Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
Penzance railway station
Penzance railway station serves the town of Penzance in west Cornwall, England. It is the terminus of the Cornish Main Line from Plymouth, 327 miles from London Paddington via Bristol Temple Meads, it is managed by Great Western Railway who operate the train services, along with CrossCountry. The station was opened by the West Cornwall Railway on 11 March 1852 as the terminus of its line from Redruth. A fire in 1876 destroyed the goods shed and the wooden passenger buildings were replaced by the current station in 1879 to a design by William Lancaster Owen; the total cost was around £15,000 which included the roof which cost £5,000, for the iron and 50 tons of glass. The new platforms were used for the first time on 18 November 1879. However, the new station suffered from teething problems, as by 1880 it was reported that some settlement in the masonry and shrinkage of the iron in the roof had caused several sheets of the glazing to break. Further alterations were made in 1937 and again in 1983 when a new ticket office and buffet were opened.
The blocked-up archway in the wall that retains the hillside behind the platforms was used by the railway as a coal store. Freight traffic the busy fish trade, was handled in the former goods yard, where cars are now parked, adjacent to the bus station. An engine shed was here before being moved to the opposite side of the line near the end of the retaining wall, it has since been replaced by the new Penzance TMD outside the station at Long Rock. In November 1882 there were complaints about the paving, rail tracks and the difficulty for traffic to pass on the Albert Pier; the Borough Council requested the Railway Company to replace the paving with granite setts before relaying the rails. From 1996, South West Trains operated a weekly weekend service from London Waterloo as an extension of its service to Exeter St Davids; this ceased in December 2009. In 2012–13 the station's roof was refurbished. Platforms 1, 2 and 3 are within the main train shed. A large stone at the end of this platform welcomes people to Penzance in both Cornish.
This side of the station is built on the sea wall near the harbour. There is only one bi-directional line into/out of the station as far as the station at Marazion, as the former northbound line has been used to access Penzance TMD at Long Rock since 1977. Penzance is the terminus of the Cornish Main Line; the current journey time to or from Paddington is between six hours. Two operators serve Penzance. Great Western Railway operate a mixture of local trains to Plymouth and longer distance services to London Paddington; these include the Night Riviera overnight sleeping car service and the Golden Hind which offers an early morning service to London Paddington and an evening return. Other fast trains are the afternoon Royal Duchy. Services to London Paddington during the day use Class 43s, but other services use Class 150 and Class 153 DMUs; the Night Riviera uses a Class 57 locomotive hauling Mark 3 carriages. There are a limited number of CrossCountry trains providing a service to destinations in the midlands and north such as Birmingham New Street, Manchester Piccadilly and Edinburgh.
Penzance is the terminus of the longest train service in the United Kingdom, which runs from Aberdeen, boasts a length of 1,162 kilometres and a duration of 13 hrs 23 mins. Penzance is the second busiest station in Cornwall, Truro being the busiest with more than twice the number of passengers compared with Penzance. Comparing the year from April 2011 to that which started in April 2002, passenger numbers increased by 48%; the statistics cover twelve month periods. Penzance bus station is situated outside the station entrance, it is served by First National Express services. The Tourism Information Centre is located between the railway station entrance. Media related to Penzance railway station at Wikimedia Commons "Travel Centre". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. October 1982. P. 52. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965
Bristol Temple Meads railway station
Bristol Temple Meads is the oldest and largest railway station in Bristol, England. It is an important transport hub for public transport in the city. In addition to the train services there are bus services to many parts of the city and surrounding districts, a ferry to the city centre. Bristol's other major station, Bristol Parkway, is on the northern outskirts of the conurbation. Temple Meads was opened on 31 August 1840 as the western terminus of the Great Western Railway from London Paddington, 116 miles 31 chains from Paddington; the railway was the first to be designed by the British engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Soon the station was used by the Bristol and Exeter Railway, the Bristol and Gloucester Railway, the Bristol Harbour Railway and the Bristol and South Wales Union Railway. To accommodate the increasing number of trains, the station was expanded in the 1870s by Francis Fox and again between 1930 and 1935 by Percy Emerson Culverhouse. Brunel's terminus is no longer part of the operational station.
The historical significance of the station has been noted, most of the site is Grade I listed. The platforms are numbered 1 to 15 but passenger trains are confined to just eight tracks. Most platforms are numbered separately at each end, with odd numbers at the east end and numbers at the west. Platform 2 is not signalled for passenger trains, there is no platform 14. Temple Meads is managed by Network Rail and the majority of services are operated by the present-day Great Western Railway. Other operators are South Western Railway. In the 12 months to March 2014, 9.5 million entries and exits were recorded at the station. In Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations by Simon Jenkins, the station was one of only ten to be awarded five stars; the name Temple Meads derives from the nearby Temple Church, gutted by bombing during World War II. The word "meads" is a derivation of "mæd", an Old English variation of "mædwe", referring to the water meadows alongside the River Avon that were part of Temple parish.
As late as 1820 the site was undeveloped pasture outside the boundaries of the old city, some distance from the commercial centre. It lay between the Floating Harbour and the city's cattle market, built in 1830; the original terminus was built in 1839–41 for the Great Western Railway, the first passenger railway in Bristol, was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the railway's engineer. It was built to accommodate Brunel's 7 ft broad gauge; the station was on a viaduct to raise it above the level of the Floating Harbour and River Avon, the latter being crossed via the grade I listed Avon Bridge. The station was covered by a 200-foot train shed, extended beyond the platforms by 155 feet into a storage area and engine shed, fronted by an office building in the Tudor style. Train services to Bath commenced on 31 August 1840 and were extended to Paddington on 30 June 1841 following the completion of Box Tunnel. A few weeks before the start of the services to Paddington the Bristol and Exeter Railway had opened, on 14 June 1841, its trains reversing in and out of the GWR station.
The third railway at Temple Meads was the Bristol and Gloucester Railway, which opened on 8 July 1844 and was taken over by the Midland Railway on 1 July 1845. This used the GWR platforms, diverging onto its own line on the far side of the bridge over the Floating Harbour. Both these new railways were engineered by Brunel and were broad gauge. Brunel designed the Bristol and South Wales Union Railway, but this was not opened until 25 August 1863, nearly four years after his death, it terminated at Temple Meads. In 1845 the B&ER built its own station at right angles to the GWR station and an "express platform" on the curve linking the two lines so that through trains no longer had to reverse; the wooden B&ER station was known locally as "The Cowshed". The Bristol and Portishead Pier and Railway opened a branch off the Bristol and Exeter line west of the city on 18 April 1867, the trains being operated by the B&ER and using its platforms at Temple Meads. In 1850 an engine shed had been opened on the south bank of the River Avon on the east side of the line to the B&ER station.
Between 1859 and 1875, 23 engines were built in the workshops attached to the shed, including several distinctive Bristol and Exeter Railway 4-2-4T locomotives. The GWR built a 326-by-138-foot goods shed on the north side of the station adjacent to the Floating Harbour, with a small dock for transhipment of goods to barges. Wagons had to be lowered 12 feet to the goods shed on hoists. On 11 March 1872, a direct connection to the harbour was made in the form of the Bristol Harbour Railway, a joint operation of the three railways, which ran between the passenger station and the goods yard, across the street outside on a bridge, descended into a tunnel under the churchyard of St. Mary Redcliffe on its way to a wharf downstream of Bristol Bridge; the B&ER had a goods depot at Pylle Hill from 1850, the MR had an independent yard at Avonside Wharf on the opposite side of the Floating Harbour from 1858. On 29 May 1854 the Midland Railway laid a third rail along their line to Gloucester to provide mixed gauge so that it could operate 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge passenger trains while broad gauge goods trains could still run to collieries north of Bristol.
Sidings at South Wales Junction allowed traffic to be transhipped between wagons on the two different gauges. The GWR continued to operate its trains on the broad gauge, but on 3
The InterCity 125 is a diesel-powered passenger train built by British Rail Engineering Limited between 1975 and 1982. Each is made up of one at each end of six to nine Mark 3 carriages; the name is derived from its top operational speed of 125 mph. The sets were classified as Classes 253 and 254; as of July 2018, InterCity 125s remained in service with CrossCountry, East Midlands Trains, Great Western Railway, London North Eastern Railway and Network Rail. Most of those operating with GWR and LNER will be replaced by Class 800, 801 and 802s by December 2019. In the 1950s and early 1960s, the British Transport Commission was modernising its rail network. In particular, it wanted to increase intercity speeds, so that the railways could compete more with the new motorways; the government was unwilling to fund new railways, so the BTC focused its attention on increasing line speeds through the development of new trains and minor modifications to the existing infrastructure. A team of engineers was assembled at the Railway Technical Centre in Derby in the early 1960s, with the aim of designing and developing an Advanced Passenger Train, that would be capable of at least 125 miles per hour and incorporate many features not seen on British railways—such as tilting to allow higher speeds on curves.
The APT project had suffered repeated delays, in 1970, the British Railways Board decided that it was not sufficiently developed to be able to provide modernisation of the railways in the short term. Thus, at the instigation of Terry Miller, Chief Engineer, the BRB authorised the development of a high-speed diesel train for short-term use until the APT was able to take over. An operational prototype of this train was to be built by 1972; the prototype high-speed diesel train, to become the InterCity 125, was to be formed of a rake of passenger coaches sandwiched between two power cars, one at each end. The decision to use two power cars was taken early in the project as design engineers had calculated that the train would need 4,500 horsepower to sustain the required speed of 125 miles per hour on the routes for which it was being designed, it was established that no single "off-the-shelf" diesel engine was capable of producing such power. A factor in the decision was that the use of two locomotives, operating in push–pull formation, would cause less wear on the rails than a single, much heavier, locomotive.
The framework of the new locomotive, classified British Rail Class 41, was built at Crewe Works before being transferred to Derby Litchurch Lane Works for completion. The design of the locomotive incorporated a driving desk fitted around the driver, a sound-proofed door between the cab and the engine room, unusually, no side windows; the prototype became the first diesel locomotive in British railway history to use AC alternators in place of a DC generator, with the output converted to DC when used for traction. The prototype train of seven coaches and two locomotives was completed in August 1972 and by the autumn was running trials on the main line; the following year, high-speed testing was being undertaken on the "racing stretch" of the East Coast Main Line between York and Darlington. The set had been reduced to two power cars and five trailers, there seems to have been a concerted attempt to see how fast the train would go. On 6 June 1973 131 mph was reached, this maximum was raised as the days passed.
By 12 June a world diesel speed record of 143.2 mph was achieved. The drivers believed that 150 mph was possible but the BRB issued instructions for the high speed tests to cease, it was believed at the time that this was because the BRB wanted to promote the APT as the future of high speed rail travel in the UK. The fixed-formation concept was proven in trial running between 1973 and 1976, British Rail decided to build 27 production HSTs to transform InterCity services between London Paddington, Bristol and Swansea; the first production power car, numbered 43002, was delivered in late 1975, with a different appearance from the prototype. The streamlined front end lacked conventional buffers, the drawgear was hidden under a cowling; the single cab front window was much larger than the prototype's, side windows were included. There was no driving position at the inner end; the appearance of the train is the work of British designer Kenneth Grange. Grange was approached just to design the livery for the train, but under his own impetus decided to redesign the body, working with aerodynamics engineers.
As he put it, " It was rather quite brutal, rather clumsy. I thought,'Oh I'd like to get my hands on that', although the brief was nothing to do with the shape not at all." He went on to persuade them to adopt it. An InterCity 125 consists of two Class 43 diesel-electric power cars, each powered by 2,250 bhp Paxman Valenta engines, a set of six to nine Mark 3 coaches. Key features of the design are the high power-to-weight ratio of the locomotives, which were purpose-built for high-speed passenger travel, improved crashworthiness over previous models, bi-directional running avoiding the need for a locomotive to run around at terminating stations; until the HST's introduction, the maximum speed of British trains was limited to 100 miles per hour. The HST allowed a 25% increase in
Lostwithiel is a civil parish and small town in Cornwall, United Kingdom at the head of the estuary of the River Fowey. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 2,739; the Lostwithiel electoral ward had a population of 4,639 at the 2011 census. The name Lostwithiel comes from the Cornish "lostwydhyel" which means "tail of a wooded area"; the origin of the name Lostwithiel is a subject much debated. In the 16th century it was thought that the name came from the Roman name Uzella, translated as Les Uchel in Cornish. In the 17th century popular opinion was that the name came from a translation of Lost and Withiel, the lion in question being the lord who lived in the castle. Current thinking is that the name comes from the Old Cornish Lost Gwydhyel meaning "tail-end of the woodland"; the view from Restormel Castle looking towards the town shows. Lostwithiel is a historic borough; the Lostwithiel constituency elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons, but was disenfranchised by the Reform Act 1832.
It remained a municipal borough until the 1960s. The seal of the borough of Lostwithiel was a shield charged with a castle rising from water between two thistles, in the water two fish, with the legend "Sigillum burgi de Lostwithyel et Penknight in Cornubia", its mayoral regalia includes a silver oar. The town is situated in the Fowey river valley, positioned between the A390 road from Tavistock to Truro and the upper tidal reaches of the river. Lostwithiel railway station is on the Cornish Main Line from Plymouth to Penzance, it is situated on the south side of the town, just across the medieval bridge. The line was built for the Cornwall Railway which built its main workshops here, but the surviving workshop buildings were transformed into apartments in 2004. A branch line takes china clay trains to Fowey; the town contains the suburbs of Bridgend to the east and Rosehill and Victoria to the west of the River Fowey. Lostwithiel's most notable buildings are Restormel Castle. There is a small museum devoted to the history of the town.
Once a stannary town, for a period the most important in Cornwall, it is now much reduced in importance. There is a fine early fourteenth-century bridge with five pointed arches, nearby the remains of the Lostwithiel Stannary Palace, with its Coinage Hall – this was the centre of royal authority over tin-mining, and'coinage' meant the knocking off of the corner of each block of tin for the benefit of the Duchy of Cornwall; the small Guildhall has an arcaded ground floor. The old Grammar School has been converted into dwellings; the town has a playing field known as King George V Playing Field. Lostwithiel has several large parks including Coulson Park, named after Nathaniel Coulson, raised in Lostwithiel after being abandoned by his father; the town is host to a number of annual cultural activities including an arts and crafts festival, a beer festival, a week-long carnival in the summer and cider festivals in the October, a Dickensian evening in December. There are two primary schools in Lostwithiel: Lostwithiel Primary School.
Both schools are academies. Lostwithiel Primary School is part of the Peninsula Learning Trust Multi Academy Trust and St Winnow C E School is part of The Saints Way Multi Academy Trust; the majority of children aged between 11 and 16 attend Bodmin College. Lostwithiel Educational Trust is a local charity which makes "grants to local schools and churches, as well as to individuals, for educational purposes" From Lostwithiel railway station trains operated by Great Western Railway run every two hours towards Plymouth or Penzance; some through services to and from London Paddington station and those operated by CrossCountry between Penzance and Scotland stop. National Express provides a regular coach service to London which runs via Plymouth for connections to other destinations; the coach stop is located outside the Royal Talbot Hotel. Bus stops in Lostwithiel are outside the Royal Talbot Cott Road phone box. Lostwithiel was twinned with Pleyber-Christ in Brittany, France in 1979; the people in the Twinning Associations of both towns meet up every year, alternating between Lostwithiel and Pleyber Christ.
Battle of Lostwithiel List of topics related to Cornwall Lostwithiel Town Council The History of Parliament Trust, Borough, from 1386 to 1868 Lostwithiel.org.uk run by Lostwithiel Business Group Lostwithiel at Curlie GENUKI page Lostwithiel Bridge and its Memories – The Reverend Canon E Boger, 1887 Lostwithiel OCS Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Lostwithiel
Nestlé S. A. is a Swiss transnational food and drink company headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland. It is the largest food company in the world, measured by revenues and other metrics, since 2014, it ranked No. 64 on the Fortune Global 500 in 2017 and No. 33 on the 2016 edition of the Forbes Global 2000 list of largest public companies. Nestlé's products include baby food, medical food, bottled water, breakfast cereals and tea, dairy products, ice cream, frozen food, pet foods, snacks. Twenty-nine of Nestlé's brands have annual sales of over CHF1 billion, including Nespresso, Nescafé, Kit Kat, Nesquik, Stouffer's, Maggi. Nestlé has 447 factories, operates in 189 countries, employs around 339,000 people, it is one of the main shareholders of the world's largest cosmetics company. Nestlé was formed in 1905 by the merger of the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, established in 1866 by brothers George and Charles Page, Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé, founded in 1866 by Henri Nestlé; the company grew during the First World War and again following the Second World War, expanding its offerings beyond its early condensed milk and infant formula products.
The company has made a number of corporate acquisitions, including Crosse & Blackwell in 1950, Findus in 1963, Libby's in 1971, Rowntree Mackintosh in 1988, Klim in 1998, Gerber in 2007. Nestlé has a primary listing on the SIX Swiss Exchange and is a constituent of the Swiss Market Index, it has a secondary listing on Euronext. Nestlé's origins date back to the 1860s, when two separate Swiss enterprises were founded that would form the core of Nestlé. In the succeeding decades, the two competing enterprises aggressively expanded their businesses throughout Europe and the United States. In 1866, Charles Page and George Page, brothers from Lee County, Illinois, USA, established the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company in Cham, Switzerland, their first British operation was opened at Chippenham, Wiltshire, in 1873. In 1867, in Vevey, Henri Nestlé soon began marketing it; the following year saw Daniel Peter begin seven years of work perfecting his invention, the milk chocolate manufacturing process.
Nestlé was the crucial co-operation that Peter needed to solve the problem of removing all the water from the milk added to his chocolate and thus preventing the product from developing mildew. Henri Nestlé retired in 1875 but the company, under new ownership, retained his name as Société Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé. In 1877, Anglo-Swiss added milk-based baby foods to their products. In 1879, Nestlé merged with milk chocolate inventor Daniel Peter. In 1904, François-Louis Cailler, Charles Amédée Kohler, Daniel Peter, Henri Nestlé participated in the creation and development of Swiss chocolate, marketing the first chocolate – milk Nestlé. In 1905, the companies merged to become the Nestlé and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company, retaining that name until 1947 when the name'Nestlé Alimentana SA' was taken as a result of the acquisition of Fabrique de Produits Maggi SA and its holding company, Alimentana SA, of Kempttal, Switzerland. Maggi was a major manufacturer of related foodstuffs; the company's current name was adopted in 1977.
By the early 1900s, the company was operating factories in the United States, the United Kingdom and Spain. The First World War created demand for dairy products in the form of government contracts, and, by the end of the war, Nestlé's production had more than doubled. In January 1919, Nestlé bought two condensed milk plants in Oregon from the company Geibisch and Joplin for $250,000. One was in Bandon, they expanded them processing 250,000 pounds of condensed milk daily in the Bandon plant. Nestlé felt the effects of the Second World War immediately. Profits dropped from US$20 million in 1938 to US$6 million in 1939. Factories were established in developing countries in Latin America; the war helped with the introduction of the company's newest product, Nescafé, which became a staple drink of the US military. Nestlé's production and sales rose in the wartime economy. After the war, government contracts dried up, consumers switched back to fresh milk. However, Nestlé's management responded streamlining operations and reducing debt.
The 1920s saw Nestlé's first expansion into new products, with chocolate-manufacture becoming the company's second most important activity. Louis Dapples was CEO till 1937 when succeeded by Édouard Muller till his death in 1948; the end of World War II was the beginning of a dynamic phase for Nestlé. Growth accelerated and numerous companies were acquired. In 1947 Nestlé merged with a manufacturer of seasonings and soups. Crosse & Blackwell followed in 1950, as did Findus, Libby's, Stouffer's. Diversification came with a shareholding in L'Oreal in 1974. In 1977, Nestlé made its second venture outside the food industry, by acquiring Alcon Laboratories Inc. In the 1980s, Nestlé's improved bottom line allowed the company to launch a new round of acquisitions. Carnation was acquired for $3 billion in 1984 and brought the evaporated milk brand, as well as Coffee-Mate and Friskies to Nestlé. In 1986 Nestlé Nespresso S. A. was founded. The confectionery company Rowntree Mackintosh was acquired in 1988 for $4.5 billion, which brought brands such as Kit Kat and Aero.
The first half of the 1990s proved to be favourable for Nestlé. Trade barriers crumbled, world markets developed into more or less integrat
British Railway Milk Tank Wagon
Milk tank wagons were a common sight on railways in the United Kingdom from the early 1930s to the late 1960s. Introduced to transport raw milk from remote dairy farms to central creameries, milk trains were the last railway-based system before the move to road transport. Post grouping in 1923, of the 282,000,000 imperial gallons of milk transported by rail by all four national railways companies, the Great Western Railway had the largest share of milk traffic, serving the rural and agricultural West of England and South Wales; the milk was delivered direct from the farmer to the local railway station in milk churns. So to remove the need for moving unprocessed milk from one container to another, hence potential cross contamination or need to install hygienic washing facilities, the decision was taken to transport the milk churns. From the 1880s, the GWR had introduced the popular GWR Siphon series of passenger carriage chassis-based high-speed and ventilated enclosed wagons, but with volumes rising and production systems changing, the transport system had to change.
Under the milk churn system, the steel churn had been owned either by the farmer or the dairy, to, attached a paper delivery note for the railway. The three participants hence agreed to adopt the same ownership system for the new milk tank wagons, whereby the chassis was supplied by the railway company, while the carrying tank was supplied by the dairy; the first designs were introduced by the GWR and the LMS in 1927, followed a year by the LNER. The SR experimented with 2,000-imperial-gallon roll-on/roll-off two or three-axled road trailers, which after being towed to each farm by a dairy company or SR lorry, could be taken to the railway station and strapped down on a standard railway flat wagon. 60 of these road tankers were built, but although the system survived in some areas, by 1931 the SR had abandoned marketing the system and moved inline with the other railway companies, under pressure from the big dairies. The GWR trialled the idea, some tanks were redeployed to the Western Region of British Railways on nationalisation in 1948.
The initial milk tank wagon designs were based on a 12-foot two axle railway wagon chassis. There was a ladder either side to allow filling via an industrial rubber hose into a flip-top dome casing, while a steel pipe exited at the bottom of the tank with a tap either end of the chassis between the buffer beams for extraction. All designs; the various designs that railway companies used followed a common pattern, but at this early stage differences appeared making them easy to spot. While GWR designs used flat-strip metal as bracing, LMS and SR designs used rounded steel bracing. SR designs had additional V-shaped support bracing either end, had additional wooden packing behind each of the buffers. LMS designs had a catwalk around the filling dome; the first tanks were labelled externally as being glass-lined, meaning that the wagons themselves were unauthorised for loose or hump shunting, a reminder of, applied in large capital letters to the chassis. Early tank design had no baffles, meaning that the milk self-churned during the journey, made the wagon unstable.
After the required improvement in milk quality was not gained, a number of derailment accidents, 13 feet three-axled six-wheel wagons were introduce from 1931, baffles became standard practise. The last of the two-axle design were withdrawn pre-World War II, while three-axle designs continued in production under British Railways into the early 1950s, but now with stainless steel linings. Limited production twin-tank designs were introduced, all based on triple-axle chassis. More common on the GWR, they were used by the SR for transport of dairy products from the Channel Islands that came in via Southampton Docks. Twin-tanks allowed the easy collection from smaller dairies of both premium gold-top, as well as other silver-top products. In total, across all four railway companies, some 600 three-axle milk tank wagons were produced; each railway company applied its own logo and number to the chassis, while each dairy applied its own separate colouring, fleet number and labelling to the carried milk tank.
The wagons as out-shopped from various railway works were decorated - to show both cleanliness, good hygiene, as a travelling advertising board. Early designs had a high amount of labelling, mentioning insulation, hygienic glass lining, the dairy company name in large superscript and shadowed letters on the sides of the tank; the resultant wagons were kept clean by both the dairies, the handling railway companies. After the Milk Marketing Board was created in 1933, in 1942 during World War II they took control of all milk transport. Only when the wagons needed a repaint, did the MMB apply a standard branded design of silver-grey with "MMB MILK" embossed in 4 feet high black letters externally; some of the last MMB designs used a blue tank colour with white lettering. Hence, many of the former private owner wagons designs survived well into British Railways ownership, in a now faded and flaking state. MMB were not so fastidious on cleanliness standards, so in photographs either the cleaned silver paint has faded to white, or the wagons look dirty.
By the late 1960s the MMB had switched to road haulage, only Express Dairies and Unigate continued to use rail transport. Both c