Christopher Arthur Amon, was a New Zealand motor racing driver. He was active in Formula One racing in the 1960s and 1970s and is regarded as one of the best F1 drivers never to win a championship Grand Prix, his reputation for bad luck was such that fellow driver Mario Andretti once joked that "if he became an undertaker, people would stop dying". Former Ferrari Technical Director Mauro Forghieri stated that Amon was "by far the best test driver I have worked with, he had all the qualities to be a World Champion but bad luck just wouldn't let him be". Apart from driving, Chris Amon ran his own Formula One team for a short period in 1974. Away from Formula One, Amon had some success in sports car racing, teaming with co-driver Bruce McLaren to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1966. Amon was born in Bulls, attended Wanganui Collegiate School, he was the only child of wealthy sheep-owners Betty Amon. He learned to drive at the age of six, taught by a farm worker on the family farm. On leaving school, he persuaded his father to buy him an Austin A40 Special, which he entered in some minor local races and hillclimbs along with practice on the family farm.
He progressed to a 1.5-litre Cooper and an old 2.5-litre Maserati 250F, but only began to draw attention when he drove the Cooper-Climax T51 which Bruce McLaren had used to win his maiden Grand Prix. In 1962 Amon entered the Cooper for the New Zealand winter series, but was hampered by mechanical problems. However, Scuderia Veloce entered him in a similar car, and, in the rain at Lakeside, he performed well. One of the spectators there was the English racing driver Reg Parnell who persuaded Amon to come to England and race for his team. In a test at Goodwood Amon continued to impress and was on the pace in the Goodwood International Trophy and Aintree 200 pre-season races. For the 1963 Formula One season the Parnell team were using the year old Lola Mk4A, powered by 1962 specification Climax V8 engines. Amon was teamed with the experienced Maurice Trintignant for the first race of the season at Monaco and his Grand Prix career started with what was to become typical bad luck: Trintignant's Climax developed a misfire, so he took over Amon's car.
At the 1963 Belgian Grand Prix, Amon was partnered by Lucien Bianchi and started ahead of him from 15th position. After nine laps, however, an oil fire ended his race, he continued to experience mechanical problems at the Dutch and German Grands Prix. Amon qualified in the midfield and outpaced his teammates, who included his good friend Mike Hailwood, his best results of the year were seventh at the French and British Grands Prix. During this time, Amon's social life was attracting as much attention as his driving, he was a member of the Ditton Road Flyers, the social set named after the road in London where Amon shared an apartment with American Peter Revson and Tony Maggs. Parnell was nonetheless impressed with Amon's results in what was regarded as less-than-competitive machinery and promoted him to team leader. Parnell died from peritonitis in January 1964 and his son Tim took over the team. In a series of four pre-season races in Britain and Italy, Amon recorded three fifth places at Snetterton and Syracuse.
He failed to qualify for the first F1 race of the season, the Monaco GP, but at the next race, the Dutch GP, he scored his first World Championship points. The rest of his season, was blighted by mechanical problems. Parnell was only if it ran Richard Attwood as its regular driver. Reluctantly, Parnell agreed and Attwood took Amon's place. Spotting an opportunity, Bruce McLaren signed Amon for his new McLaren team, but when no second McLaren F1 car materialised, Amon could only drive in sports car races. At the French GP Amon rejoined Parnell to stand in for an injured Attwood. Amon competed in a Formula Two race in Stuttgart and won, he returned to Germany for the German GP as second Parnell driver, but mechanical failure again forced an early retirement. His last drive before Attwood's return, a non-championship race in Enna, Sicily ended in retirement. During 1966 Amon continued to race for McLaren in Can-Am, he was intended to drive the second McLaren M2B but difficulties with engine supply meant that the team never made the intended expansion to two cars.
However, an opportunity arose to drive for the Cooper F1 team after Richie Ginther left them for Honda. Amon drove for Cooper at the French GP and was scheduled to drive for them for the rest of the season, until the more successful John Surtees left Scuderia Ferrari to join Cooper and Amon found himself dropped. Amon made one other F1 appearance during the year, driving a Brabham BT11 powered by an old 2-litre BRM engine at the Italian GP under the banner of "Chris Amon Racing", he failed to qualify. Amon did however, score his biggest success to date when he partnered Bruce McLaren in a 7-litre Ford GT40 Mark II at the 1966 Le Mans 24-hour race, spearheading a formation finish, he subsequently received an invitation to meet Enzo Ferrari at the Ferrari home in Maranello, where he signed to race for Ferrari in 1967 alongside Lorenzo Bandini, Mike Parkes and Ludovico Scarfiotti. Amon's first year with Ferrari did not begin auspiciously. En route to Brands Hatch for the pre-seaso
Monocoque structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an object's external skin, similar to an egg shell. The word monocoque is a French term for "single shell" or "single hull". First used in boats, a true monocoque carries both tensile and compressive forces within the skin and can be recognised by the absence of a load-carrying internal frame. Few metal aircraft can be regarded as pure monocoques, as they use a metal shell or sheeting reinforced with frames riveted to the skin, but most of the wooden aircraft are described as monocoques though they incorporate frames. By contrast, a semi-monocoque is a hybrid combining a tensile stressed skin and a compressive structure made up of longerons and ribs or frames. Other semi-monocoques, not to be confused with true monocoques, include vehicle unibodies, which tend to be composites, inflatable shells or balloon tanks, both of which are pressure stabilised; the term is misused as a marketing term for structures built up from hollow components.
Early aircraft were constructed using frames of wood or steel tubing, which could be covered with fabric such as Irish linen or cotton. The fabric made a minor structural contribution in tension but none in compression and was there for aerodynamic reasons only. By considering the structure as a whole and not just the sum of its parts, monocoque construction integrated the skin and frame into a single load-bearing shell with significant improvements to strength and weight. To make the shell, thin strips of wood were laminated into a three dimensional shape. One of the earliest examples was the Deperdussin Monocoque racer in 1912, which used a laminated fuselage made up of three layers of glued poplar veneer, which provided both the external skin and the main load-bearing structure; this produced a smoother surface and reduced drag so that it was able to win most of the races it was entered into. This style of construction was further developed in Germany by LFG Roland using the patented Wickelrumpf form licensed by them to Pfalz Flugzeugwerke who used it on several fighter aircraft.
Each half of the fuselage shell was formed over a male mold using two layers of plywood strips with fabric wrapping between them. The early plywood used was prone to damage from delamination. While all-metal aircraft such as the Junkers J 1 had appeared as early as 1915, these were not monocoques but added a metal skin to an underlying framework; the first metal monocoques were built by Claudius Dornier. He had to overcome a number of problems, not least was the quality of aluminium alloys strong enough to use as structural materials, which formed layers instead of presenting a uniform material. After failed attempts with several large flying boats in which a few components were monocoques, he built the Zeppelin-Lindau V1 to test out a monocoque fuselage. Although it crashed, he learned a lot from its construction; the Dornier-Zeppelin D. I was built in 1918 and although too late for operational service during the war was the first all metal monocoque aircraft to enter production. In parallel to Dornier, Zeppelin employed Adolf Rohrbach, who built the Zeppelin-Staaken E-4/20, which when it flew in 1920 became the first multi-engined monocoque airliner, before being destroyed under orders of the Inter-Allied Commission.
At the end of WWI, the Inter-Allied Technical Commission published details of the last Zeppelin-Lindau flying boat showing its monocoque construction. In the UK, Oswald Short built a number of experimental aircraft with metal monocoque fuselages starting with the 1920 Short Silver Streak in an attempt to convince the air ministry of its superiority over wood. Despite advantages, aluminium alloy monocoques would not become common until the mid 1930s as a result of a number of factors, including design conservatism and production setup costs. Short would prove the merits of the construction method with a series of flying boats, whose metal hulls didn't absorb water as the wooden hulls did improving performance. In the United States, Northrop was a major pioneer, introducing techniques used by his own company and Douglas with the Northrop Alpha. In motor racing, the safety of the driver depends on the car body which must meet stringent regulations and only a few cars have been built with monocoque structures.
An aluminum alloy monocoque chassis was first used in the 1962 Lotus 25 Formula 1 race car and McLaren was the first to use carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers to construct the monocoque of the 1981 McLaren MP4/1. In 1992 the McLaren F1 became the first production car with a carbon-fiber monocoque; the term monocoque is misapplied to unibody cars. Commercial car bodies are never true monocoques but instead use the unibody system, which uses box sections and tubes to provide most of the strength of the vehicle, while the skin adds little strength or stiffness; some armoured fighting vehicles use a monocoque structure with a body shell built up from armour plates, rather than attaching them to a frame. This reduces weight for a given amount of armour. Examples include the German TPz Fuchs and RG-33. French industrialist and engineer Georges Roy attempted in the 1920s to improve on the bicycle-inspired motorcycle frames of the day, which lacked rigidity; this limited their handling and therefore performance.
He applied for a patent in 1926, at the 1929 Paris Automotive Show unveiled his new motorcycle, the Art-Deco styled 1930 Majestic. Its new type of monocoque body solved the p
Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman, was an influential English design engineer and builder in the automotive industry, founder of Lotus Cars. In 1952 he founded the sports car company Lotus Cars. Chapman ran Lotus in his spare time, assisted by a group of enthusiasts, his knowledge of the latest aeronautical engineering techniques would prove vital towards achieving the major automotive technical advances for which he is remembered. His design philosophy focused on cars with light weight and fine handling instead of bulking up on horsepower and spring rates, which he famously summarised as "Adding power makes you faster on the straights. Subtracting weight makes you faster everywhere."Under his direction, Team Lotus won seven Formula One Constructors' titles, six Drivers' Championships, the Indianapolis 500 in the United States, between 1962 and 1978. The production side of Lotus Cars has built tens of thousands of affordable, cutting edge sports cars. Lotus is one of but a handful of English performance car builders still in business after the industrial decline of the 1970s.
Chapman suffered a fatal heart attack in 1982, aged 54. Colin Chapman was born on 19 May 1928 and brought up at 44 Beech Drive N2, on the border of Muswell Hill, his father ran The Railway Hotel on Tottenham Lane next to Hornsey Railway Station. Chapman attended the Stationers' Company's School in Mayfield Road. Chapman studied structural engineering at University College London, joined the University of London Air Squadron and learned to fly. Chapman left UCL without a degree in 1948, resitting his final Mathematics paper in 1949 and obtaining his degree a year late, he joined the Royal Air Force in 1948, being offered a permanent commission but turning this down in favour of a swift return to civilian life. After a couple of false starts Chapman joined the British Aluminium company, using his civil engineering skills to attempt to sell aluminium as a viable structural material for buildings. In 1948, Chapman designed the Mk1, a modified Austin 7, which he entered into local racing events, he named the car "Lotus".
With prize money, he developed the Lotus Mk2. Around this time, Chapman began to show his ability to think of ways to become more competitive while remaining within the rules. One early car had a 6 port head with two inlet ports. Chapman realised that better flow characteristics could be achieved with an 8 port head, but lacking the resources to have one made, he reversed the port functions and de-siamesed the old inlet ports. With appropriate manifolds and a new camshaft, his engine outclassed the opposition until the rules were changed to outlaw the specific changes he had made. With continuing success on through the Lotus 6, he began to sell kits of these cars. Over 100 were sold through 1956, it was with the Lotus 7 in 1957 that things took off, indeed Caterham Cars still manufacture a version of that car today – the Caterham 7. In the 1950s, Chapman progressed through the motor racing formulae and building a series of racing cars, sometimes to the point of maintaining limited production as they were so successful and sought after, until he arrived in Formula One.
Besides his engineering work, he piloted a Vanwall F1-car in 1956 but crashed into his teammate Mike Hawthorn during practice for the French Grand Prix at Reims, ending his career as a race driver and focusing him on the technical side. Along with John Cooper, he revolutionised the premier motor sport, their small, lightweight mid-engined vehicles gave away much in terms of power, but superior handling meant their competing cars beat the all-conquering front engined Ferraris and Maseratis. With driver Jim Clark at the wheel of his race cars, Team Lotus appeared as though they could win whenever they pleased. With Clark driving the Lotus 25, Team Lotus won its first F1 World Championship in 1963, it was Clark, driving a Lotus 38 at the Indianapolis 500 in 1965, who drove the first mid-engined car to victory at the "Brickyard". Clark and Chapman became close and Clark's death in 1968 devastated Chapman, who publicly stated that he had lost his best friend. Among a number of automotive figures who have been Lotus employees over the years were Mike Costin and Keith Duckworth, founders of Cosworth.
Graham Hill worked at Lotus as a mechanic as a means of earning drives. Chapman, whose father was a successful publican, was a businessman who introduced major advertising sponsorship into auto racing, it was Chapman who in 1966 persuaded the Ford Motor Company to sponsor Cosworth's development of what would become the DFV race engine. Many of Chapman's ideas can still be seen in other top-level motor sport today, he pioneered the use of struts as a rear suspension device. Today, struts used in the rear of a vehicle are known as Chapman struts, while identical suspension struts for the front are known as MacPherson struts that were invented 10 years earlier in 1949. Chapman's next major innovation was popularising monocoque chassis construction within automobile racing, with the revolutionary 1962 Lotus 25 Formula One car; the technique resulted in a body, both lighter and stronger, provided better driver protection in the event of a crash. Although a little-used concept
The Lotus 24 was a Formula One racing car designed by Team Lotus for the 1962 Formula One season. Despite some early success in non-Championship Grands Prix, it was eclipsed by the technically superior Lotus 25 and featured in the points in World Championship races. Having devised the monocoque Lotus 25 for use by the works team, Colin Chapman decided to build a'conventional' back-up spaceframe design which he would sell to privateers; the 24 was a different design from its predecessor, the 21, used much of the same suspension as the 25. Both Coventry Climax FWMV and BRM P56 engines were fitted, with at least one example running with the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder; the Lotus 24 made its debut at the 1962 Brussels Grand Prix. Jim Clark retired after only one lap. Two weeks Clark won the Lombank Trophy race at Snetterton, its first World Championship event was the 1962 Dutch Grand Prix, where it finished second with Trevor Taylor. However, that would be its best Championship finish. Colin Chapman had promised his customers that the team cars would be mechanically identical to the customer cars, leaving himself free to alter what he classified as the cars' "bodywork".
The 24 continued to be run by private teams in 1963 and 1964 with limited success, by 1965 only one World Championship entry was made, Brian Gubby failing to qualify for the British Grand Prix
Double wishbone suspension
In automobiles, a double wishbone suspension is an independent suspension design using two wishbone-shaped arms to locate the wheel. Each wishbone or arm has two mounting points to one joint at the knuckle; the shock absorber and coil spring mount to the wishbones to control vertical movement. Double wishbone designs allow the engineer to control the motion of the wheel throughout suspension travel, controlling such parameters as camber angle, caster angle, toe pattern, roll center height, scrub radius and more; the double-wishbone suspension can be referred to as "double A-arms", though the arms themselves can be A-shaped, L-shaped, or a single bar linkage. A single wishbone or A-arm can be used in various other suspension types, such as variations of the MacPherson strut; the upper arm is shorter to induce negative camber as the suspension jounces, this arrangement is titled an "SLA" or "short long arms" suspension. When the vehicle is in a turn, body roll results in positive camber gain on the loaded inside wheel, while the loaded outer wheel gains negative camber.
Between the outboard end of the arms is a knuckle. The knuckle contains a kingpin for horizontal radial movement in older designs, rubber or trunion bushings for vertical hinged movement. In newer designs, a ball joint at each end allow for all movement. Attached to the knuckle at its center is a bearing hub, or in many older designs, a spindle to which the wheel bearings are mounted. To resist fore-aft loads such as acceleration and braking, the arms require two bushings or ball joints at the body. At the knuckle end, single ball joints are used, in which case the steering loads have to be taken via a steering arm, the wishbones look A- or L-shaped. An L-shaped arm is preferred on passenger vehicles because it allows a better compromise of handling and comfort to be tuned in; the bushing in line with the wheel can be kept stiff to handle cornering loads while the off-line joint can be softer to allow the wheel to recess under fore-aft impact loads. For a rear suspension, a pair of joints can be used at both ends of the arm, making them more H-shaped in plan view.
Alternatively, a fixed-length driveshaft can perform the function of a wishbone as long as the shape of the other wishbone provides control of the upright. This arrangement has been used in the Jaguar IRS. In elevation view, the suspension is a 4-bar link, it is easy to work out the camber gain and other parameters for a given set of bushing or ball-joint locations; the various bushings or ball joints do not have to be on horizontal axes, parallel to the vehicle centre line. If they are set at an angle anti-dive and anti-squat geometry can be dialled in. In many racing cars, the springs and dampers are relocated inside the bodywork; the suspension uses a bellcrank to transfer the forces at the knuckle end of the suspension to the internal spring and damper. This is known as a "push rod" if bump travel "pushes" on the rod; as the wheel rises, the push rod compresses the internal spring via a pivoting system. The opposite arrangement, a "pull rod", will pull on the rod during bump travel, the rod must be attached to the top of the upright, angled downward.
Locating the spring and damper inboard increases the total mass of the suspension, but reduces the unsprung mass, allows the designer to make the suspension more aerodynamic. A short long arms suspension is known as an unequal length double wishbone suspension; the upper arm is an A-arm, is shorter than the lower link, an A-arm or an L-arm, or sometimes a pair of tension/compression arms. In the latter case the suspension can be called dual ball joint suspension; the four-bar linkage mechanism formed by the unequal arm lengths causes a change in the camber of the vehicle as it rolls, which helps to keep the contact patch square on the ground, increasing the ultimate cornering capacity of the vehicle. It reduces the wear of the outer edge of the tire. SLAs can be classified as short spindle, in which the upper ball joint on the spindle is inside the wheel, or long spindle, in which the spindle tucks around the tire and the upper ball joint sits above the tire. Short spindle SLAs tend to require stiffer bushings at the body, as the braking and cornering forces are higher.
They tend to have poorer kingpin geometry, due to the difficulty of packaging the upper ball joint and the brakes inside the wheel. Long spindle SLAs tend to have better kingpin geometry, but the proximity of the spindle to the tyre restricts fitting oversized tyres, or snowchains; the location of the upper balljoint may have styling implications in the design of the sheetmetal above it. SLAs require some care when setting up their bump steer characteristic, as it is easy to end up with excessive, or curved, bump steer curves; the double wishbone suspension was introduced in the 1930s. French car maker Citroën began using it in their 1934 Traction Avant models. Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan used it on the Packard One-Twenty from 1935, advertised it as a safety feature. During that time MacPherson strut was still in the area of aviation technology and was derived from aircraft landing mechanism. On, until 1951, Ford Company decided to use the MacPherson strut on small production cars, the English Ford Consul and Ford Zephyr.
Thus, the double wishbone was applied early in automobiles history and there are no genetic relationship between MacPherson strut and double wishbone suspension. Double wishbones are considered to have sup
A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι. In architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to raise people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown an increasing use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in events such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used. Traditionally, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a somewhat lower platform for the silver medalist, to the left of the gold medalist is an lower platform for the bronze medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver and Bronze were equal in elevation. In many sports, results in the top three of a competition are referred to as "podiums" or "podium finishes". In some individual sports, "podiums" is an official statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career.
The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, "to podium", meaning to attain a podium place. Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles and the 1932 Winter Olympic Games in Lake Placid; the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Present are the dignitaries selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a race stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. In an international series, the national anthem of the winning driver, the winning team or constructor may be played over a public address system and the flags of the drivers' countries are hoisted above them; the recordings are short versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a slow lap in Formula One, that driver is transported to the pit lane via road car by the Formula One Administration security officer.
Following the presentation of the trophies, the drivers will spray Champagne over each other and their team members watching below, a tradition started by Dan Gurney following the 1967 24 Hours of Le Mans race. The drivers will refrain from spraying champagne if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. In countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, for example rose water; the term has become common parlance in the media, where a driver may be said to "be heading for a podium finish" or "just missing out on a podium" when he is heading for, or just misses out on a top three finish. The Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics. Instead, the winning team celebrates in victory lane, top-five and top-ten finishes are recognized statistically; those finishing second to fifth are required to stop in a media bullpen located on pit lane for interviews.
The INDYCAR Verizon IndyCar Series does not use a podium at either the Indianapolis 500 or at Texas Motor Speedway. The Indy 500 has a long tradition of the winning driver and team celebrating in victory lane, while Texas Motor Speedway president Eddie Gossage has stated that victory lane should be reserved for the winner of the race. However, the series does use a podium at all other races road course events. Architectural podiums are consist of a projecting base or pedestal at ground level, they have been used since ancient times. Sometimes only meters tall, architectural podiums have become more prominent in buildings over time, as illustrated in the gallery. Lectern