Ezra Weston Loomis Pound was an expatriate American poet and critic, a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement. His contribution to poetry began with his development of Imagism, a movement derived from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry, stressing clarity and economy of language, his works include Hugh Selwyn Mauberley and the unfinished 120-section epic, The Cantos. Pound worked in London during the early 20th century as foreign editor of several American literary magazines, helped discover and shape the work of contemporaries such as T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Robert Frost and Ernest Hemingway. Angered by the carnage of World War I, Pound lost faith in Great Britain and blamed the war on usury and international capitalism, he moved to Italy in 1924 and throughout the 1930s and 1940s embraced Benito Mussolini's fascism, expressed support for Adolf Hitler, wrote for publications owned by the British fascist Sir Oswald Mosley. During World War II, he was paid by the Italian government to make hundreds of radio broadcasts criticizing the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Jews, as a result of which he was arrested in 1945 by American forces in Italy on charges of treason.
He spent months in detention in a U. S. military camp in Pisa, including three weeks in a 6-by-6-foot outdoor steel cage, which he said triggered a mental breakdown: "when the raft broke and the waters went over me". The following year he was deemed unfit to stand trial, incarcerated in St. Elizabeths psychiatric hospital in Washington, D. C. for over 12 years. Pound began work on sections of The Cantos while in custody in Italy; these parts were published as The Pisan Cantos, for which he was awarded the Bollingen Prize in 1949 by the Library of Congress, leading to enormous controversy. Due to a campaign by his fellow writers, he was released from St. Elizabeths in 1958 and returned to live in Italy until his death, his political views ensure. Hemingway wrote: "The best of Pound's writing—and it is in the Cantos—will last as long as there is any literature." Pound was born in a small, two-story house in Hailey, Idaho Territory, the only child of Homer Loomis Pound and Isabel Weston. His father had worked in Hailey since 1883 as registrar of the General Land Office.
Both parents' ancestors had emigrated from England in the 17th century. On his mother's side, Pound was descended from William Wadsworth, a Puritan who emigrated to Boston on the Lion in 1632; the Wadsworths married into the Westons of New York. Harding Weston and Mary Parker were the parents of Ezra's mother. Harding spent most of his life without work, with his brother, Ezra Weston, his brother's wife, looking after Mary and Isabel's needs. On his father's side, the immigrant ancestor was John Pound, a Quaker, who arrived from England around 1650. Ezra's grandfather, Thaddeus Coleman Pound, was a Republican Congressman from northwest Wisconsin who had made and lost a fortune in the lumber business. Thaddeus's son Homer, Pound's father, worked for Thaddeus in the lumber business until Thaddeus secured him the appointment as registrar of the Hailey land office. Homer and Isabel married Homer built a house in Hailey. Isabel took Ezra with her to New York in 1887, when he was 18 months old. Homer followed them, in 1889 he found a job as an assayer at the Philadelphia Mint.
The family moved to Jenkintown, in 1893 bought a six-bedroom house in Wyncote. Pound's education began in a series of dame schools, some of them run by Quakers: Miss Elliott's school in Jenkintown in 1892, the Heathcock family's Chelten Hills School in Wyncote in 1893, the Florence Ridpath school from 1894 in Wyncote, his first publication was on 7 November 1896 in the Jenkintown Times-Chronicle, a limerick about William Jennings Bryan, who had just lost the 1896 presidential election: "There was a young man from the West, / He did what he could for what he thought best. The boys wore Civil War-style uniforms and besides Latin were taught English, arithmetic, military drilling and the importance of submitting to authority. Pound made his first trip overseas in mid-1898 when he was 13, a three-month tour of Europe with his mother and Frances Weston, who took him to England, Germany and Italy. After the academy he may have attended Cheltenham Township High School for one year, in 1901, aged 15, he was admitted to the University of Pennsylvania's College of Liberal Arts.
Pound met Hilda Doolittle at Pennsylvania in 1901, she became his first serious romance. In 1911 she became involved in developing the Imagism movement. Between 1905 and 1907 Pound wrote a number of poems for her, 25 of which he hand-bound and called Hilda's Book, in 1908 he asked her father, the astronomy professor Charles Doolittle, for permission to marry her, but Doolittle dismissed Pound as a nomad. Pound was seeing two other women at the same time—Viola Baxter and Mary Moore—later dedicating a book of poetry, Personae, to the latter, he asked Moore to marry him too. His parents and Frances Weston took Pound on an
The Sun Also Rises
The Sun Also Rises, a 1926 novel by American Ernest Hemingway, portrays American and British expatriates who travel from Paris to the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona to watch the running of the bulls and the bullfights. An early and enduring modernist novel, it received mixed reviews upon publication. However, Hemingway biographer Jeffrey Meyers writes that it is now "recognized as Hemingway's greatest work", Hemingway scholar Linda Wagner-Martin calls it his most important novel; the novel was published in the United States in October 1926 by Scribner's. A year Jonathan Cape published the novel in London under the title Fiesta, it remains in print. Hemingway began writing the novel on his birthday—21 July—in 1925, finished the draft manuscript two months in September. After setting aside the manuscript for a short period, he worked on revisions during the winter of 1926; the basis for the novel was Hemingway's trip to Spain in 1925. The setting was unique and memorable, depicting sordid café life in Paris and the excitement of the Pamplona festival, with a middle section devoted to descriptions of a fishing trip in the Pyrenees.
Hemingway's sparse writing style, combined with his restrained use of description to convey characterizations and action, demonstrates his "Iceberg Theory" of writing. The novel is a roman à clef: the characters are based on real people in Hemingway's circle, the action is based on real events. Hemingway presents his notion that the "Lost Generation"—considered to have been decadent and irretrievably damaged by World War I—was in fact resilient and strong. Hemingway investigates the themes of love and death, the revivifying power of nature, the concept of masculinity. In the 1920s Hemingway lived in Paris, was foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star, traveled to Smyrna to report about the Greco–Turkish War, he wanted to use his journalism experience to write fiction, believing that a story could be based on real events when a writer distilled his own experiences in such a way that, according to biographer Jeffrey Meyers, "what he made up was truer than what he remembered". With his wife Hadley Richardson, Hemingway first visited the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona, Spain, in 1923, where he was following his recent passion for bullfighting.
The couple returned to Pamplona in 1924—enjoying the trip immensely—this time accompanied by Chink Dorman-Smith, John Dos Passos, Donald Ogden Stewart and his wife. The two stayed at the hotel of his friend Juanito Quintana; that year, they brought with them a different group of American and British expatriates: Hemingway's Michigan boyhood friend Bill Smith, Stewart divorced Duff, Lady Twysden, her lover Pat Guthrie, Harold Loeb. In Pamplona, the group disintegrated. Hemingway, attracted to Duff, was jealous of Loeb, on a romantic getaway with her. Against this background was the influence of the young matador from Ronda, Cayetano Ordóñez, whose brilliance in the bullring affected the spectators. Ordóñez honored Hemingway's wife by presenting her, from the bullring, with the ear of a bull he killed. Outside of Pamplona, the fishing trip to the Irati River was marred by polluted water. Hemingway had intended to write a nonfiction book about bullfighting, but decided that the week's experiences had presented him with enough material for a novel.
A few days after the fiesta ended, on his birthday, he began writing what would become The Sun Also Rises. By 17 August, with 14 chapters written and a working title of Fiesta chosen, Hemingway returned to Paris, he finished the draft on 21 September 1925, writing a foreword the following weekend and changing the title to The Lost Generation. A few months in December 1925, Hemingway and his wife spent the winter in Schruns, where he began revising the manuscript extensively. Pauline Pfeiffer joined them in January, and—against Hadley's advice—urged him to sign a contract with Scribner's. Hemingway left Austria for a quick trip to New York to meet with the publishers, on his return, during a stop in Paris, began an affair with Pauline, he returned to Schruns to finish the revisions in March. In June, he was in Pamplona with both Pfeiffer. On their return to Paris, Richardson asked for a separation, left for the south of France. In August, alone in Paris, Hemingway completed the proofs, dedicating the novel to his son.
After the publication of the book in October, Hadley asked for a divorce. Hemingway maneuvered Boni & Liveright into terminating their contract so he could have The Sun Also Rises published by Scribner's instead. In December 1925 he wrote The Torrents of Spring—a satirical novella attacking Sherwood Anderson—and sent it to his publishers Boni & Liveright, his three-book contract with them included a termination clause should they reject a single submission. Unamused by the satire against one of their most saleable authors, Boni & Liveright rejected it and terminated the contract. Within weeks Hemingway signed a contract with Scribner's, who agreed to publish The Torrents of Spring and all of his subsequent work. Scribner's published the novel on 22 October 1926, its first edition consisted of 5090 copies. Cleonike Damianakes illustrated the dust jacket with a Hellenistic design of a seated, robed woman, her head bent to her shoulder, eyes closed, one hand holding an apple, her shoulders and a thigh exposed.
Editor Maxwell Perkins intended "Cleon's respectably sexy" design to attract "the feminine readers who control the destinies of so many novels". Two
Gertrude Stein was an American novelist, poet and art collector. Born in the Allegheny West neighborhood of Pittsburgh, raised in Oakland, Stein moved to Paris in 1903, made France her home for the remainder of her life, she hosted a Paris salon, where the leading figures of modernism in literature and art, such as Pablo Picasso, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sinclair Lewis, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson and Henri Matisse, would meet. In 1933, Stein published a quasi-memoir of her Paris years, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, written in the voice of Alice B. Toklas, her life partner; the book became a literary bestseller and vaulted Stein from the relative obscurity of the cult-literature scene into the limelight of mainstream attention. Two quotes from her works have become known: "Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose," and "there is no there there", with the latter taken to be a reference to her childhood home of Oakland, her books include Q. E. D. about a lesbian romantic affair involving several of Stein's friends, Fernhurst, a fictional story about a love triangle, Three Lives, The Making of Americans.
In Tender Buttons, Stein commented on lesbian sexuality. Her activities during World War II have been the subject of commentary; as a Jew living in Nazi-occupied France, Stein may have only been able to sustain her lifestyle as an art collector, indeed to ensure her physical safety, through the protection of the powerful Vichy government official and Nazi collaborator Bernard Faÿ. After the war ended, Stein expressed admiration for another Nazi collaborator, Vichy leader Marshal Pétain; some have argued that certain accounts of Stein's wartime activities have amounted to a "witch hunt". Stein, the youngest of a family of five children, was born on February 3, 1874, in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, to upper-middle-class Jewish parents and Amelia Stein, her father was a wealthy businessman with real estate holdings. German and English were spoken in their home; when Stein was three years old and her family moved to Vienna, Paris. Accompanied by governesses and tutors, the Steins endeavored to imbue their children with the cultured sensibilities of European history and life.
After a year-long sojourn abroad, they returned to America in 1878, settling in Oakland, where her father became director of San Francisco's street car lines, the Market Street Railway, in an era when public transportation was a owned enterprise. Stein attended First Hebrew Congregation of Oakland's Sabbath school. During their residence in Oakland, they lived for four years on a ten-acre lot, Stein built many memories of California there, she would go on excursions with her brother, with whom she developed a close relationship. Stein found formal schooling in Oakland unstimulating, but she read often: Shakespeare, Scott, Smollett and more; when Stein was 14 years old, her mother died. Three years her father died as well. Stein's eldest brother, Michael Stein took over the family business holdings and in 1892 arranged for Gertrude and another sister, Bertha, to live with their mother's family in Baltimore. Here she lived with her uncle David Bachrach, who in 1877 had married Gertrude's maternal aunt, Fanny Keyser.
In Baltimore, Stein met Claribel and Etta Cone, who held Saturday evening salons that she would emulate in Paris. The Cones shared an appreciation for art and conversation about it and modeled a domestic division of labor that Stein would replicate in her relationship with Alice B. Toklas. Stein attended Radcliffe College an annex of Harvard University, from 1893 to 1897 and was a student of psychologist William James. With James's supervision and another student, Leon Mendez Solomons, performed experiments on normal motor automatism, a phenomenon hypothesized to occur in people when their attention is divided between two simultaneous intelligent activities such as writing and speaking; these experiments yielded examples of writing that appeared to represent "stream of consciousness", a psychological theory attributed to James and the style of modernist authors Virginia Woolf and James Joyce. In 1934, behavioral psychologist B. F. Skinner interpreted Stein's difficult poem Tender Buttons as an example of normal motor automatism.
In a letter Stein wrote during the 1930s, she explained that she never accepted the theory of automatic writing: "here can be automatic movements, but not automatic writing. Writing for the normal person is too complicated an activity to be indulged in automatically." She did publish an article in a psychological journal on "spontaneous automatic writing" while at Radcliffe, but "the unconscious and the intuition never concerned her."At Radcliffe, she began a lifelong friendship with Mabel Foote Weeks, whose correspondence traces much of the progression of Stein's life. In 1897, Stein spent the summer in Woods Hole, studying embryology at the Marine Biological Laboratory, she received her A. B. magna cum laude from Radcliffe in 1898. William James, who had become a committed mentor to Stein at Radcliffe, recognizing her intellectual potential, declaring her his "most brilliant woman student", encouraged Stein to enroll in medical school. Although Stein professed no interest in either the theory or practice of medicine, she enrolled at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1897.
In her fourth year, Stein failed an important course, lost interest, left. Medical school had bored her, she had spent many of her evenings not applying herself to her studies, but taking long walks and atten
Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC was an English poet and soldier. He was one of the leading poets of the First World War, his war poetry on the horrors of trenches and gas warfare was influenced by his mentor Siegfried Sassoon, stood in stark contrast both to the public perception of war at the time and to the confidently patriotic verse written by earlier war poets such as Rupert Brooke. Among his best-known works – most of which were published posthumously – are "Dulce et Decorum est", "Insensibility", "Anthem for Doomed Youth", "Futility", "Spring Offensive" and "Strange Meeting". Owen was born on 18 March 1893 at a house in Weston Lane, near Oswestry in Shropshire, he was the eldest of Susan Owen's four children. When Wilfred was born, his parents lived in a comfortable house owned by his grandfather, Edward Shaw. After Edward's death in January 1897, the house's sale in March, the family lodged in the back streets of Birkenhead. There Thomas Owen temporarily worked in the town employed by a railway company.
Thomas transferred to Shrewsbury in April 1897 where the family lived with Thomas' parents in Canon Street. Thomas Owen transferred back to Birkenhead, again in 1898 when he became stationmaster at Woodside station; the family lived with him at three successive homes in the Tranmere district, They moved back to Shrewsbury in 1907. Wilfred Owen was educated at Shrewsbury Technical School. Owen discovered his poetic vocation in about 1904 during a holiday spent in Cheshire, he was raised as an Anglican of the evangelical type, in his youth was a devout believer, in part due to his strong relationship with his mother, which lasted throughout his life. His early influences included the Bible and the "big six" of romantic poetry John Keats. Owen's last two years of formal education saw him as a pupil-teacher at the Wyle Cop school in Shrewsbury. In 1911 he passed the matriculation exam for the University of London, but not with the first-class honours needed for a scholarship, which in his family's circumstances was the only way he could have afforded to attend.
In return for free lodging, some tuition for the entrance exam Owen worked as lay assistant to the Vicar of Dunsden near Reading, living in the vicarage from September 1911 to February 1913. During this time he attended classes at University College, Reading, in botany and at the urging of the head of the English Department, took free lessons in Old English, his time spent at Dunsden parish led him to disillusionment with the Church, both in its ceremony and its failure to provide aid for those in need. From 1913 he worked as a private tutor teaching English and French at the Berlitz School of Languages in Bordeaux and with a family. There he met the older French poet Laurent Tailhade, with whom he corresponded in French; when war broke out, Owen did not rush to enlist – and considered the French army – but returned to England. On 21 October 1915, he enlisted in the Artists Rifles Officers' Training Corps. For the next seven months, he trained at Hare Hall Camp in Essex. On 4 June 1916, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Manchester Regiment.
Owen held his troops in contempt for their loutish behaviour, in a letter to his mother described his company as "expressionless lumps". However, his imaginative existence was to be changed by a number of traumatic experiences, he suffered concussion. Soon afterward, Owen was diagnosed as suffering from neurasthenia or shell shock and sent to Craiglockhart War Hospital in Edinburgh for treatment, it was while recuperating at Craiglockhart that he met fellow poet Siegfried Sassoon, an encounter, to transform Owen's life. Whilst at Craiglockhart he made friends in Edinburgh's artistic and literary circles, did some teaching at the Tynecastle High School, in a poor area of the city. In November he was discharged from Craiglockhart, judged fit for light regimental duties, he spent a contented and fruitful winter in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, in March 1918 was posted to the Northern Command Depot at Ripon. While in Ripon he composed or revised a number of poems, including "Futility" and "Strange Meeting".
His 25th birthday was spent at Ripon Cathedral, dedicated to his namesake, St. Wilfrid of Hexham. Owen returned in July 1918, to active service in France, although he might have stayed on home-duty indefinitely, his decision to return was the result of Sassoon's being sent back to England, after being shot in the head in an apparent "friendly fire" incident, put on sick-leave for the remaining duration of the war. Owen saw it as his duty to add his voice to that of Sassoon, that the horrific realities of the war might continue to be told. Sassoon was violently opposed to the idea of Owen returning to the trenches, threatening to "stab in the leg" if he tried it. Aware of his attitude, Owen did not inform him of his action. At the end of August 1918, Owen returned to the front line – imitating Sassoon's example. On 1 October 1918 Owen led units of the Second Manchesters to storm a number of enemy strong points near the village of Joncourt. For his courage and leadership in the Joncourt action, he was awarded the Military Cross, an award he had always sought in order to justify himself as a war poet, but the award wa
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
The Great Gatsby
The Great Gatsby is a 1925 novel written by American author F. Scott Fitzgerald that follows a cast of characters living in the fictional towns of West Egg and East Egg on prosperous Long Island in the summer of 1922; the story concerns the young and mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby and his quixotic passion and obsession with the beautiful former debutante Daisy Buchanan. Considered to be Fitzgerald's magnum opus, The Great Gatsby explores themes of decadence, resistance to change, social upheaval, excess, creating a portrait of the Roaring Twenties, described as a cautionary tale regarding the American Dream. Fitzgerald—inspired by the parties he had attended while visiting Long Island's North Shore—began planning the novel in 1923, desiring to produce, in his words, "something new—something extraordinary and beautiful and simple and intricately patterned." Progress was slow, with Fitzgerald completing his first draft following a move to the French Riviera in 1924. His editor, Maxwell Perkins, felt the book was vague and persuaded the author to revise over the following winter.
Fitzgerald was ambivalent about the book's title and he considered a variety of alternatives, including titles that referred to the Roman character Trimalchio. First published by Scribner's in April 1925, The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews and sold poorly. Fitzgerald died in 1940, believing himself to be his work forgotten. However, the novel experienced a revival during World War II, became a part of American high school curricula and numerous stage and film adaptations in the following decades. Today, The Great Gatsby is considered to be a literary classic and a contender for the title "Great American Novel." Set on the prosperous Long Island of 1922, The Great Gatsby provides a critical social history of America during the Roaring Twenties within its fictional narrative. That era, known for widespread economic prosperity, the development of jazz music, flapper culture, new technologies in communication forging a genuine mass culture, bootlegging, along with other criminal activity, is plausibly depicted in Fitzgerald's novel.
Fitzgerald uses many of these societal developments of the 1920s to build Gatsby's stories, from many of the simple details like automobiles to broader themes like Fitzgerald's discreet allusions to the organized crime culture, the source of Gatsby's fortune. Fitzgerald depicts the garish society of the Roaring Twenties by placing the book's plotline within the historical context of the era. Fitzgerald's visits to Long Island's North Shore and his experience attending parties at mansions inspired The Great Gatsby's setting. Today, there are a number of theories as to. One possibility is Land's End, a notable Gold Coast Mansion where Fitzgerald may have attended a party. Many of the events in Fitzgerald's early life are reflected throughout The Great Gatsby. Fitzgerald was a young man from Minnesota, like Nick, who went to Yale, he was educated at an Ivy League school, Princeton. Fitzgerald is similar to Jay Gatsby in that he fell in love while stationed far from home in the military and fell into a life of decadence trying to prove himself to the girl he loved.
Fitzgerald was stationed at Camp Sheridan in Montgomery, Alabama. There he fell in love with a wild 17-year-old beauty named Zelda Sayre. Zelda agreed to marry him, but her preference for wealth and leisure led her to delay their wedding until he could prove a success. Like Nick in The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald found this new lifestyle seductive and exciting, like Gatsby, he had always idolized the rich. In many ways, The Great Gatsby represents Fitzgerald's attempt to confront his conflicted feelings about the Jazz Age. Like Gatsby, Fitzgerald was driven by his love for a woman who symbolized everything he wanted as she led him toward everything he despised. In her book Careless People: Murder and the Invention of The Great Gatsby, Sarah Churchwell speculates that parts of the ending of The Great Gatsby were based on the Hall-Mills Case. Based on her forensic search for clues, she asserts that the two victims in the Hall-Mills murder case inspired the characters who were murdered in The Great Gatsby.
In the summer of 1922, Nick Carraway, a Yale graduate and veteran of the Great War from the Midwest—who serves as the novel's narrator—takes a job in New York as a bond salesman. He rents a small house on Long Island, in the fictional village of West Egg, next door to the lavish mansion of Jay Gatsby, a mysterious multi-millionaire who holds extravagant parties but does not participate in them. Nick drives around the bay to East Egg for dinner at the home of his beautiful cousin, Daisy Fay Buchanan, her husband, Tom, a college acquaintance of Nick's, they introduce Nick to an attractive, cynical young golfer. She reveals to Nick that Tom has a mistress, Myrtle Wilson, who lives in the "valley of ashes," an industrial dumping ground between West Egg and New York City. Not long after this revelation, Nick travels to New York City with Tom and Myrtle to an apartment that Tom uses like a hotel room for Myrtle, as well as other women with whom he sleeps. At Tom's New York apartment, a vulgar and bizarre party takes place.
It ends with Tom physically abusing Myrtle, breaking her nose in the process, after she says Daisy's name several times, which makes him angry. Nick receives an invitation to one of Gatsby's parties. Nick encounters Jordan Baker at the party and they meet Gatsby himself, an aloo
Generation Z or Gen Z known by a number of other names, is the demographic cohort after the Millennials. Demographers and researchers use the mid-1990s to mid-2000s as starting birth years. There is little consensus regarding ending birth years. Most of Generation Z have used the Internet since a young age and are comfortable with technology and social media. William Strauss and Neil Howe wrote several books on the subject of generations and are credited with coining the term Millennials. Howe has said "No one knows who will name the next generation after the Millennials". In 2005, their company sponsored an online contest in which respondents voted overwhelmingly for the name Homeland Generation; that was not long after the September 11th terrorist attacks, one fallout of the disaster was that Americans may have felt more safe staying at home. Howe has described himself as "not wed" to the name and cautioned that "names are being invented by people who have a great press release. Everyone is looking for a hook."In 2012, USA Today sponsored an online contest for readers to choose the name of the next generation after the Millennials.
The name Generation Z was suggested, although journalist Bruce Horovitz thought that some might find the term "off-putting". Some other names that were proposed included: iGeneration, Gen Tech, Gen Wii, Net Gen, Digital Natives, Plurals. Post-Millennial is a name given by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services and Pew Research in statistics published in 2016 showing the relative sizes and dates of the generations; the same sources showed that as of April 2016, the Millennial generation surpassed the population of Baby Boomers in the USA, the Post-Millennials were ahead of the Millennials in another Health and Human Services survey.iGeneration is a name that several persons claim to have coined. Demographer Cheryl Russell claims to have first used the term in 2009. Psychology professor and author Jean Twenge claims that the name iGen "just popped into her head" while she was driving near Silicon Valley, that she had intended to use it as the title of her 2006 book Generation Me about the Millennial generation, until it was overridden by her publisher.
In 2012, Ad Age magazine thought that iGen was "the name that best fits and will best lead to understanding of this generation". In 2014, an NPR news intern noted that iGeneration "seems to be winning" as the name for the post-Millennials. In September 2018, Jean Twenge saw smartphones and social media as raising an unhappy, compliant "iGen", which she described as the generation born after 1995. Frank N. Magid Associates, an advertising and marketing agency, nicknamed this cohort The Pluralist Generation or Plurals. Turner Broadcasting System advocated calling the post-millennial generation Plurals. MTV has labeled the generation The Founders, based on the results of a survey they conducted in March 2015. MTV President Sean Atkins commented, "they have this self-awareness that systems have been broken, but they can't be the generation that says we'll break it more." Kantar Futures has named this cohort The Centennials. In 2017, a BBC article was published that presented Generation Z individuals referring to themselves as innovative.
In 2017, an Exago article described that doing business today requires understanding of the solid link between innovation and individuals belonging to the Generation Z group. In 2018, a New York Times survey saw support for the name Delta Generation or Deltas; the Times staff selected Delta Generation as its favorite label, with one submitter explaining, "Delta is used to denote change and uncertainty in mathematics and the sciences, my generation was shaped by change and uncertainty."Statistics Canada has noted that the cohort is sometimes referred to as the Internet generation, as it is the first generation to have been born after the popularization of the Internet. In Japan, the cohort is described as Neo-Digital Natives, a step beyond the previous cohort described as Digital Natives. Digital Natives communicate by text or voice, while neo-digital natives use video or movies; this emphasizes the shift from PC to text to video among the neo-digital population. In March 2018, survivors of the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting, themselves members of Generation Z, started to refer to themselves as the mass shooting generation, though school shootings such as the Columbine High School massacre have been associated with earlier generations.
The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary describes Generation Z as generation of people born in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The Pew Research Center defines "Post-Millennials" as born from 1997 onward, choosing this date for "key political and social factors", including September 11th terrorist attacks; this date makes Post-Millennials four years of age or younger at the time of the attacks, so having little or no memory of the event. Pew indicated they would use 1997–2012 for future publications but would remain open to date recalibration. Statistics Canada defines Generation Z as starting from the birth year 1993. Statistics Canada does not recognize a traditional Millennials cohort and instead has Generation Z directly follow what it designates as Children of Baby boomers. Randstad Canada describes Generation Z as those born between 1995–2014. Australia's McCrindle Research Centre defines Generation Z as those born between 1995–2009, starting with a recorded rise in birth rates, fitting their newer definition of a generational span with a maximum of 15 years.
Sparks and Honey and psychologist Jean Twenge describe Generation Z as those born in 1995 or later. In Japan, generations are defined by a ten-year span with "Neo-Digital natives" beginning after 1