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Lothair of France

Lothair, sometimes called Lothair III or Lothair IV, was the penultimate Carolingian king of West Francia, reigning from 10 September 954 until his death in 986. Lothair was born in Laon near the end of 941, as the eldest son of King Louis IV and Gerberga of Saxony, he succeeded his father on 10 September 954 at the age of thirteen and was crowned at the Abbey of Saint-Remi by Artald of Reims, Archbishop of Reims on 12 November 954. Lothair had been associated with the throne since the illness of his father in 951, this being a custom in the royal succession since the founding of the Kingdom of the Franks by the Merovingian dynasty. Queen Gerberga made an arrangement with her brother-in-law Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks and Count of Paris, an adversary of Lothair's father. In exchange for supporting Lothair's rule Hugh was given rule over Duchy of Aquitaine and much of the Kingdom of Burgundy as more or less a regent. Lothair inherited a fragmented kingdom, where the great magnates took lands and offices without any regard for the authority of the king.

Magnates like Hugh the Great and Herbert II, Count of Vermandois were always a veiled threat. In 955 Lothair and Hugh the Great together took Poitiers by siege. With Hugh the Great's death in 956 Lothair, only fifteen, came under the guardianship of his maternal uncle Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, brother of East Francia's king Otto I. With Bruno's advice, Lothair mediated between Hugh's sons -- Otto, Duke of Burgundy; the King gave Paris and the title of dux francorum to Hugh Capet, invested Otto with the Duchy of Burgundy in 956. The guardianship of Archbishop Bruno of Cologne lasted until 965 and oriented Lothair towards policy of submission towards East Francia, evolving into the German Holy Roman Empire. Despite his youth, Lothair reinforced his authority over his vassals; this desire of political independence led to a deterioration in relations between the King and his maternal relatives and a struggle with the new Holy Roman Empire. Despite this, Lothair wanted to maintain ties with Emperor Otto I by marrying Princess Emma of Italy in early 966.

In 962 Baldwin III, Count of Flanders, son, co-ruler, heir of Arnulf I, Count of Flanders died and Arnulf bequeathed Flanders to Lothair. On Arnulf's death in 965, Lothair invaded Flanders and took many cities, but was repulsed by the supporters of Arnulf II, Count of Flanders, he temporarily remained in control of Douai. Lothair attempted to increase his influence in the Lotharingia, once held by his family, in turn Emperor Otto II encouraged resistance to Lothair's overtures. In 976 the brothers Reginar IV, Count of Mons and Lambert I, Count of Louvain, after being dispossessed from their paternal inheritance by Emperor Otto II, made an alliance with Charles and Otto, Count of Vermandois and with an army they marched against the Imperial troops. A great battle, which remained undecided, took place in Mons. Although Lothair secretly encouraged this war, he did not intervene directly to help his brother. Charles established himself in Lotharingia, his main interest was to break the harmony between Lothair and the House of Ardennes, loyal to Emperor Otto II and powerful in Lotharingia and to which belonged both the Chancellor-Arbishop Adalberon of Reims and his namesake Bishop Adalberon of Laon.

In 977, Charles accused Queen Emma of adultery with Bishop Adalberon of Laon. The Synod of Sainte-Macre, led by Archbishop Adalberon of Reims, took place in Fismes to discuss the matter. Due to a lack of evidence, both the Queen and Bishop were absolved, but Charles, who maintained the rumors, was expelled from the kingdom by Lothair; the House of Ardennes and the Lotharingian party, who were favorable to an agreement with Otto II, seemed all-powerful at the court of Lothair. Otto II, committed the mistakes of restoring the County of Hainaut to Reginar IV and Lambert I, of appointing Charles as Duke of Lower Lorraine, a region corresponding to the northern half of Lotharingia, separate from the Upper Lotharingia since the late 950. Rewarding Charles, who had questioned the honor of the wife of the King of the Franks, was a way to offend the King himself. In August 978 Lothair mounted an expedition into Lorraine accompanied by Hugh Capet and upon their crossing the Meuse river took Aachen, but did not capture Otto II or Charles.

Lothair sacked the imperial Palace of Aachen for three days, reversed the direction of the bronze eagle of Charlemagne to face east instead of west. In retaliation Otto II, accompanied by Charles, invaded West Francia in October 978 and ravaged Reims and Laon. Lothair was able to escape from the Imperial troops, but Charles was proclaimed King of the Franks in Laon by Bishop Dietrich I of Metz, a relative of Emperor Otto I; the Imperial army advanced to Paris. On 30 November 978, Otto II and Charles, unable to take Paris, lifted their siege of the city and turned back; the Frankish royal army led by Lothair pursued and defeated them while crossing the river Aisne and being able to recover Laon, forcing Otto II to flee and take refuge in Aachen with Charles, the puppet-King he wanted to impose on West Francia. In West Francia the hasty retreat of Emperor Otto II had a considerable impact and long after was evoked as a great victory of Lothair. Thus, written in 1015, the Chronicles of Sens gives an epic description: there Lothai

Elisabeth Welhaven

Elisabeth Cathrine "Lise" Welhaven was a Norwegian writer. She was born in Bergen as a daughter of the priest Johan Ernst Welhaven and Else Margrethe Cammermeyer, the daughter of Johan Sebastian Cammermeyer, she was a sister of Maren Sars. She did not marry. Through her sister Maren she was a sister-in-law of priest and professor Michael Sars and an aunt of Ernst Sars, Georg Ossian Sars and Eva Nansen. Through her brother Johan Sebastian she was an aunt of architect Hjalmar Welhaven, through another brother Johan Andreas she was an aunt of police chief Kristian Welhaven, she grew up in Bergen, but after her father died when Elisabeth was thirteen, she moved in with Michael and Maren Sars. They first lived in Manger where Michael was a vicar, but in 1854 the family moved to Christiania where Michael had become professor; the family home in Christiania became a notable meeting place for liberal and intellectual citizens of Norway's capital, has been called "Christiania's first salon". Welhaven's role in the salon was that of storyteller, one of the recurring guests, Hartvig Lassen, encouraged her to write them down.

He published them in the magazine Skilling-Magazin, in 1870 some tales were collected and published as the book Fra Staden og Stranden. In 1871 she released Fra gamle Dage; the books were reissued later. The tales were based on her childhood in Bergen, she died three years after Maren Sars. She was buried at Vår Frelsers gravlund

John Reid (bishop)

John Robert Reid was an Australian Anglican bishop who served as an assistant bishop in the Anglican Diocese of Sydney: he was the Bishop of South Sydney from 1972 to 1993. Reid was educated at the University of Moore Theological College, he was ordained in 1955 by Archbishop of Sydney. After a curacy in Manly he was Rector at Gladesville from 1956 to 1969, when he became Archdeacon of Cumberland, his last position before being ordained to the episcopate, he was consecrated bishop on 25 July 1972 at St Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney