The commune of Agen is the prefecture of the Lot-et-Garonne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. It lies on the river Garonne 135 kilometres southeast of Bordeaux; the city of Agen lies in the southern department Lot-et-Garonne in the Aquitaine region. The city centre lies on the east bank of the Garonne river close to the Canal de Garonne halfway between Bordeaux and Toulouse. Agen features an oceanic climate, in the Köppen climate classification. Winters feature cool to cold temperatures while summers are mild and warm. Rainfall is spread throughout the year； however, most sunshine hours are from March–September. From Occitan Agen, itself from Latin Aginnum, from a Celtic root agin- meaning "rock or height"; the town has a higher level of unemployment than the national average. Major employers include the pharmaceutical factory UPSA; the old centre of town contains a number of medieval buildings. The twelfth century Agen Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Caprasius, is one of the few large churches in France with a double nave, a regional trait found in the Church of the Jacobins in nearby Toulouse.
The Saint Hilaire church, dedicated to the theme of the Holy Trinity which the Saint in question did a lot to defend, is notable for its unusual statues in front of the Church – Moses on the right, St Peter on the left. The Fine Arts museum, Musée des Beaux Arts contains artefacts and sculptures from prehistoric times onwards; the art gallery contains several hundred works, including several by Goya, others by Bonnard and Seurat. The collection contains a large number of works by artists who lived locally; the museum is made up of twenty or so rooms. The Canal des Deux Mers, which joins the Mediterranean with the Atlantic, crosses the river Garonne at Agen via the town's famous canal bridge; the municipal theatre "Théâtre Ducourneau" presents theatre, classical concerts. The smaller "Théâtre du jour" has a resident theatre company presenting a variety of recent or older plays. There are two cinemas, one a commercial multiscreened affair, the other an arts cinema run by a voluntary organization.
The latter organizes film festivals every year. Rugby is popular in the town, the local team, SU Agen, is enthusiastically supported; the town serves as the base for the Team Lot-et-Garonne cycling team. The Gare d'Agen connects Agen with Bordeaux as well as Périgueux, it is around an hour around an hour from Bordeaux. The TGV train to Paris take three hours and thirteen minutes with a stop in Bordeaux. Agen is connected, to both Toulouse and Bordeaux; the Agen Airport is serviced by Airlinair service to Paris Orly 6 days a week. It is used for business and leisure flying. Agen close to Bordeaux. Agen is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese that comprises the Département of Garonne, it is a suffragan of the archdiocese of Bordeaux. Agen is twinned with: Tuapse, Russia Dinslaken, Germany Llanelli, United Kingdom Toledo, Spain Corpus Christi, United States As place of birthBernard Palissy, potter – according to some accounts, he may have been born in Saintes Joseph Justus Scaliger, scholar Pierre Dupuy, scholar Joseph Barsalou, physician Godefroi, comte d'Estrades and marshal Bernard Germain Étienne comte de La Ville-sur-Illon La Cépède, naturalist Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent, naturalist Jacques Jasmin, Provençal poet Victor Rabu, architect who built many important churches in Montevideo, Uruguay Joseph Chaumié, politician William Grover-Williams racer and SOE agent Michel Serres and author Jacques Sadoul, author Jean Cruguet, jockey who won the U.
S. Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing. Alain Aspect, physicist Francis Cabrel, singer-songwriter and guitarist Bernard Campan and film director Emmanuel Flipo, artist Stéphane Rideau, actor Aymeric Laporte, footballerAs residenceNostradamus lived in Agen from 1531 until at least 1534, he was married to a local woman with. Agen is the "capital of the prune", a local product consumed as a sweet, either stuffed with prune purée or in pastries, or as a dessert, e.g. prunes soaked in Armagnac, a type of brandy. On the last weekend of August, a prune festival comprises rock concerts, circuse performances and prune tastings; the first Jews settled in the town in the twelfth century AD. They were expelled from the town in 1306. A number of Jews returned to the town in 1315, a "Rue des Juifs" is documented since this period. In 1968, about 600 Jews lived in the town, though most of them emigrated to the town from North Africa. A Jewish synagogue still exists in the town. SU Agen Lot-et-Garonne, a French rugby union club based in Agen Agenais, or Agenois, a former province of France INSEE statisticsNotes site de la ville office de tourisme Diocese of Agen – Catholic Encyclopædia article
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, located in the southwest of the country. The region was created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes, it covers 84,061 km2 – or 1⁄8 of the country – and has 5,800,000 inhabitants.. The new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015, it is the largest region in France by area, with a territory larger than that of Austria. Its largest city, together with its suburbs and satellite cities, forms the 7th-largest metropolitan area of France, with 850,000 inhabitants; the region has 25 major urban areas, among which the most important after Bordeaux are Bayonne, Poitiers, La Rochelle, as well as 11 major clusters. The growth of its population marked on the coast, makes this one of the most attractive areas economically in France. After Île-de-France, New Aquitaine is the premier French region in research and innovation, with five universities and several Grandes Ecoles.
The agricultural region of Europe with the greatest turnover, it is the French region with the most tourism jobs, as it has three of the four historic resorts on the French Atlantic coast:, as well as several ski resorts, is the fifth French region for business creation. Its economy is based on agriculture and viticulture, tourism, a powerful aerospace industry, digital economy and design and pharmaceutical industries, financial sector, industrial ceramics. Many companies specializing in surfing and related sports have located along the coast; the new region includes major parts of Southern France, marked by Basque, Oïl cultures. It is the "indirect successor" to medieval Aquitaine, extends over a large part of the former Duchy of Eleanor of Aquitaine; the region's interim name Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes was a hyphenated placename, known as ALPC, created by hyphenating the merged regions' names – Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes – in alphabetical order. In June 2016, a working group headed by historian Anne-Marie Cocula, a former vice president of Aquitaine, proposed the name "Nouvelle Aquitaine".
The decision came after the popular favorite, "Aquitaine", faced resistance by regional politicians from Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. The other popular favorite, "Grande Aquitaine," was rejected for its connotation with a feeling of superiority. Alain Rousset, president of the region, concurred with the working group's conclusion, reaffirming that he considered the acronym "ALPC" no choice at all. For those deploring the loss of "Limousin" and "Poitou-Charentes", he noted that the predecessor region of Aquitaine subsumed the identities of the Périgord or the Pays Basque, which did not disappear during its 40 years of operation. On 27 June 2016, just a few days ahead of the 1 July deadline, the Regional council unanimously adopted Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the region's permanent name. France's Conseil d'État approved Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective two days later. For the recent history of each former administrative regions and departments before 2016, For the history of past entities covering much of the area of the region before the French revolution, At 84,061 square kilometers, the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine is larger than French Guiana, which makes it the largest region in France.
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is delimited by four other French regions, three autonomous communities in Spain to the south, the North Atlantic Ocean to the west. Nouvelle-Aquitaine comprises twelve departments: Charente, Charente-Maritime, Corrèze, Dordogne, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Deux-Sèvres and Haute-Vienne, its largest city and only metropolis is Bordeaux, in the heart of an urban agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. Taking into consideration the urban area, the new region is home to six of the fifty largest metropolitan areas of French territory: Bordeaux Bayonne Limoges Poitiers Pau La Rochelle. In addition, the region has a network of medium towns scattered throughout its territory, including: Angoulême Agen Brive-la-Gaillarde Niort Périgueux Bergerac Villeneuve-sur-Lot Dax Mont-de-Marsan The region covers a large part of the Aquitaine Basin and a small portion of the Paris Basin and the Limousin plate and the western part of the Pyrenees, it is part of five watersheds facing the Atlantic Ocean: Loire, Charente and Dordogne (and their extension, the
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Landes forest or the Landes of Gascony, in the historic Gascony natural region of southwestern France now known as Aquitaine, is the largest man-made woodland in Western Europe. The French word and Gascon lanas, mean'moors' or'heaths'; the forest covers two of the departments of France. The sources of several rivers can be found in this region, including the sources of the Leyre, the Boudigau, the Ciron, the Gat Mort; the largest towns within the forest are Arcachon and Mont-de-Marsan. The forest is composed of maritime pine, Pinus pinaster. Unlike many other European forests, the Landes forest is entirely created and managed by man for industrial purposes; this massive pine plantation was started in the 18th century in the Pays de Buch area of Gironde, to halt erosion and cleanse the soil. Most of the region now occupied by the Landes forest was swampy land, sparsely inhabited until the 19th century, when the 19 June 1857 law ended traditional pastoralism and led to wide scale reforestation, in order to rehabilitate the landscape and provide for regional economic development.
Prior to this period, the people of the Landes used stilt-walking to move from place to place in the wet terrain. Since the 1970s, parts of the forest have given way to intensive agriculture The area of the forest is estimated to be around 10,000 square kilometres, of which nine-tenths is devoted to a monoculture of maritime pines, but, in the centre of this pinhadar, there is a natural forest that survives from the post-glacial timbering of this part of southwestern France. There, pines co-exist with other species, chiefly oak, birch and holly; this mixed temperate forest is most found along watercourses, where the drainage is good. The old-growth forest was more extensive prior to the Middle Ages, when a colder, more humid, climate took hold and changed the species composition; because of the need for wood for fuel and construction, because of a steady expansion in the grazing of sheep, the aboriginal forest was further depleted between the 15th and 18th centuries. A major storm in January 2009 damaged 300,000 hectares of forest, 90% of, located in the Landes Forest.
Before the mid-19th century, only the breeding of sheep on the moors allowed the cultivation of rye. Because of wet winters, it was necessary to top-dress the land with thatch to preserve it for the next growing season; the disappearance of the moors, because of the expansion of the pine plantations, brought about the end of this herding and wetland grain-growing culture, the iconic image of shepherds on stilts disappeared as well. The shepherd image was replaced by the image of the resin-collector with his tools. In the first part of the 20th century, extensive commercial exploitation of wood and pine resin began, these industries became an important part of the regional economy. Many local people are still employed in forest-related pursuits, including forestry, paper mills, woodcrafts like parquetry and joinery and furniture making, as well the fabrication of paper-based products like cardboard and fiberboard for construction. However, resin-collecting, which required hard labor, has completely disappeared because modern chemical processes for producing solvents and other useful chemicals do not rely on pine resin or pine tar as a precursor.
DRT is the largest company in this region. Voies Ferrées des Landes, grouping of railway companies operating in the forest. Parc naturel régional des Landes de Gascogne This article is based on a translation from the original French Wikipedia article as it appeared on November 11, 2006 which cite the following sources: Francis Dupuy, Le pin de la discorde: Les rapports de métayage dans la Grande Lande, Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1996 François Sargos, "Forêt des landes de Gascogne, une nature secrète" Editions Sud Ouest, Bordeaux, 2008 Christian Maizeret, Les Landes de Gascogne, Delachaux et Niestlé, Paris, 2005 Jacques Sargos, Histoire de la Forêt landaise - Du désert à l'âge d'or, Bordeaux, L'horizon chimérique, 1997, rééd. En 2004. Massif des Landes de Gascogne - Inventaire forestier 1998 1999 2000, IFN L'Ours Pécheur, de Philippe Cougrand. Bordeaux: Pleine Page Editeur, 2008, 312 p.. ISBN 978-2-913406-58-2 Dérivés Résiniques et Terpéniques
Gascony is an area of southwest France, part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution. The region is vaguely defined, the distinction between Guyenne and Gascony is unclear. Most definitions put Gascony south of Bordeaux, it is divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine and the region of Occitanie. Gascony was inhabited by Basque-related people who appear to have spoken a language similar to Basque; the name Gascony comes from the same root as the word Basque. From medieval times until today, the Gascon language has been spoken, although it is classified as a regional variant of the Occitan language. Gascony is the land of d'Artagnan, who inspired Alexandre Dumas's character d'Artagnan in The Three Musketeers, as well as the land of Cyrano de Bergerac, who inspired the play of the same name by Edmond Rostand, it is home to Henry III of Navarre, who became king of France as Henry IV. In pre-Roman times, the inhabitants of Gascony were the Aquitanians, who spoke a non-Indo-European language related to modern Basque.
The Aquitanians inhabited a territory limited to the north and east by the Garonne River, to the south by the Pyrenees mountain range, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Romans called this territory Aquitania, either from the Latin word aqua, in reference to the many rivers flowing from the Pyrenees through the area, or from the name of the Aquitanian Ausci tribe, in which case Aquitania would mean "land of the Ausci". In the 50s BC, Aquitania was conquered by lieutenants of Julius Caesar and became part of the Roman Empire. In 27 BC, during the reign of Emperor Augustus, the province of Gallia Aquitania was created. Gallia Aquitania was far larger than the original Aquitania, as it extended north of the Garonne River, in fact all the way north to the Loire River, thus including the Celtic Gauls that inhabited the regions between the Garonne and the Loire rivers. In 297, as Emperor Diocletian reformed the administrative structures of the Roman Empire, Aquitania was split into three provinces.
The territory south of the Garonne River, corresponding to the original Aquitania, was made a province called Novempopulania, while the part of Gallia Aquitania north of the Garonne became the province of Aquitanica I and the province of Aquitanica II. The territory of Novempopulania corresponded quite well to; the Aquitania Novempopulana or Novempopulania suffered like the rest of the Western Roman Empire from the invasions of Germanic tribes, most notably the Vandals in 407–409. In 416–418, Novempopulania was delivered to the Visigoths as their federate settlement lands and became part of the Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse, while other than the region of the Garonne river their actual grip on the area may have been rather loose; the Visigoths were defeated by the Franks in 507, fled into Spain and Septimania. Novempopulania became part of the Frankish Kingdom like the rest of southern France. However, Novempopulania was far away from the home base of the Franks in northern France, was only loosely controlled by the Franks.
During all the troubled and obscure period, starting from early 5th-century accounts, the bagaudae are cited, social uprisings against tax exaction and feudalization associated to Vasconic unrest. Old historical literature sometimes claims the Basques took control of the whole of Novempopulania in the Early Middle Ages, founding its claims on the testimony of Gregory of Tours, on the etymological link between the words "Basque" and "Gascon" – both derived from "Vascones" or "Wasconia", the latter being used to name the whole of Novempopulania. Modern historians reject this hypothesis, sustained by no archeological evidence. For Juan José Larrea, Pierre Bonnassie, "a Vascon expansionism in Aquitany is not proved and is not necessary to understand the historical evolution of this region"; this Basque-related culture and race is, whatever the origin, attested in Medieval documents, while their exact boundaries remain unclear. The word Vasconia evolved into Wasconia, into Gasconia; the gradual abandonment of the Basque-related Aquitanian language in favor of a local Vulgar Latin was not reversed.
The replacing local Vulgar Latin evolved into Gascon. It was influenced by the original Aquitanian language. Interestingly, the Basques from the French side of the Basque Country traditionally call anyone who does not speak Basque a "Gascon". Meanwhile, Viking raiders conquered several Gascon towns, among them Bayonne in 842–844, their attacks in Gascony may have helped the political disintegration of the Duchy until their defeat against William II Sánchez of Gascony in 982. In turn, the weakened ethnic polity known as Duchy of Wasconia/Wascones, unable to get round the general spread of feudalization, gave way to a myriad of counties founded by Gascon lords, his 1152 marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine allowed the future Henry II to gain cont
La République En Marche!
La République En Marche!, sometimes called En Marche!, is a centrist and social-liberal political party in France. It was founded on 6 April 2016 by Emmanuel Macron, a former Minister of Economy and Digital Affairs, elected President of the French Republic in the 2017 election with 66.1% of the second-round vote. Macron considers La République En Marche! to be a progressive movement, uniting both the left and the right. The party ran candidates in the 2017 legislative elections including dissidents from the Socialist Party, The Republicans, as well as minor parties, it won an absolute majority in the National Assembly. Its ally, the Democratic Movement, secured 42. La République En Marche! is a pro-European movement that accepts globalization and wants to modernize and moralize French politics. The movement accepts members from other parties at a higher rate than other political parties in France and does not impose any fees on members who want to join; the party is seen as the most pro-European party in France, but it is not part of any European parliamentary group.
La Gauche Libre, the think tank for the movement, was declared as an organization on 1 March 2015. Afterwards, lesjeunesavecmacron.fr was registered as a domain on 23 June 2015. Two Facebook pages were created and an extra domain registered. Another organization was created by Macron, declared as L'Association pour le renouvellement de la vie politique and registered as a micro-party in January 2016; this was following en-marche.fr being claimed as a domain. L'Association pour le renouvellement de la vie politique was registered as EMA EN MARCHE in March. En Marche! was founded on 6 April 2016 in Amiens by Emmanuel Macron aged 38, with the help of political advisor Ismaël Emelien. The initials of the name of the party are the same as the initials of Macron's name; the announcement of En Marche! was the first indication by Macron that he was planning to run for President, with Macron using En Marche! to fundraise for the potential presidential run. The launch of the party was covered throughout the media and media coverage continued to peak as tensions rose among Macron and other government ministers as his loyalty was questioned.
In the weeks following the creation of En Marche!, Macron soared in the opinion polls to be seen as the main competitor on the left. The creation of En Marche! was welcomed by several political figures including Najat Vallaud-Belkacem, Jean-Pierre Raffarin and Pierre Gattaz, though it was criticised by Jean-Luc Mélenchon and Christian Estrosi. In an attempt to create the party's first platform that it would launch into a campaign with and head of operations Ludovic Chaker recruited 4,000 volunteers to conduct door-to-door surveys to 100,000 people and they would use the information gained to create a programme closer to the French electorate. Only a quarter of the 100,000 surveys handed out were completed. La République En Marche! Ran candidates in most constituencies. At least half its candidates came from civil society, the other half having held political office and half were women. No double investitures were permitted, though Macron waived the original requirement of prospective candidates to leave their previous political party on 5 May 2017.
In addition to those parameters, Macron specified in his initial press conference on 19 January that he would require that candidates demonstrate probity, political plurality and efficacy. Those wishing to seek the endorsement of République En Marche! had to sign up online and the movement received nearly 15,000 applications. When dealing with nominations sought by those in the political world, the party considered the popularity and media skills of applicants, with the most difficult cases adjudicated by Macron himself. To present themselves under the label of La République En Marche!, outgoing deputies had to leave the Socialist Party or The Republicans. Macron said the legislative candidates would have to leave the PS before they could join République En Marche! in the election. However La République En Marche! Spokesperson Christophe Castaner said they could stay in the PS as long as they supported Macron. Moreover, spokesperson Jean-Paul Delevoye said the members of civil society could be mayors or members of regional councils and departmental councils.
After François Bayrou endorsed Macron in February, the Democratic Movement, which he leads, reserved 90 constituencies for MoDem candidates, of which 50 were considered winnable. On 15 May 2017, the secretary general of the presidency announced the appointment of Édouard Philippe, a member of LR, as Prime Minister. By winning an absolute majority in the National Assembly in the second round of the elections on 18 June 2017, La République En Marche! became France's party of power in support of the President. In the September 2017 senate elections, La République En Marche! lost seats, ending up with 21, seven fewer than before. While hoping to double its representatives in the senate, party officials have noted that due to the elections electoral system of indirect universal suffrage, where deputies and regional councilors elect senators, the party had a disadvantage due to being new. In the same month, the first party congress was announced to be held in Lyon; the first gathering of party adherents and representatives
Olivier Damaisin is a French politician representing La République En Marche! He was elected to the French National Assembly on 18 June 2017, representing the department of Lot-et-Garonne. French legislative election, 2017