Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland, Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which includes Scandinavia. Finlands population is 5.5 million, and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region,88. 7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages, the second major group are the Finland-Swedes. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe, Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, from the late 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status.
In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns, nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent, in 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Reds supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the Whites, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era, Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.
It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity, Finnish GDP growth has been negative in 2012–2014, with a preceding nadir of −8% in 2009. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, a large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, though freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution. The first known appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti, the third was found in Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi and dates from the 13th century, the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned first known time AD98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, in addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian
The Lotus 107 was a Formula One car used by Team Lotus. Designed for the 1992 Formula One season, and used throughout most of 1992,1993 and part of 1994, it brought in a final, the 107 is often, attributed to the design work of Chris Murphy. What facilitated this migration was the collapse of Leyton House Racing following owner Akira Akagis arrest in September 1991. Unquestionably beautiful the 107 had smooth sweeping lines a world away from the developed and antiquated Lotus 102D whose heritage can be traced to the 1990 Formula One Season. The car was developed over succeeding seasons into B and C variants, according to Alex Zanardis autobiography My Story, the focus on this system was to the detriment of other aspects of the car. The teams financial difficulties dragged it under at the end of 1994, the Lotus 109, the last Formula One car of the team, which ran in the latter part of 1994, was a further derivative of this design. 2 points scored in 1992 with the Lotus 102D
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is an American multinational tire manufacturing company founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and based in Akron, Ohio. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, commercial trucks, light trucks, motorcycles, SUVs, race cars, farm equipment, the company was named after American Charles Goodyear, inventor of vulcanized rubber. The first Goodyear tires became popular because they were easily detachable, Goodyear is known for the Goodyear Blimp. Though Goodyear had been manufacturing airships and balloons since the early 1900s, today it is one of the most recognizable advertising icons in America. The company is the most successful tire supplier in Formula One history, with starts, wins. They pulled out of the sport after the 1998 season and it is the sole tire supplier for NASCAR series. Goodyear is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company opened a new headquarters building in Akron in 2013. The first Goodyear factory opened in Akron, Ohio, in 1898, the thirteen original employees manufactured bicycle and carriage tires, rubber horseshoe pads, and poker chips.
The company grew with the advent of the automobile, in 1901 Frank Seiberling provided Henry Ford with racing tires. In 1903, Paul Weeks Litchfield was granted a patent for the first tubeless automobile tire, by 1908 Ford was outfitting his Model T with Goodyear tires. In 1909 Goodyear manufactured its first aircraft tire, in 1911 Goodyear started experimenting with airship design. It manufactured airships and observation balloons for the United States Army Air Service during World War I, the transport and reconnaissance capabilities that Goodyear provided contributed significantly to the Allied victory. In 1916, Litchfield found land in the Phoenix area suitable for growing long-staple cotton, the 36,000 acres purchased were controlled by the Southwest Cotton Company, formed with Litchfield as president. In 1924, Litchfield, as Goodyear Vice President, forged a joint venture with the German Luftschiffbau Zeppelin Company to form the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation, by 1926 Goodyear was the largest rubber company in the world.
Only four years earlier it was forced to halt production of racing tires due to heavy competition. Nevertheless, the popularity of the Goodyear tire on the circuit led to a popular demand for the return of the brand. On August 5,1927, Goodyear had its public offering and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
Derek Stanley Arthur Warwick is a British former racing driver from England, who lives in Jersey. He raced for many years in Formula One, collecting four podiums and he did, win the 199224 Hours of Le Mans and 1992 World Sportscar Championship. In 2005 and 2006 he raced in the season of the Grand Prix Masters formula for retired Formula One drivers. He has served as the steward for three Grands Prix in 2010 and 2011. He is president of the British Racing Drivers Club, succeeding Damon Hill, Warwick was born in Alresford, England. He began his career in British stock car racing under the Spedeworth organisation at tracks such as his local Aldershot Stadium and he won the Superstox English Championship in 1971 and the World Championship at Wimbledon Stadium in 1973. His younger brother Paul raced with success in Superstox before progressing to Formula 3000. Derek won the 1978 British Formula 3 Championship, Warwick began his Formula One career with the fledgling F1 team Toleman for the 1981 season.
He managed to qualify for one race that year, the season finale at Las Vegas. Warwick had mainly dismal 1982 and 1983 seasons in the Toleman car and he joined Renault in 1984 after Alain Prost left them at the end of 1983. He finished in place in both the Belgian and British Grands Prix in 1984 and placed seventh in the championship. 1984 would prove to be the beginning of the end for the factory Renault team, neither Warwick nor new teammate Patrick Tambay won a race in 1984, the first time since 1978 that the team did not win a Grand Prix. The turning point in Warwicks career was his decision to stay at Renault for 1985,1985 was a poor one for Renault and the team withdrew from Formula One at the end of the year. Following the death of Elio de Angelis in a accident in May, however. Warwick explained, I got a call from Bernie, who said that he really appreciated the fact that I didn’t call him five minutes after Elio had died. As no Grands Prix clashed with his Sportscar commitments, Warwick was able to race in world championships.
In 1987, Warwick moved to the Arrows team alongside his Jaguar teammate Eddie Cheever and his best race of the season was 4th in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza where he finished only half a second behind Cheever. For the first time this allowed both Warwick and Cheever to fully exploit the power of the 640 bhp Megatron engine and be closer to the front than they had been previously
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
A manual transmission, known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, n-speed manual, standard, MT, or in colloquial U. S. English, a stick, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. The number of gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions often feature a clutch and a movable gear stick. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission. In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engines crankshaft, the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate, as the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, when the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio, automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic. Operating aforementioned transmissions often use the pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. The earliest form of a transmission is thought to have been invented by Louis-René Panhard. This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases and these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that often accompanied.
Newer manual transmissions on cars have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, in both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a gear, the transmission is put in neutral. The vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade, for both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released while in neutral. Some drivers use the only for starting from a stop. Even though automobile and light truck transmissions are now almost universally synchronized, transmissions for trucks and machinery, motorcycles
Judd is a name brand of engines produced by Engine Developments Ltd. a company founded in 1971 by John Judd and Jack Brabham in Rugby, England. Judd has provided engines for many series, including Formula One and other smaller formula series, sports car racing. They have been associated with such as Yamaha, MG. As a result of Jack Brabhams long standing relationship with Honda, after the demise of Formula Two at the end of the 1984 season, Judd continued to develop new engines for Honda. The first was the Judd AV, a turbocharged V8 engine built for Hondas CART campaign and it was first used on the CART circuit midway through the 1986 season, fielded by Galles Racing and driver Geoff Brabham. It was initially badged as the Brabham-Honda, and scored a 4th-place finish at the 1986 Michigan 500, in 1987, the engine was used for the first time at the Indianapolis 500. Brabham scored second-place finishes in 1987 at Pocono and Road America, the engine became known for its reliability and superior fuel mileage.
However, it was at a power disadvantage compared to the top engine of the time. In 1988, Truesports with driver Bobby Rahal took over as the team. During the 1988 season, Rahal took advantage of the reliability in the 500-mile races, finishing 4th at Indy. He scored the first and only Indycar victory for the Judd engine at the Pocono 500 and his ten top-10 finishes led to an impressive 3rd-place finish in the season points standings. Judd continued to build upgrades to the AV into the early 1990s, when Honda moved into the new Formula 3000 series, Judd again developed the companys engine. Based on the architecture of the AV, the new BV V8 was a naturally aspirated variant, after the companys departure from Formula One, Judd returned to Formula 3000 in 1995 with the development of the 3 litre KV V8 engine. Judd built the engines that every Formula 3000 team used, although Zytek was tasked with maintaining the over 80 engines after they were built. Although Judd stopped production of the KV and the Formula 3000 series ended in 2004, in 1988, in conjunction with March Engineering, Judd made the move into the recently reintroduced normally aspirated variant of Formula One, which would completely replace turbocharged cars in 1989.
The first Formula One engine developed by Judd, the CV, was built to the 3.5 litre engine formula for naturally aspirated engines, the engine shared many design features with the Judd BV engine, but was expanded to 3.5 litres. March Engineering were the first team who signed to use the Judd CV, reigning World Constructors Champion Williams was forced to turn to Judd, after they lost their supply of Honda engines for 1988. In addition, Ligier bought CVs for use in the 1988 season, construction of the CV continued as a cheaper alternative for smaller teams, however
Automobili Lamborghini S. p. A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in SantAgata Bolognese, Italy. The company is owned by the Volkswagen Group through its subsidiary Audi, Ferruccio Lamborghini, an Italian manufacturing magnate, founded Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S. p. A. in 1963 to compete with established marques, including Ferrari. The company gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first decade, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. The firms ownership changed three times after 1973, including a bankruptcy in 1978, American Chrysler Corporation took control of Lamborghini in 1987 and sold it to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group VPower Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and VPower sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the groups Audi division, New products and model lines were introduced to the brands portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand Lamborghini.
In the late 2000s, during the financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghinis sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent. Lamborghini produces sports cars and V12 engines for powerboat racing. Lamborghini currently produces the V12-powered Aventador and the V10-powered Huracán, the companys first models, such as the 350 GT, were released in the mid-1960s and were noted for their refinement and comfort. Lamborghini gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first ten years, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. Ferruccio Lamborghini sold ownership of the company to Georges-Henri Rossetti and René Leimer, the company went bankrupt in 1978, and was placed in the receivership of brothers Jean-Claude and Patrick Mimran in 1980. The Mimrans purchased the company out of receivership by 1984 and invested heavily in the companys expansion, under the Mimrans management, Lamborghinis model line was expanded from the Countach to include the Jalpa sports car and the LM002 high performance off-road vehicle.
The Mimrans sold Lamborghini to the Chrysler Corporation in 1987, in 1998, Mycom Setdco and VPower sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the groups Audi division. New products and model lines were introduced to the portfolio and brought to the market. In the late 2000s, during the financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghinis sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent. As of the 2015 model year, Lamborghinis automobile product range consists of two lines, both of which are mid-engine two-seat sports cars. The V12-powered Aventador line consists of the LP 700–4 coupé and roadster, the V10-powered Huracán line currently includes the all-wheel-drive LP 610-4 coupé and roadster, as well as the less powerful rear-wheel-drive LP 580-2 coupé. Lamborghini intends to double its car production by producing as many SUVs by 2018 as sports cars, motori Marini Lamborghini produces a large V12 marine engine block for use in World Offshore Series Class 1 powerboats.
A Lamborghini branded marine engine displaces approximately 8,171 cc, in the mid-1980s, Lamborghini produced a limited-production run of a 1,000 cc sports motorcycle
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic, is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The spelling fibre is common in British Commonwealth countries, the binding polymer is often a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite may contain other fibers, such as an aramid, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene or glass fibers, the properties of the final CFRP product can be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix. The most frequent additive is silica, but other such as rubber. The material is referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer. In product advertisements, it is referred to simply as graphite fiber for short. In this case the composite consists of two parts, a matrix and a reinforcement, in CFRP the reinforcement is carbon fiber, which provides the strength.
The matrix is usually a resin, such as epoxy. Because CFRP consists of two elements, the material properties depend on these two elements. The reinforcement will give the CFRP its strength and rigidity, measured by stress, unlike isotropic materials like steel and aluminum, CFRP has directional strength properties. The properties of CFRP depend on the layouts of the carbon fiber, the following equation, E c = V m E m + V f E f is valid for composite materials with the fibers oriented in the direction of the applied load. Typical epoxy-based CFRPs exhibit virtually no plasticity, with less than 0. 5% strain to failure, although CFRPs with epoxy have high strength and elastic modulus, the brittle fracture mechanics present unique challenges to engineers in failure detection since failure occurs catastrophically. As such, recent efforts to toughen CFRPs include modifying the existing epoxy material, One such material with high promise is PEEK, which exhibits an order of magnitude greater toughness with similar elastic modulus and tensile strength.
However, PEEK is much more difficult to process and more expensive, despite its high initial strength-to-weight ratio, a design limitation of CFRP is its lack of a definable fatigue endurance limit. This means, that stress cycle failure cannot be ruled out, environmental effects such as temperature and humidity can have profound effects on the polymer-based composites, including most CFRPs. While the carbon fibers themselves are not affected by the moisture diffusing into the material, the carbon fibers can cause galvanic corrosion when CRP parts are attached to aluminum. The primary element of CFRP is a filament, this is produced from a precursor polymer such as polyacrylonitrile, rayon. Precursor compositions and mechanical processes used during spinning filament yarns may vary among manufacturers, after drawing or spinning, the polymer filament yarns are heated to drive off non-carbon atoms, producing the final carbon fiber