Ventura, officially the City of San Buenaventura, is the county seat of Ventura County, United States. European explorers encountered a Chumash village, referred to as Shisholop, the eponymous Mission San Buenaventura was founded nearby in 1782 where it benefitted from the water of the Ventura River. The town grew around the compound and incorporated in 1866. The development of oil fields in the 1920s and the age of automobile travel created a major real estate boom during which many designated landmark buildings were constructed. The mission and these buildings are at the center of a downtown that has become a cultural, Ventura lies along U. S. Route 101 between Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, which was one of the original U. S. Routes. The highway is now known as the Ventura Freeway, but the route through the town along Main Street has been designated El Camino Real. During the post–World War II economic expansion, the community grew easterly, the population was 106,433 at the 2010 census, up from 100,916 at the 2000 census.
Ventura is part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, archaeological discoveries in the area suggest that humans have populated the region for at least 10, 000-12,000 years. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash people have roots in central and southern coastal regions of California. Shisholop Village, designated Historic Point of Interest #18 by the city at the foot of nearby Figueroa Street, was the site of a Chumash village, the mission was named for St. Bonaventure, a Thirteenth Century Franciscan saint and a Doctor of the Church. San Miguel Chapel was the first outpost and center of operations while the first Mission San Buenaventura was being constructed, the first mission burned in 1801 and a replacement building of brick and stone was completed in 1809. The bell tower and facade of the new mission was destroyed by an 1812 earthquake, the Mission was rebuilt and functions as a parish church. Historic tours of downtown include the mission compound, on July 6,1841, Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado granted Rancho San Miguel to Felipe Lorenzana and Raymundo Olivas.
Fernando Tico received a Mexican land grant for part of Ventura and he received a land grant for Ojai and the downtown area of Ventura. Whose Olivas Adobe on the banks of the Santa Clara River was the most magnificent hacienda south of Monterey, California became a territory of the United States in 1848 and the 31st state in the Union in 1850. After the American Civil War, settlers came to the area, buying land from the Mexicans, vast holdings were acquired by Easterners, including the railroad magnate, Thomas A. Scott. He was impressed by one of the employees, Thomas R. Bard, who had been in charge of train supplies to Union troops. Not easily accessible, Ventura was not a target of immigrants, for most of the century which followed the incorporation of Ventura in 1866, it remained isolated from the rest of the state
Gorman is an unincorporated community in northwestern Los Angeles County. Tens of thousands of travel through it daily on Interstate 5. Gorman is a travel stop in Peace Valley, at the Tejon Pass which links Southern California with the San Joaquin Valley. Gorman is 1,530 acres in size and it lies where three Transverse System mountain ranges meet — the Sierra Pelona Mountains, the Tehachapi Mountains, and the San Emigdio Mountains. One of the Mountain Communities of the Tejon Pass, it is southeast of Frazier Park, Interstate 5 runs through Gorman, and State Route 138 connects to the Interstate a few miles south. California poppies and other wildflowers dramatically cover the hills in the springtime there is sufficient rain. The U. S. Census Bureau does not break out separate population figures for this small place, the Spanish and Mexican colonial El Camino Viejo passed through the area en route to Old Tejon Pass. The route of the Stockton - Los Angeles Road went through Tejon Pass after 1852, the Gorman area was part of Rancho Los Alamos y Agua Caliente, an 1846 Mexican land grant.
The first American settler in the area was a man named Charles Johnson after 1853, after Johnsons death his widow, Soledad Girado ran the place, which by 1855 became known as Rancho la Viuda. Historian Frank F. Latta noted that the Johnsons daughter, was the girl to study at the historic Escuela Normal of Los Angeles in the 1860s. A man named Reed, took up residence next, calling it Reeds Ranch, in 1857 a woman was killed on his ranch when the great Fort Tejon earthquake struck the area and collapsed the roof of his adobe house. Reed built a log house, that became Reeds Station on the Butterfield Overland Mail 1st Division Stations in 1858. It was a stop for the postal stagecoach and it was located 8 miles southeast of Fort Tejon, and 14 miles west of French Johns Station. Six of them were used for the pull up Tejon Pass from Bakersfield to Gormans and it was next bought by David W. Alexander, the sheriff of Los Angeles County, who sold the place to James Gorman Sr. in 1867 or 1868. The log public house, which furnished food and liquor, Gorman was a veteran of the Mexican-American War of 1848 and was at Fort Tejon as a civilian teamster and herder in 1854 while it was being built.
In 1876, Gorman Sr. died after he was run over by his own supply wagon, the first post office was established in December 1877 with Henry Gorman, probably James’ brother, as the postmaster. Gormans widow, continued to run the family farm, in 1898, the ranch was bought by Oscar Ralphs, whose brother, had already begun a business in Los Angeles that eventually became the Ralphs supermarket chain. Ridge Route The Ridge Route road through Gorman was paved in 1919, in 1923, the first gasoline station in California to be located away from a railroad track was established by Standard Oil
Mount Pinos is a mountain located in the Los Padres National Forest on the boundary between Ventura and Kern counties in California. The summit, at 8,847 feet, is the highest point in Ventura County, the mountain is the highest point of the Transverse Ranges west of Tejon Pass, as well as the southernmost point of the Salinian Block. The summit of the mountain itself is flat and open with several subsidiary summits. Open stands of conifers separated by chaparral shrub areas predominate, the trace of the San Andreas Fault, clearly visible to the northwest, cuts between Mount Pinos and the mountains immediately to the north. The trace extends all the way to Soda Lake in the Carrizo Plain along the Elkhorn Scarp, the lights of Bakersfield and surrounding towns are visible on a clear evening to the north and northeast. Mount Pinos is therefore considered a separate formation. The small community of Pine Mountain Club lies due north of Mount Pinos, Lake of the Woods and Frazier Park are about 10 miles to the east.
The summit plateau experiences harsh winters in comparison to most of Southern California, most of the precipitation falls as winter snow. The area experiences several feet of each year with snowfields lasting till early June on the north facing slopes. In heavy snowfall years snowfields can last till late July or later, temperatures fall to near freezing most days in the coldest months while lows drop into the teens. Summer months are mild with temperatures between 70 °F and 80 °F. The mountain experiences occasional thunderstorms with some delivering intense, localized downpours, in the area live five owl species, Northern Goshawks, as well as California Condors. It is home to alpine endemics such as the quail, Clarks nutcracker, Stellers jay and pygmy nuthatch, as well as hermit warbler. Mount Pinos, or Iwihinmu in the Chumashan language, was considered by the Chumash people to be the center of the world or Liyikshup, the point where everything is in balance. The summit is the highest in the area and near the center of the lands of the Chumash.
The summit of Pinos can be reached by a 2-mile hike along a road from a parking area at the end of Los Padres National Forest Road S349S. The trail continues to the west entering the Chumash Wilderness and ends at Mount Abel, almost all of this 6-mile trail is above 8,000 feet. Consistent snow conditions on Mount Pinos allows for many types of winter recreation and this includes Backcountry skiing, cross country and telemark skiing, snowboarding and snow camping
The City of Monterey in Monterey County is located on the southern edge of Monterey Bay, in the Northern Portion of Californias Central Coast. It stands at an elevation of 26 feet above sea level, the 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810. Monterey was the capital of Alta California under both Spain and Mexico and it was the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. In 1846 the U. S. flag was raised over the Customs House, the city had Californias first theater, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, and newspaper. The city and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century, until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery. Among Montereys notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fishermans Wharf, long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. They subsisted by hunting and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula, researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlones primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone.
A number of sites have been located along about 12 miles of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastian Vizcaino recorded the name Bahía de Monterrey, Vizcaino landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaino noted and named the Point of Pines, all other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcainos name for the bay. Variants of the name are recorded as Monte Rey and Montery. In 1769, the first European land exploration of Alta California, for some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1,1769. The party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back, on the return journey, they camped near one of Montereys lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, We halted in sight of the Point of Pines and camped near a lagoon which has rather muddy water.
Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcainos Port of Monterey after all, the land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra who traveled by sea. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3,1770, Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, who had been third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. Serras missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, the existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio
Monterey County, California
Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 415,057, the county seat and largest city is Salinas. Monterey County comprises the Salinas, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the northern half of the bay is in Santa Cruz County. Monterey County is a member of the governmental agency, Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments. The coastline, including Big Sur, State Route 1, the city of Monterey was the capital of California under Spanish and Mexican rule. The economy is based upon tourism in the coastal regions. Most of the people live near the northern coast and Salinas Valley, while the southern coast. Monterey County was one of the counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the county were given to San Benito County in 1874, the area was originally populated by Ohlone, Salinan & Esselen tribes. The county derived its name from Monterey Bay, the bay was named by Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602 in honor of the Conde de Monterrey, the Viceroy of New Spain.
Monterrey is a variation of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain where the Conde de Monterrey and his father were from. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,771 square miles. The county is roughly 1.5 times larger than the state of Delaware and these areas had a median household income significantly above that of the California or the U. S. overall and comprised roughly 8%-10% of neighorhoods. Social deprivation was concentrated in the central and eastern parts of Salinas, in central and eastern Salinas up to 46% of individuals lived below the poverty line and those without a secondary educations formed a plurality or majority of residents. Overall, the Salinas metropolitan area, defined as coterminous with Monterey County, was among the least educated areas in the nation. Roughly 8% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a household income above $100,000 per year. This coincided with the top 20 census block groups in the county listed below, most affluent neighborhoods * Asterisk denotes a hypothetical rank among Monterey Countys 226 Census Block Groups.
About 4. 5% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a household income below $30,000 per year
Santa Barbara County, California
Santa Barbara County, officially the County of Santa Barbara, is a county located in the southern portion of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 423,895, the county seat is Santa Barbara, and the largest city is Santa Maria. Santa Barbara County comprises the Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, most of the county is part of the California Central Coast. Mainstays of the economy include engineering, resource extraction, agriculture. The software development and tourism industries are important employers in the part of the county. Southern Santa Barbara County is sometimes considered the cultural boundary of Southern California. The Santa Barbara County area, including the Northern Channel Islands, was first settled by Native Americans at least 13,000 years ago, europeans first contacted the Chumash in AD1542, when three Spanish ships under the command of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo explored the area. Spanish ships associated with the Manila Galleon trade probably made emergency stops along the coast during the next 167 years, the first land expedition to explore California, led by Gaspar de Portolà explored the coastal area in 1769, on its way to Monterey Bay.
The party traveled the route on the return to San Diego in January 1770. That same year, an expedition to Monterey again passed through the area. The DeAnza expeditions of 1774-76 followed Portolas trail, the Presidio of Santa Barbara was established in 1782, followed by Mission Santa Barbara in 1786 – both in what is now the city of Santa Barbara. The presidio and mission kept Vizcainos denomination, as did the city and county – a common practice which has preserved the names of many of the 21 California Missions. European contacts had devastating effects on the Chumash people, including a series of epidemics that drastically reduced Chumash population. The Chumash survived and thousands of Chumash descendants still live in the Santa Barbara area or surrounding counties, a tribal homeland was established in 1901, the Santa Ynez Reservation. 604 of these grants were confirmed by the state of California. Santa Barbara County was one of the 27 original counties of California, the countys territory was divided to create Ventura County in 1873.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,789 square miles. Four of the Channel Islands – San Miguel Island, Santa Cruz Island, Santa Rosa Island and they form the largest part of the Channel Islands National Park
A campsite or camping pitch is a place used for overnight stay in the outdoors. In American English the term campsite generally means an area where an individual, group, or military unit can pitch a tent or park a camper, there are two types of campsites, an impromptu area a dedicated area with improvements and various facilities. The term camp comes from the Latin word campus, meaning field, therefore, a campgrounds consists typically of open pieces of ground where a camper can pitch a tent or park a camper. More specifically a campsite is an area set aside for camping. Campsites typically feature a few improvements, dedicated campsites, known as Campgrounds, usually have some amenities. Common amenities include, listed roughly in order from most to least common and it is thought to be a nuisance, harmful to the environment, and is often associated with vagrancy. However some countries have specific laws and/or regulations allowing camping on public lands, in the United States, many national and state parks have dedicated campsites and sometimes allow impromptu backcountry camping by visitors. U. S.
National Forests often have established campsites, but generally allow camping anywhere, in Britain, it is more commonly known as wild camping, and is mostly illegal. However, Scotland has a view and wild camping is legal in the majority of Scotland. In many parts of Canada, roughing it is considered to be camping on government owned, public land known as crown land. In North America many campgrounds have facilities for Recreational Vehicles and are known as RV parks. Similar facilities in the UK are known as Caravan Parks, the Kampgrounds of America is a large chain of commercial campgrounds located throughout the United States and Canada. Many travellers prefer to use KOA, or similar campsites, as an alternative to hotels or motels. Both commercial and governmental campgrounds typically charge a fee for the privilege of camping there, to cover expenses. However, there are some in North America that do not charge a use fee and rely on such as donations. Staying the night in a big-box store parking lot is common, some RV parks provide year-round spaces.
Frequently confused with campsites, campgrounds and RV parks, trailer parks are made up of long term or semi-permanent residents occupying mobile homes, the holiday park is a United Kingdom version of the North American trailer park. All of the homes are either available for rent from the land owner, or pitches are leased on a long-term basis from the land owner
The Ventura River, located in western Ventura County in southern California, United States, flows through an eponymous narrow valley with steeply sloped sides. Matilija Creek is Ventura Rivers most significant headwater and tributary, in its final stretch, the Ventura River flows through the Ventura River estuary, which extends from about the 101 Freeway bridge to the Pacific Ocean. The Ventura River watershed encompasses 226 square miles consisting of mountains and foothills. Valley floors are home to communities and farms, conditions in much of the watershed remain natural and undeveloped, with 57% of its land area in protected status. The northern half of the lies within Los Padres National Forest. The watershed’s southern half includes two cities and a number of unincorporated communities, the City of Ojai lies entirely within the watershed, 13-mile inland at an elevation of 746 feet. Thirteen percent of the City of Ventura lies within the watershed, adjacent to the coast, developed land comprises only about 13% of the total land area in the watershed.
Agriculture is the dominant land use and avocados are the primary irrigated crops grown, and a significant area of land is used for cattle grazing. The population of the watershed is small and the rate of growth low. The population is approximately 44,140, which represents just 5. 4% of Ventura County’s population, the population is 58% white, 37% Hispanic or Latino, 2% Asian, and 3% other races. Income varies widely, and several areas qualify as disadvantaged or severely disadvantaged communities, rainfall varies geographically and from year to year. Median annual precipitation is 14.12,19.20, cycles of drought and flood are the norm. Since 1906, 67% of the years have had less than average rainfall, many parts of the stream network are typically dry during much of the year. Surface water readily disappears underground in some reaches, in others. Rainfall in the Matilija Wilderness, the headwaters, is the highest in Ventura County. Major or moderate floods have occurred once every five years on average since 1933, the most damaging riverine flood recorded in the Ventura River watershed occurred in 1969.
The watershed above Ojai received a staggering 43 inches of rain in nine days in January, the floodwaters and associated debris rolled down out of the mountains, flooding homes in Casitas Springs and Live Oak Acres. Much agricultural land, primarily citrus groves, was damaged or destroyed
Santa Ynez Mountains
The Santa Ynez Mountains are a portion of the Transverse Ranges, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges of the west coast of North America. It is the westernmost range in the Transverse Ranges, the range is a large fault block of Cenozoic age created by the movements of the Santa Ynez Fault. A very narrow range, the Santa Ynez Mountains rise quickly on its north side, the Santa Ynez Mountains begin as a series of volcanic hills near Point Arguello, and gradually transitions eastward into a single, well-defined ridge extending from Gaviota Peak to Matilija Creek. The range is contiguous with the Topatopa Mountains beyond to the east. The climate of the range is Mediterranean with semi-arid characteristics, most of the range lies in the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. At the crest, rainier regions support large groves of conifers, the range is mostly within Los Padres National Forest. The northern boundary of the range is marked by the Santa Ynez Fault, notable features along the fault which mark the boundary of the range include Jalama Creek and the Santa Ynez River to the west and Matilija Creek in the far east.
To the north of the range are the San Rafael Mountains, the southern slopes of the range drop off into a series of alluvial plains adjoining the Santa Barbara Channel. They tend to be made up of unconsolidated riverine deposits overlying shale bedrock, the Santa Ynez River flows just north of the mountains, paralleling them for most of their length. Before reaching Lompoc the mountain range diverges into two low ridges, separated by Jalama Creek, which vanish into the Pacific Ocean. The mountains parallel the Channel Islands to the south, another east-west trending range, an extension of the Santa Monica Mountains. Principal summits in the Santa Ynez range include Divide Peak,4,707 ft, La Cumbre Peak,3,985 ft, and Santa Ynez Peak,4,298 ft. The highest point, an unnamed and unmarked crest colloquially called Peak 4864, is located right above the terminus of the range, near Lake Casitas. Geologically the mountains are young and mostly of sedimentary origin, the most common rock types in the range are sandstones and shales, with some limestone in the western portion of the range.
Volcanic rocks can be found at the western extremity of the range, near Point Arguello. The Santa Ynez Mountains were uplifted in the late Miocene Epoch, about five years ago, along the Santa Ynez Fault. Being young, the slopes are steep and the topography is extremely rugged, dramatic sandstone formations, including outcrops of the resistant Coldwater and Matilija formations, are visible at many locations in the range. The predominant ground cover is chaparral, with coastal scrub, oak woodland
Frazier Park, California
Frazier Park is an unincorporated community in Kern County, California. It is 5 miles west of Lebec, at an elevation of 4,639 feet and it is one of the Mountain Communities of the Tejon Pass. The population was 2,691 in the 2010 census, up from 2,348 in 2000. The earliest record relating to Frazier Park was a report in 1854 that lumber was being produced there from Frazier Mountain trees for use at the new Army post at nearby Fort Tejon. Local historian Bonnie Ketterl Kane wrote that the mill was supposedly at the southeast end of the present community, the community itself was established in 1925 by Harry McBain, who named it in 1926 for Frazier Mountain, on its southern flank. Its post office was established on September 14,1927, with Charles B, Frazier Park was used in filming for The Waltons television show. Frazier Park is the setting of the 2011 film The FP, Frazier Park lies within Cuddy Canyon in the San Emigdio Mountains, within the Los Padres National Forest. Mount Pinos is the highest peak in the area at 8,831 ft, other nearby communities include Lake of the Woods, Pine Mountain Club, and Mettler.
Santa Clarita is the nearest large city, to the south on Interstate 5. The San Andreas fault runs through the region, turning southeast on the west side of Interstate 5, the nearest highway is Interstate 5, east of the community. The main road through Frazier Park is Frazier Mountain Park Road and this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Frazier Park has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, the 2010 United States Census reported that Frazier Park had a population of 2,691. The population density was 531.2 people per square mile, the racial makeup of Frazier Park was 2,297 White,16 African American,31 Native American,22 Asian,3 Pacific Islander,212 from other races, and 110 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 528 persons, the Census reported that 2,691 people lived in households,0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 were institutionalized. There were 83 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 7 same-sex married couples or partnerships,312 households were made up of individuals and 97 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.48, there were 672 families, the average family size was 3.08. The median age was 40.4 years, for every 100 females there were 100.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.0 males, there were 1,354 housing units at an average density of 267.3 per square mile, of which 673 were owner-occupied, and 413 were occupied by renters
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nations 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the major national land agency that is outside the U. S. Department of the Interior. The concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, in 1876, Congress created the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Hough was appointed the head of the office, in 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry. The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the domain as forest reserves. In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry, gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.
As of 2009, the Forest Service has a budget authority of $5.5 billion. The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters,737 law enforcement personnel, and 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is To sustain the health and its motto is Caring for the land and serving people. As the lead agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nations forest, rangeland. The agencys ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current, the everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, and providing recreation.5 billion trees per year. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007, the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry.
Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions, the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee who oversees the entire agency. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, there are five deputy chiefs for the following areas, National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, and Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five stations, the Forest Products Laboratory. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief, Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, and Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States, there are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908, many sites are more than 50 years old
Ojai is a city in Ventura County in the U. S. state of California. Located in the Ojai Valley, it is northwest of Los Angeles, the valley is about 10 miles long by 3 miles wide, surrounded by hills and mountains. The population was 7,461 at the 2010 census, down from 7,862 at the 2000 census. Ojai is a destination with boutique hotels and recreation opportunities including hiking. It has small businesses specializing in local and ecologically friendly art and home improvement—such as galleries, chain stores are prohibited by Ojai city law to encourage local small business development and keep the town unique. The origin of the name Ojai has historically been known as derived from a Native American word meaning nest, the citys self-styled nickname is Shangri-La referencing the natural beauty of this health-and-spirituality-focused region. Chumash Indians were the inhabitants of the valley. They called it Ojai, which derives from the Ventureño Chumash word ʼawhaý meaning moon, the area became part of the Rancho Ojai Mexican land grant made to Fernando Tico in 1837, and he established a cattle ranch.
Tico sold it in 1853 without much success to prospectors searching for oil, by 1864, the area was settled. The town was out in 1874 by real estate developer R. G. Surdam and named Nordhoff, California, in honor of the writer Charles Nordhoff, leading up to and during World War I, American sentiment became increasingly anti-German. Across the United States and German-sounding place names were changed, as part of this trend, Nordhoff was renamed Ojai in 1917. The public high school in Ojai is still named Nordhoff High School, the public junior high school, named Matilija, formerly served as Nordhoff Union High School and still features large tiles with the initials NUHS on the steps of the athletic field. The main turning point in the development of the city was the coming of Edward Libbey and he saw the valley and fell in love, thinking up many plans for expansion and beautification of the existing rustic town. A fire destroyed much of the original western-style downtown Nordhoff—Ojai in 1917, afterwards Libbey helped design and build a new downtown more in line with the contemporary taste for Spanish Colonial Revival style architecture.
To thank Libbey for his gifts to the town, the proposed a celebration to take place on March 2 of each year. Libbey declined their offer to call it Libbey Day, and instead suggested Ojai Day, the celebration still takes place each year in October. The arcade and bell tower still stand, and have come to serve as symbols of the city, libbeys pergola was destroyed in 1971, after being damaged in an explosion