United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
St Austell is a town in Cornwall, England, 10 miles south of Bodmin and 30 miles west of the border with Devon. St Austell is one of the largest towns in Cornwall. Named after Saint Austol, one of the earliest references to the village of St Austell is in John Leland's Itinerary, where he says "At S. Austelles is nothing notable but the paroch chirch". Not long after William Cookworthy discovered china clay at Tregonning Hill in west Cornwall, the same mineral was found in greater quantity in Hensbarrow downs north of St Austell. Clay mining soon took over from tin and copper mining as the principal industry in the area, this contributed enormously to the growth of the town; the clay industry only came into its own during the mid 19th to early 20th century, at a time when the falling prices of tin and other metals forced many mines to close down or convert to clay mining. The success and high profitability of the industry attracted many families whose breadwinner had been put out of work by the depression in the local metal mining industry, increased the population of the town considerably.
This meant that more businesses took root, providing more jobs and improving trade. This, along with other factors, led to St Austell becoming one of the ten most important commercial centres of Cornwall. Work began in 1963 on a brutalist-style pedestrian precinct which included shops and flats; the design was by Alister MacDonald & Partners and the materials reinforced concrete with some stone facing. In the 2000s this area of the town had become outdated, underwent a £75 million redevelopment process. In August 2007, developers David McLean and demolition team Gilpin moved onto the town centre site to complete the preparation, with the Filmcentre, an Odeon cinema dating back to 1936, being demolished in late September/early October. In October 2007, the South West of England Regional Development Agency announced the new development would be named White River Place, it was announced that 50% of shop units had been leased to High Street stores, with New Look, Bonmarché and Wilko opening new stores.
This would mean New Look relocating from its current premises in Fore Street and the return of Peacocks to St Austell following the demolition of its old store to make way for the new development. Bonmarche has since closed. In October 2008, it was announced that the developer David McLean Developments had gone into administration and concern was expressed that this could jeopardise the completion of the project. In December 2008, the new White River Cinema opened its doors for the first time: the cinema is technically advanced and the first purpose-built cinema in Cornwall for over 60 years; the Torchlight Carnival was revived in November 2009 as a direct result of public demand through a survey conducted with local residents. The Torchlight Procession has become an important event in the town's calendar, heralding in the Winter celebrations and drawing thousands of people from across Cornwall and Devon; the event is run by a small group of non affiliated volunteers. The St Austell and Clay Country Eco-town is a plan for several new settlements around St Austell on old Imerys sites.
It was given outline government approval in July 2009. In July 2011, the Cornwall Council strategic planning committee voted to approve a £250 million beach resort scheme at Carlyon Bay, St Austell; the development was proposed in 2003. The arms of St Austell are Arg. A saltire raguly Gu. St Austell is in the parliamentary constituency of St Austell and Newquay, created in 2010 by the Boundary Commission for England. Before 2010 it was in the St Austell seat; the main local authority is Cornwall Council, the unitary authority created as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England. The six former Districts and the former Cornwall County Council were abolished and replaced by Cornwall Council on 1 April 2009. On 1 April 2009, four new parishes were created for the St Austell area, they are: St Austell Town Council covering Bethel, Mount Charles and Holmbush. Carlyon Parish Council covering Carlyon Bay and Tregrehan. St Austell Bay Parish Council covering Charlestown, Duporth and Trenarren.
Pentewan Valley Parish Council covering Tregorrick, London Apprentice and Pentewan. Before this date the area had been an unparished area. St Austell is the main centre of the china clay industry in Cornwall and employs around 2,200 people as of 2006, with sales of £195 million; the St Austell Brewery, which celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2001, supplies cask ale to pubs in Cornwall and other parts of the country. Its flagship beer is St Austell Tribute. St Austell Brewery's first public house, The Seven Stars Inn, purchased in 1863, still stands today on East Hill in the town. Tregonissey House, the site of the company's first steam Brewery, built in 1870, can be seen in Market Hill. A brewery museum and visitor centre is open to the public on the present brewery site in Trevarthian Road; as in much of Cornwall and neighbouring counties, tourism is important to St Austell's economy. Tourists are drawn to the area by nearby beaches and attractions such as the Eden Project, sited in a former clay pit, the Lost Gardens of Heligan.
The China Clay Country Park, in a former china-clay pit two miles north of the town, tells the story of the men and children w
Manure is organic matter derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen, that are utilised by bacteria and other organisms in the soil. Higher organisms feed on the fungi and bacteria in a chain of life that comprises the soil food web. In the past, the term "manure" included inorganic fertilizers, but this usage is now rare. There are three main classes of manures used in soil management: Most animal manure consists of feces. Common forms of animal manure include farmyard farm slurry. FYM contains plant material, used as bedding for animals and has absorbed the feces and urine. Agricultural manure in liquid form, known as slurry, is produced by more intensive livestock rearing systems where concrete or slats are used, instead of straw bedding. Manure from different animals has different qualities and requires different application rates when used as fertilizer.
For example horses, pigs, chickens, turkeys and guano from seabirds and bats all have different properties. For instance, sheep manure is high in nitrogen and potash, while pig manure is low in both. Horses eat grass and a few weeds so horse manure can contain grass and weed seeds, as horses do not digest seeds the way that cattle do. Cattle manure is a good source of nitrogen as well as organic carbon. Chicken litter, coming from a bird, is concentrated in nitrogen and phosphate and is prized for both properties. Animal manures may be adulterated or contaminated with other animal products, such as wool, feathers and bone. Livestock feed can be mixed with the manure due to spillage. For example, chickens are fed meat and bone meal, an animal product, which can end up becoming mixed with chicken litter; some people refer to human excreta as human manure, the word "humanure" has been used. Just like animal manure, it can be applied as a soil conditioner. Sewage sludge is a material that contains human excreta, as it is generated after mixing excreta with water and treatment of the wastewater in a sewage treatment plant.
Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials. It is of plant origin, but includes some animal dung or bedding. Green manures are crops grown for the express purpose of plowing them in, thus increasing fertility through the incorporation of nutrients and organic matter into the soil. Leguminous plants such as clover are used for this, as they fix nitrogen using Rhizobia bacteria in specialized nodes in the root structure. Other types of plant matter used as manure include the contents of the rumens of slaughtered ruminants, spent grain and seaweed. Animal manure, such as chicken manure and cow dung, has been used for centuries as a fertilizer for farming, it can improve the soil structure so that the soil holds more nutrients and water, therefore becomes more fertile. Animal manure encourages soil microbial activity which promotes the soil's trace mineral supply, improving plant nutrition, it contains some nitrogen and other nutrients that assist the growth of plants. Manures with a unpleasant odor are knifed directly into the soil to reduce release of the odor.
Manure from pigs and cattle is spread on fields using a manure spreader. Due to the lower level of proteins in vegetable matter, herbivore manure has a milder smell than the dung of carnivores or omnivores. However, herbivore slurry that has undergone anaerobic fermentation may develop more unpleasant odors, this can be a problem in some agricultural regions. Poultry droppings are harmful to plants when fresh, but after a period of composting are valuable fertilizers. Manure is commercially composted and bagged and sold as a soil amendment. In 2018, Austrian scientists offered a method of paper production from cow manure. Any quantity of manure may be a source of pathogens or food spoilage organisms which may be carried by flies, rodents or a range of other vector organisms and cause disease or put food safety at risk. In 2007, a University of Minnesota study indicated that foods such as corn and potatoes have been found to accumulate antibiotics from soils spread with animal manure that contains these drugs.
Organic foods may be much more or much less to contain antibiotics, depending on their sources and treatment of manure. For instance, by Soil Association Standard 4.7.38, most organic arable farmers either have their own supply of manure or else rely on green manure crops for the extra fertility. On the other hand, as found in the University of Minnesota study, the non-usage of artificial fertilizers, resulting exclusive use of manure as fertilizer, by organic farmers can result in greater accumulations of antibiotics in organic foods. Application and environmental risks of livestock manure North American Manure Expo Cornell Manure Program County-Level Estimates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Animal Manure for the Conterminous United States, 2002 United States Geological Survey Manure Management, Water Quality Information Center, U. S. Department of Agriculture Livestock and Poultry Environmental Learning Center, an eXtension community
A hydraulic ram, or hydram, is a cyclic water pump powered by hydropower. It takes in water at one "hydraulic head" and flow rate, outputs water at a higher hydraulic head and lower flow rate; the device uses the water hammer effect to develop pressure that allows a portion of the input water that powers the pump to be lifted to a point higher than where the water started. The hydraulic ram is sometimes used in remote areas, where there is both a source of low-head hydropower and a need for pumping water to a destination higher in elevation than the source. In this situation, the ram is useful, since it requires no outside source of power other than the kinetic energy of flowing water. In 1772, John Whitehurst of Cheshire, United Kingdom, invented a manually controlled precursor of the hydraulic ram called the "pulsation engine" and installed the first one at Oulton, Cheshire to raise water to a height of 4.9 metres. In 1783, he installed another in Ireland, he did not patent it, details are obscure, but it is known to have had an air vessel.
The first self-acting ram pump was invented by the Frenchman Joseph Michel Montgolfier in 1796 for raising water in his paper mill at Voiron. His friend Matthew Boulton took out a British patent on his behalf in 1797; the sons of Montgolfier obtained a British patent for an improved version in 1816, this was acquired, together with Whitehurst's design, in 1820 by Josiah Easton, a Somerset-born engineer who had just moved to London. Easton's firm, inherited by his son James, grew during the nineteenth century to become one of the more important engineering manufacturers in the United Kingdom, with a large works at Erith, Kent, they sewerage systems worldwide, as well as land drainage projects. Eastons had a good business supplying rams for water supply purposes to large country houses and village communities; some of their installations still survived as of 2004, one such example being at the hamlet of Toller Whelme, in Dorset. Until about 1958 when the mains water arrived, the hamlet of East Dundry just south of Bristol had three working rams – their noisy "thump" every minute or so resonated through the valley night and day: these rams served farms that needed much water for their dairy herds.
The firm closed in 1909. In 1929, it was acquired by Green & Carter of Winchester, who were engaged in the manufacturing and installation of Vulcan and Vacher Rams; the first US patent was issued to Joseph Cerneau and Stephen S. Hallet in 1809. US interest in hydraulic rams picked up around 1840, as further patents were issued and domestic companies started offering rams for sale. Toward the end of the 19th century, interest waned as electricity and electric pumps became available. By the end of the twentieth century interest in hydraulic rams has revived, due to the needs of sustainable technology in developing countries, energy conservation in developed ones. A good example is AID Foundation International in the Philippines, who won an Ashden Award for their work developing ram pumps that could be maintained for use in remote villages; the hydraulic ram principle has been used in some proposals for exploiting wave power, one of, discussed as long ago as 1931 by Hanns Günther in his book In hundert Jahren.
Some ram designs in the UK called compound rams were designed to pump treated water using an untreated drive water source, which overcomes some of the problems of having drinking water sourced from an open stream. In 1996 an English engineer, Frederick Philip Selwyn, patented a ‘fluid pressure amplifier’ which differed in many ways to the contemporary ram technology by the development of a venturi effect waste valve. Known as the Papa pump, this utilises the low pressure generated by high velocity water flow around a curve-shaped elastomeric valve to allow a valve design that enables rapid closure and with a small cross sectional area and low weight; the venturi valve is configured as a ring section positioned around the supply inlet of the pump with the delivery outlet of the pump being directly in line. The design allowed the pump structure to be concentric and therefore inherently strong and upon closure of the valve, permits efficient water delivery by acting in line with the supply via a second smaller venturi effect delivery non return valve.
The elastomeric material and operation of these valves allows them to self-return without weight or spring assistance. A pressure vessel installed on a tee connected to the delivery port of the pump provides the pulsed flow accumulation means; this unique technology and design reduced the weight, manufacturing cost and number of components required - as well as provided an overall improvement in efficiency. Additional patents granted to Selwyn have since been developed by UK companies Papa Ltd and Water Powered Technologies Ltd of Bude, further enhancing the technology to include a composite material injection-moulded pump allowing for low cost mass production whilst maintaining high strength, low weight and high performance only attainable with metal units. Other novel developments include an automatic regulator valve which can be installed to the pumps to allow the maximum utilisation of water supply from low or seasonally variable water sources without the need to manually adjust the pumps - as well as much larger pump versions with one metre diameter inlets for large river, marine tidal and flood applications.
Systems have been developed and utilised for rainwater harvesting, water treatment and other water utility
In biology, a hybrid is the offspring resulting from combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, species or genera through sexual reproduction. Hybrids are not always intermediates between their parents, but can show hybrid vigour, sometimes growing larger or taller than either parent; the concept of a hybrid is interpreted differently in animal and plant breeding, where there is interest in the individual parentage. In genetics, attention is focused on the numbers of chromosomes. In taxonomy, a key question is how related the parent species are. Species are reproductively isolated by strong barriers to hybridisation, which include morphological differences, differing times of fertility, mating behaviors and cues, physiological rejection of sperm cells or the developing embryo; some act before fertilization and others after it. Similar barriers exist in plants, with differences in flowering times, pollen vectors, inhibition of pollen tube growth, somatoplastic sterility, cytoplasmic-genic male sterility and the structure of the chromosomes.
A few animal species and many plant species, are the result of hybrid speciation, including important crop plants such as wheat, where the number of chromosomes has been doubled. Human impact on the environment has resulted in an increase in the interbreeding between regional species, the proliferation of introduced species worldwide has resulted in an increase in hybridisation; this genetic mixing may threaten many species with extinction, while genetic erosion in crop plants may be damaging the gene pools of many species for future breeding. A form of intentional human-mediated hybridisation is the crossing of wild and domesticated species; this is common in modern agriculture. One such flower, Oenothera lamarckiana, was central to early genetics research into mutationism and polyploidy, it is more done in the livestock and pet trades. Human selective breeding of domesticated animals and plants has resulted is the development of distinct breeds. Hybrid humans existed in prehistory. For example and anatomically modern humans are thought to have interbred as as 40,000 years ago.
Mythological hybrids appear in human culture in forms as diverse as the Minotaur, blends of animals and mythical beasts such as centaurs and sphinxes, the Nephilim of the Biblical apocrypha described as the wicked sons of fallen angels and attractive women. The term hybrid is derived from Latin hybrida, used for crosses such as of a tame sow and a wild boar; the term came into popular use in English in the 19th century, though examples of its use have been found from the early 17th century. Conspicuous hybrids are popularly named with portmanteau words, starting in the 1920s with the breeding of tiger–lion hybrids. From the point of view of animal and plant breeders, there are several kinds of hybrid formed from crosses within a species, such as between different breeds. Single cross hybrids result from the cross between two true-breeding organisms which produces an F1 hybrid; the cross between two different homozygous lines produces an F1 hybrid, heterozygous. The F1 generation is phenotypically homogeneous, producing offspring that are all similar to each other.
Double cross hybrids result from the cross between two different F1 hybrids. Three-way cross hybrids result from the cross between an inbred line. Triple cross hybrids result from the crossing of two different three-way cross hybrids. Top cross hybrids result from the crossing of a top quality or pure-bred male and a lower quality female, intended to improve the quality of the offspring, on average. Population hybrids result from the crossing of plants or animals in one population with those of another population; these crosses between different breeds. In horticulture, the term stable hybrid is used to describe an annual plant that, if grown and bred in a small monoculture free of external pollen produces offspring that are "true to type" with respect to phenotype. Hybridisation can occur in the hybrid zones where the geographical ranges of species, subspecies, or distinct genetic lineages overlap. For example, the butterfly Limenitis arthemis has two major subspecies in North America, L. a. arthemis and L. a. astyanax.
The white admiral has a bright, white band on its wings, while the red-spotted purple has cooler blue-green shades. Hybridisation occurs between a narrow area across New England, southern Ontario, the Great Lakes, the "suture region", it is at these regions. Other hybrid zones have formed between described species of animals. From the point of view of genetics, several different kinds of hybrid can be distinguished. A genetic hybrid carries two different alleles of the same gene, where for instance one allele may code for a lighter coat colour than the other. A structural hybrid results from the fusion of gametes that have differing structure in at least one chromosome, as a result of structural abnormalities. A numerical hybrid results from the fusion of gamet
Mevagissey is a village, fishing port and civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. The village is situated five miles south of St Austell; the parish population at the 2011 census was 2,015, whereas the ward population at the same census was 4,354. The village faces east to Mevagissey Bay; the inner and outer harbours are busy with a mixture of working fishing boats. It is the second biggest fishing port in Cornwall. Mevagissey village centre consists of narrow streets with many places to eat and shops aimed at the tourist trade; the outer areas are built on the steep slopes of the surrounding hillsides and are residential. The first recorded mention of Mevagissey dates from 1313, although there is evidence of settlement dating back to the Bronze Age; the old name of the parish was Lamorrick, it was part of the episcopal manor of Tregear. The church was dedicated to Saints Meva and Ida in 1259 by Bishop Bronescombe and in 1329 Sir Otho Bodrugan appropriated it to Glasney College; the Norman church was cruciform and some Norman work remains but the church was more or less rebuilt in the 15th century.
In the Commonwealth period the tower became ruinous and the bells were taken down and sold to a Quaker of St Austell. According to tradition there has been a church on the same site since about 500 AD. Meva may well be the same as St Mewan and Issey is the patron saint of St Issey. Mevagissey is home to three Cornish holy wells; the Brass Well and Lady's Well are both situated in the manor of Treleaven, the other holy well is within the gardens of Mevagissey House, the old vicarage. Towards the end of the 17th century, Porthhilly merged with the hamlet of Lamoreck to make the new village, it was re-named "Meva hag Ysi", after two saints. There is no evidence for why this new name was adopted but it may have been due to the Church replacing a Cornish name with a Christian one; the modern Cornish name is Lannvorek, after the old parish name. At this time the main sources of income for the village were pilchard fishing and smuggling and the village had at least ten inns, of which the Fountain and the Ship still remain.
Andrew Pears, the founder of Pears' Soap was born in the village in 1768 and set up a barber's shop here until he moved to London in 1789. The harbour is built on the site of a medieval quay; the first Act of Parliament allowing the new port to be built was passed in 1774. The inner harbour, consisting of the current East and West Quays, was constructed from this time. An outer harbour was added in 1888, but damaged in a blizzard in 1891; the outer walls were rebuilt by 1897. The harbour was given charitable trust status in 1988; the Royal National Lifeboat Institution stationed a lifeboat at Portmellon in 1869, but in 1888 moved it to Mevagissey. It was kept afloat in the harbour for a few years but in 1896 was moved into a purpose-built concrete boat house; the following year the James Chisholm, was installed. This operated until 1930; the neighbouring station at Fowey had been equipped with a motor lifeboat and this could cover the coast around Mevagissey. The old boat house has since been used as an aquarium.
Mevagissey lighthouse was built in 1896 to mark the south breakwater that protects the small harbour. In 1880 there were around sixty fishing-boats engaged in the mackerel fishery, herring and pilchards were important fisheries. Pilchards were imported from Plymouth for curing at the Cornish Sardine Factory and the imported salt was used for adding to butter at the same factory. Barley, grown nearby, was exported to Campbeltown, Scotland. There are 63 registered fishing vessels in the harbour worked by 69 fishermen; the harbour offers tourist fishing trips and there is a regular summer passenger ferry to Fowey. The Heligan estate is located on the steep slopes above Mevagissey, albeit in the adjoining civil parish of St Ewe; the long term home of the Tremayne family, the estate is now best known as the location of the Lost Gardens of Heligan, a restored Victorian garden. Each year at the end of June, Mevagissey celebrates Feast Week, a week of family fun and floral dances through the streets. At the end of the week there is a fireworks display.
Mevagissey is within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty which along with National Parks, are considered to be the most special landscapes in the country and belong to an international family of protected areas. It is a designation aimed at enhancing the natural beauty of the area. A park in Mevagissey is popularly named Hitler's Walk by locals. Local folklore attributes this naming to the 1930s use of the park by a local councillor, perceived to have displayed petty authoritarian tendencies; the park was the subject of controversy and national news headlines in September 2005 when signs bearing the name were removed after complaints to Restormel Borough Council, again in January 2015 after the Mevagissey Parish Council decided to reinstate them. Harvey Kurzfield of Kehillat Kernow described the decision to restore the signage as "outrageous and unfeeling" and urged Jewish people to boycott the village. In February 2015 it was reported; the writer Susan Cooper based two of her books (Over Sea, Under St
St Ewe is a civil parish and village in mid-Cornwall, United Kingdom, believed by hagiographers to have been named after the English moniker of Saint Avoye. The village is situated five miles southwest of St Austell. Evidence of early medieval habitation is in the form of a roadside Celtic cross that once stood near Nunnery Hill. However, the crosshead and shaft were thrown down in 1873 by a farmer looking for buried treasure, both pieces were afterwards lost; the base has survived in situ with an inscription in insular script, unreadable except for the word crucem. There is another cross at about half a mile east of the churchtown; this cross is known as Beacon Cross since its site is known as the Beacon. There is a cross at Heligan known as Bokiddick Cross; the cross in the churchtown stands on a massive base, the only original part of it. The stones forming the cross came from elsewhere and nothing is known about the design of the original cross; the parish church is dedicated to St Ewe, a female saint of whom little is known.
She is believed by hagiographers to be Saint Avoye of Sicily, although traditions about her life vary in content. The church was a Norman cruciform building: the tower and spire were added in the 14th century and the south aisle in the 15th. There is a fine 15th-century rood screen; the small manor of Lanewa was for a long time linked to the advowson of the church. At Tucoyse was a Wesleyan Methodist chapel, there were Bible Christian chapels at Polmassick, Paramore and Lower Sticker; the Heligan estate is located at the eastern edge of the parish of St Ewe, overlooking the small port of Mevagissey. The long-term home of the Tremayne family, the estate is now best known as the location of the Lost Gardens of Heligan, a restored Victorian garden. St Ewe was surveyed for the Survey of English Dialects; the St Ewe Parish Website: http://st-ewe-parish.co.uk Genuki Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for St Ewe