Lossy compression

In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content. These techniques are used to reduce data size for storing and transmitting content; the different versions of the photo of the cat to the right show how higher degrees of approximation create coarser images as more details are removed. This is opposed to lossless data compression; the amount of data reduction possible using lossy compression is much higher than through lossless techniques. Well-designed lossy compression technology reduces file sizes before degradation is noticed by the end-user; when noticeable by the user, further data reduction may be desirable. The most used lossy compression algorithm is the discrete cosine transform, first published by Nasir Ahmed, T. Natarajan and K. R. Rao in 1974. A new family of sinusoidal-hyperbolic transform functions, which have comparable properties and performance with DCT, have been proposed for lossy compression.

Lossy compression is most used to compress multimedia data in applications such as streaming media and internet telephony. By contrast, lossless compression is required for text and data files, such as bank records and text articles, it can be advantageous to make a master lossless file which can be used to produce additional copies from. This allows one to avoid basing new compressed copies off of a lossy source file, which would yield additional artifacts and further unnecessary information loss, it is possible to compress many types of digital data in a way that reduces the size of a computer file needed to store it, or the bandwidth needed to transmit it, with no loss of the full information contained in the original file. A picture, for example, is converted to a digital file by considering it to be an array of dots and specifying the color and brightness of each dot. If the picture contains an area of the same color, it can be compressed without loss by saying "200 red dots" instead of "red dot, red dot...... red dot."

The original data contains a certain amount of information, there is a lower limit to the size of file that can carry all the information. Basic information theory says; when data is compressed, its entropy increases, it cannot increase indefinitely. As an intuitive example, most people know that a compressed ZIP file is smaller than the original file, but compressing the same file will not reduce the size to nothing. Most compression algorithms can recognize when further compression would be pointless and would in fact increase the size of the data. In many cases, files or data streams contain more information than is needed for a particular purpose. For example, a picture may have more detail than the eye can distinguish when reproduced at the largest size intended. Developing lossy compression techniques as matched to human perception as possible is a complex task. Sometimes the ideal is a file that provides the same perception as the original, with as much digital information as possible removed.

The terms'irreversible' and'reversible' are preferred over'lossy' and'lossless' for some applications, such as medical image compression, to circumvent the negative implications of'loss'. The type and amount of loss can affect the utility of the images. Artifacts or undesirable effects of compression may be discernible yet the result still useful for the intended purpose. Or lossy compressed images may be'visually lossless', or in the case of medical images, so-called Diagnostically Acceptable Irreversible Compression may have been applied; some forms of lossy compression can be thought of as an application of transform coding, a type of data compression used for digital images, digital audio signals, digital video. The transformation is used to enable better quantization. Knowledge of the application is used to choose information to discard, thereby lowering its bandwidth; the remaining information can be compressed via a variety of methods. When the output is decoded, the result may not be identical to the original input, but is expected to be close enough for the purpose of the application.

The most common form of lossy compression is a transform coding method, the discrete cosine transform, first published by Nasir Ahmed, T. Natarajan and K. R. Rao in 1974. DCT is the most used form of lossy compression, for popular image compression formats, video coding standards and audio compression formats. In the case of audio data, a popular form of transform coding is perceptual coding, which transforms the raw data to a domain that more reflects the information content. For example, rather than expressing a sound file as the amplitude levels over time, one may express it as the frequency spectrum over time, which corresponds more to human audio perception. While data reduction is a main goal of transform coding, it allows other goals: one may represent data more for the original amount of space – for example, in principle, if one starts with an analog or high-resolution digital master, an MP3 file of a given size s

Journal of International Business Studies

The Journal of International Business Studies is a double blind peer-reviewed academic journal and the official publication of the Academy of International Business. It covers research on international business; the journal is edited by Alain Verbeke. According to the Journal Citation Reports its 2016 impact factor is 5.869. 1970-1975 - Ernest W. Ogram, Jr. 1975-1984 - William A. Dymsza 1985-1992 - David A. Ricks 1993-1997 - Paul W. Beamish 1997-2002 - Thomas L. Brewer 2002-2007 - Arie Y. Lewin 2007-2010 - Lorraine Eden 2010–2016 - John Cantwell. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm - A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments". Journal of International Business Studies. 8: 23–32. Doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490676. Kogut, Bruce. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode". Journal of International Business Studies. 19: 411–432. Doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490394. Kogut, Bruce. "Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary-Theory of the Multinational Corporation".

Journal of International Business Studies. 24: 625–645. Doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248. Dunning, John H.. "The Eclectic Paradigm of International Production: A Restatement and Some Possible Extensions". Journal of International Business Studies. 19: 1–31. Doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490372. Anderson, Erin. "Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions". Journal of International Business Studies. 17: 1–26. Doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490432. The "JIBS Decade Award" was established in 1996 to recognize the most influential paper published in the volume a decade prior; the award is sponsored by Palgrave Macmillan. A selection committee evaluates the five most cited papers published in the volume of the year concerned and decides on the most influential paper. A special session is held at the Academy of International Business annual conference including a retrospective presentation from the award winner in addition to additional commentary. In 2009, the Decade Award was extended to include the 1970-1985 volumes of the journal, which had not been included.

Official website Academy of International Business

William Gaston (Massachusetts)

William Gaston was a lawyer and politician from Massachusetts. A Democrat, he was the first member of that party to serve as Governor of Massachusetts after the American Civil War, he was a successful trial lawyer and politically conservative Democrat, who won election as governor after his opponent, Thomas Talbot, vetoed legislation to relax alcohol controls. Born in Connecticut, educated at Brown University, Gaston established a successful law practice in Roxbury before becoming involved in local politics. In the 1860s, he served as mayor of Roxbury, afterward promoted its annexation to Boston, he later served as Boston mayor, during a period which included the Great Boston Fire of 1872. William Gaston was born on October 1820 in Killingly, Connecticut, his father, Alexander Gaston, was a merchant of French Huguenot descent, his mother, Kezia Arnold Gaston, was from an old Rhode Island family. He received his primary education at Brooklyn and was prepared for college in the academy at Plainfield.

He entered Brown University at the age of fifteen, graduated in 1840 with high honors. Gaston moved to Roxbury, where his parents had taken up residence, to pursue the study of law, he first studied with Francis Hillard, with Benjamin Curtis a justice of the United States Supreme Court. He was admitted to the Massachusetts Bar in 1844, opened his own practice in Roxbury in 1846; the practice flourished, he soon became a leading trial lawyer in Norfolk and Suffolk Counties. In 1852, Gaston married Louisa Augusta Beecher, they were the parents of three children, including William A. Gaston, who joined his law firm, became a leader in the Democratic party, losing at runs for the governorship in 1902 and 1903. Gaston became involved in Roxbury city politics not long after settling there, he was elected to its common council from 1849 to 1853, serving as council president the last two years. He represented the city in the state legislature as a Whig, was swept out of office in the 1854 Know Nothing landslide that destroyed the Whig Party.

His opposition to the Know Nothing cause gained him support in the city's Irish American community, he was once again elected to the legislature as a Democrat in 1856. He was appointed Roxbury's solicitor in 1856, a post he held until 1860. In 1860, Gaston ran for mayor of Roxbury, won election again the following year, his moderate and fiscal conservative policies were popular. He supported the Union cause during the American Civil War, raising troops at home and visiting them in the field, he resumed the private practice of law after his second term. During the 1860s the annexation of Roxbury to Boston was discussed, Gaston, who supported the idea, was appointed to the Roxbury commission that evaluated the idea in 1867, he ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the United States Congress in 1870. That year he was elected Mayor of Boston, going on to serve two one-year terms; the most notable event of his tenure as mayor, the Great Boston Fire of 1872, occurred late in the second term. The fire destroyed a large swath of the commercial district of the city, Gaston was criticized for failing to show decisive leadership during attempts to bring the fire under control.

This weak showing, combined with a poor response to a smallpox epidemic in the city, contributed to his loss in a bid for a third term. In 1873, Gaston ran for Governor of Massachusetts; the dominant Republican Party had been split in 1872 by the formation of the Liberal Republicans, the state's Democrats sensed an opportunity. Gaston ran on a platform calling for a liberalization of the state's harsh alcohol prohibition laws, which his opponent, incumbent Republican William B. Washburn, had supported. Gaston narrowly lost the election. Washburn resigned in 1874 after winning election to the United States Senate, Gaston ran in 1874 against Acting Governor Thomas Talbot. Talbot supported the continuance of statewide prohibition, vetoing popular legislation for loosening restrictions on alcohol. Gaston was helped by discontent with the corruption endemic in the administration of President Ulysses S. Grant and the disunity among the Republicans, from whom Benjamin Butler siphoned votes with a third-party run.

Gaston ended up winning a comfortable victory. He became the first Democrat to win the governorship since before the Civil War, ending a string of consecutive Republican victories, his victory was an early indicator of the growing power of Irish Americans in the state, who made up an important base of his support. During his term as governor, Gaston was viewed as moderate, "more patriot than partisan", as one Boston newspaper put it. Gaston promoted the repeal of the state's prohibition law, replacing it with restrictions and licensing of alcohol sales determined by the cities and towns, he reduced the size of the state constabulary, which had enforced the old prohibition law. He came under criticism within his own party, for his failure to turn partisan Republican appointees out of their offices and replace them with Democratic stalwarts. Gaston's quest for a second term was ended by public outrage over his failure to sign the death warrant of convicted juvenile murderer Jesse Pomeroy. Pomeroy fourteen years old, had been convicted in December 1874 of first degree murder for killing a girl earlier that year, been sentenced to death.

There was public clamor favoring his execution after he attempted to escape from prison. Gaston, despite two rulings by the Governor's Council that clemency be denied, refused to sign the executio