Los Angeles Times bombing

The Los Angeles Times bombing was the purposeful dynamiting of the Los Angeles Times Building in Los Angeles, California, on October 1, 1910, by a union member belonging to the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers. The explosion started a fire which injured 100 more, it was termed the "crime of the century" by the Times. Brothers John J. and James B. McNamara were arrested in April 1911 for the bombing, their trial became a cause célèbre for the American labor movement. J. B. admitted to setting the explosive, was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. J. J. was sentenced to 15 years in prison for bombing a local iron manufacturing plant, returned to the Iron Workers union as an organizer. The Iron Workers Union was formed in 1896; as the work was seasonal and most iron workers were unskilled, the union remained weak, much of the industry remained unorganized until 1902. That year, the union won a strike against the American Bridge Company, a subsidiary of the newly formed U.

S. Steel corporation. American Bridge was the dominant company in the iron industry, within a year the Iron Workers Union had not only organized every United States iron manufacturer, but had won signed contracts including union shop clauses; the McNamara brothers were Irish American trade unionists. John and his younger brother James were both active in the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers. In 1903, officials of U. S. Steel and the American Bridge Company founded the National Erectors' Association, a coalition of steel and iron industry employers; the primary goal of the National Erectors' Association was to promote the open shop and assist employers in breaking the unions in their industries. Employers used labor spies, agents provocateurs, private detective agencies, strike breakers to engage in a campaign of union busting. Local and federal law enforcement agencies cooperated in this campaign, which used violence against union members. Hard pressed by the open shop campaign, the Iron Workers reacted by electing the militant Frank M. Ryan president and John J. McNamara the secretary-treasurer in 1905.

In 1906, the Iron Workers struck at American Bridge in an attempt to retain their contract. However, the open shop movement was a significant success. By 1910, U. S. Steel had succeeded in driving all unions out of its plants. Unions in other iron manufacturing companies vanished. Only the Iron Workers held on. Union officials used violence to counter the setbacks. Beginning in late 1906, national and local officials of the Iron Workers launched a dynamiting campaign. Between 1906 and 1911, the Iron Workers blew up 110 iron works, though only a few thousand dollars in damages was done; the National Erectors' Association was well aware, responsible for the bombings, since Herbert S. Hockin, a member of the Iron Workers' executive board, was their paid spy; these hundreds of bombs were described as the largest domestic terrorism campaign in American history. Los Angeles employers had been resisting unionization for nearly half a century. Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, was vehemently anti-union.

Otis first joined and seized control of the local Merchants Association in 1896, renaming it the Merchants and Manufacturers' Association, using it and his newspaper's large circulation to spearhead a 20-year campaign to end the city's few remaining unions. Without unions to keep wages high, open shop employers in Los Angeles were able to undermine the wage standards set in unionized San Francisco. Unions in San Francisco feared that employers in their city would soon begin pressing for wage cuts and start an open shop drive of their own; the only solution they saw was to re-unionize Los Angeles. The San Francisco unions relied on the Iron Workers, one of the few strong unions remaining in Los Angeles; the unionization campaign began in the spring of 1910. On June 1, 1910, 1,500 Iron Workers struck iron manufacturers in the city to win a $0.50 an hour minimum wage and overtime pay. The M&M raised $350,000 to break the strike. A superior court judge issued a series of injunctions. On July 15, the Los Angeles City Council unanimously enacted an ordinance banning picketing and "speaking in public streets in a loud or unusual tone", with a penalty of 50 days in jail or a $100 fine or both.

Most union members refused to obey the injunctions or ordinance, 472 strikers were arrested. The strike, proved effective: by September, 13 new unions had formed, increasing union membership in the city by 60 percent. On June 3, 1910, two days after the start of the strike, Eugene Clancy, the top Iron Workers' Union official on the West Coast, wrote to J. J. McNamara: "Now, what I want here is Hockin," referring to Herbert Hockin, the union official in charge of the dynamite bombings. However, Hockin had been caught taking money earmarked for bombing jobs, J. J. McNamara no longer trusted him. McNamara asked another dynamiter, Jack Barry of St. Louis, to go to California, but Barry turned down the job when he learned of the targets. J. J. McNamara sent his younger brother, James B. McNamara, to California on the bombing mission. On the evening of 30 September 1910, J. B. McNamara left a suitcase full of dynamite in the narrow alley between the Times building and the Times annex, known as "Ink Alley."

The suitcase was left near barrels of flammable printer's ink. The dynamite had a detonator connected to a mechanical w


Lithomyrtus is a genus of small trees and shrubs in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. There are 11 species, native to the tropics of northern Australia and New Guinea: Lithomyrtus cordata N. Snow & Guymer - Lithomyrtus densifolia N. Snow & Guymer - Lithomyrtus dunlopii N. Snow & Guymer - Lithomyrtus grandifolia N. Snow & Guymer - Lithomyrtus hypoleuca F. Muell. Ex N. Snow & Guymer - Lithomyrtus kakaduensis N. Snow & Guymer - Lithomyrtus linariifolia N. Snow & Guymer - Lithomyrtus microphylla N. Snow & Guymer Lithomyrtus obtusa N. Snow & Guymer - beach myrtella Lithomyrtus repens N. Snow & Guymer - Lithomyrtus retusa N. Snow & Guymer - The genus was formally described in 1857 by Victorian Government Botanist Ferdinand von Mueller

Hamad International Airport

Hamad International Airport is the sole international airport in the state of Qatar. Located south of its capital, Doha, it replaced the former Doha International Airport as Qatar's principal airport. Known as New Doha International Airport, Hamad International Airport was scheduled to open in 2009, but after a series of costly delays, the airport opened on 30 April 2014 with a ceremonial Qatar Airways flight landing from nearby Doha International. National carrier Qatar Airways and all other carriers formally relocated to the new airport on 27 May 2014. Planning took place in 2003 and construction began in 2005; the airport has been built 5 kilometres east of the older Doha International Airport. It is spread over an area of 2,200 hectares, was set to serve airlines that will not utilize lounge access. Hamad International Airport was designed to cater for a projected ongoing increase in the volume of traffic; the airport has an initial annual capacity of three times the current volume. Upon completion, it will be able to handle 50 million passengers per year, although some estimates suggest the airport could handle up to 93 million per year, making it the second largest airport in the region after Dubai.

It is expected to handle 320,000 aircraft movements and 2 million tonnes of cargo annually. The check-in and retail areas are expected to be 12 times larger than those at the current airport; the airport will be two-thirds the size of Doha city. The airport has an oasis theme. Many of the buildings have a water motif, with wave-styled roofs and desert plants growing in recycled water; the airport is built over 22 square kilometres, half of, on reclaimed land. The Steering Committee awarded the contract for the development of the airport to Bechtel; the contract includes construction management and project management of the facilities. The terminal and concourses were designed by the architecture firm HOK. Engineering and Construction contract for Phase I and II were undertaken by Turkish TAV Construction and Japanese Taisei Corporation. Cargo operations began from 1 December 2013, with an inaugural flight by Qatar Airways Cargo arriving from Europe; the original soft launch on 2 April 2013 was cancelled just a few hours prior, was postponed indefinitely due to unsatisfactory safety related issues that needed further reviewing taking nine months to address.

Hamad International Airport was set to begin passenger operations in January 2014, with a soft opening. Qatar Airways threatened a $600 million lawsuit against the joint venture contractor Lindner Depa Interiors for delaying the opening of the airport by failing to complete its lounges on time. Qatar Airways blamed Bechtel for the opening delay in April 2013, citing failures to meet regulatory requirements. Hamad International Airport began passenger operations on 30 April 2014, with ten initial airlines operating. Qatar Airways and remaining airlines started operations to Hamad Airport on 27 May 2014 at 09:00. An expansion plan announced in September 2015 called for an extension of the check-in area, an expansion of concourses D and E into a 1.3 km long concourse, a new passenger amenity area in the D/E complex with lounges and restaurants. As part of this expansion plan, the Doha Metro will be extended to the airport, it is scheduled to open in time for the 2022 World Cup. In 2016, the airport was named the 50th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic, serving 37,283,987 passengers, a 20.2% increase from 2015.

In 2019, the airport witnessed a 12.4% increase in annual passenger traffic. More than 38.8 million passengers arrived at the airport in 2019, up from 34.5 million in 2018. Concourse A has 10 passenger gates connected to jet bridges and is located west of the check-in area and Main Terminal. Two of the gates are designed to accommodate the Airbus A380. Concourse B has 10 passenger gates connected to jet bridges and is located east of the check-in area, it has opened on April 30, 2014 with 10 airlines transferring operations over from Doha International Airport. Two of the gates are built to accommodate the Airbus A380. There is a small coffee shop located at the end of Concourse B, as well as smoking rooms, family areas, an express duty-free store. Concourse C has 13 passenger gates connected to jet bridges, two of them built for the Airbus A380. There are 10 remote gates without a fixed jet bridge link connected to Concourse C; this Concourse has opened on 27 May 2014. Concourse D Is operational.

Gates 1–4 are on the first floor and Gates 18–24 on the ground floor. Concourse E Is operational. Gates 1–4 are on the first floor and Gates 18–24 on the ground floor. Concourses D and E are due to be extended with a possible Concourse F although plans are still to be finalised. Terminal 1 features First and Business Class lounges which were opened by Qatar Airways CEO, Akbar Al Baker on 20 June 2014; the most prominent figure inside the airport is a giant bronze statue of a teddy bear with its head in a lamp. The untitled sculpture known as "Lamp Bear", is one of three creations by Swiss artist Urs Fischer and is on display at the grand foyer of the airport's duty-free shopping hall. Standing at seven meters tall and weighing 18-20 tons, the statue was displayed at the Seagram Building's plaza in New York City before being purchased by a member of the Qatari royal family at a Christie's