing data in the National Identification System.

Passport Acquisition: Any time a Lebanese Identity Card holder applies for a passport, their Personal Identification Number is captured on the passport and their personal information cross-checked with the existing data in the National Identification System. A Lebanese Identity Card holder may not be able to acquire a passport if they do not possess a Lebanese Identity Card; this is because only people who qualify to hold Lebanese Passports will be issued with one since the individual’s nationality can be properly checked from the National Identification System. Acquisition of Driver’s License: The Personal Identification Number is one of the required information the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority demands as soon as the Lebanese Identity Card is issued to applicants; the PIN is captured on a Lebanese Identity Card holder's driver’s license and vehicle registration documents. The personal information is verified from the NIA to determine a persons true identity for license acquisition and establish the true identities of vehicle owners.

A time will come when a person may not be able to make new registration or renewal at the DVLA without their Lebanese Identity Card. Shipping and Clearing of Goods from the port: All goods a Lebanese Identity Card holder exports out of the Republic of Lebanon or imports into the Republic of Lebanon is directly linked to their Personal Identification Number to eliminate fraud and theft in the shipping and clearing of goods at the ports and harbours of the Republic of Lebanon. Receipt of Banking Services: A Lebanese Identity Card holder can use the Lebanese Identity Card as identity verification document when opening bank account, withdrawing money from the bank or receiving money transfers in the Republic of Lebanon, it is easier for a Lebanese Identity Card holder to take loan from the bank whether you work in an identifiable institution or not. This is because their identity can be verified and the banks are confident that they can be traced in the event of loan default based on their PIN or biometric information stored on the Lebanese Identity Card.

Credit Information: The use of the Lebanese Identity Card can enable the banks in the Republic of Lebanon to establish persons credit-worthiness from the Credit Referencing Agencies any time they apply for a loan. This may lead drastically to the reduction in bank rates on loans since the banks can establish whether they are servicing a loan from another bank which will result in a reduction in the incidents of bad debts. Registration of Business: Business registration is linked to a Lebanese Identity Card holder's Personal Identification Numbers to help identify them as the true owner of their business; the Registrar General’s Department make it a requirement for all business owners to provide their PIN on the Lebanese Identity Card during business registration. This eliminates business registration fraud through the exposure of false identities and prevents multiple registrations of businesses for fraudulent purposes. Education: The PIN of a Lebanese Identity Card holder's child is captured during enrollment into primary school and the number is used for admission into every school level until the child completes tertiary education.

This helps in tracking the progress of a Lebanese Identity Card holder's child in the educational sector for