click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lotus Seven

The Lotus Seven is a small, lightweight two-seater open-top sports car produced by the British manufacturer Lotus Cars between 1957 and 1972. It was designed by Lotus founder Colin Chapman and has been considered the embodiment of the Lotus philosophy of performance through low weight and simplicity; the original model was successful with more than 2,500 cars sold, due to its attraction as a road legal car that could be used for clubman racing. After Lotus ended production of the Seven, Caterham bought the rights and today Caterham make both kits and assembled cars based on the original design known as the Caterham 7; the Lotus Seven design has spawned a host of imitations on the kit car market called Sevens or sevenesque roadsters. The Lotus Seven was launched in 1957 to replace the Mark VI as the'entry level' Lotus model, The Seven name was left over from a model, abandoned by Lotus, which would have been a Riley-engined single-seater that Lotus intended to enter into the Formula Two in 1952 or 1953.

However, the car was completed around Chapman's chassis as a sports car by its backers and christened the Clairmonte Special. Externally similar to Chapman's earlier Lotus Mark VI, but with a different tubular frame similar to the Lotus Eleven, the Seven was powered by a 40 bhp Ford Side-valve 1,172 cc inline-four engine, it was used both for club racing. The Lotus Seven S2 followed in 1960 and was supplemented by the Lotus Super Seven S2 from 1961; the Super Seven used the larger Cosworth modified 1,340cc Ford Classic engine and examples were fitted with 1,498cc or 1,599cc engines. The Seven S3 was released in 1968. In 1970, Lotus radically changed the shape of the car to create the more conventional sized Series 4, with a squarer fibreglass shell replacing most of the aluminium bodywork, it offered some luxuries as standard, such as an internal heater matrix. Between 1970 and 1975, following a representation agreement, Lotus Argentina SA obtained the licence to manufacture the Lotus Seven in Argentina.

This production reached 51 units. These vehicles built under licence and original brand Lotus. Under the Purchase Tax system of the time cars supplied as a kit did not attract the tax surcharge that would apply if sold in assembled form. Tax rules specified assembly instructions could not be included, but as the rules said nothing about the inclusion of disassembly instructions, they were included instead and all the enthusiast had to do was to follow them in reverse. However, once the UK joined the EEC on 1 January 1973, the VAT system was adopted instead so the tax advantage of the kit-built Lotus Seven came to an end. In 1973, Lotus decided to shed its "British tax system"-inspired kit car image and concentrate on limited series motor racing cars; as part of this plan, it sold the rights to the Seven to its only remaining agents Caterham Cars in England and Steel Brothers Limited in New Zealand. Caterham ran out of the Lotus Series 4 kits in the early 1970s; when this occurred and in accordance with their agreement with Lotus, Caterham introduced its own brand version of the Series 3.

They have been manufacturing the car since as the Caterham Seven. Steel Brothers Limited in Christchurch, New Zealand, assembled Lotus Seven Series 4s until March 1979 when the last of the 95 kits provided by Lotus was used up. Steel Brothers had a much wider range of factory options than the UK models with carpet, centre console glove-box, window-washer and hard top. Sold to competition enthusiasts, the NZ cars had engine modifications, close-ratio gears and adjustable suspension as factory options; as such they were successful in local racing. With licensed production stopping in 1979, the last Lotus badged Seven, a Series 4, was therefore produced in New Zealand. Steel Brothers Limited attempted to make a wider, modernised version of the Series 4, the Lotus Super 907, using the twin cam Lotus 907 engine. In the spring of 1978 it was announced that this was to be sold in the United States - but the American importer had no funds and the project came to naught; the single finished Super 907 was moved from the New Zealand to the United States in 2010 to undergo a full restoration.

A car with a tuned Ford 1172 cc engine and close ratio gearbox was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1958. It was found to have a top speed of 80.4 mph, could accelerate from 0-60 mph in 6.2 seconds and had a fuel consumption of 31.0 miles per imperial gallon. The test car cost £1,157 including taxes of £386, they commented that car could be bought in component form and it would have cost £399 for the parts from Lotus, £100 for the Ford engine and gearbox and £27 for the BMC rear axle. A Seven's top speed depends upon the body configuration, engine power and gearing. Early models with low-powered engines had difficulty exceeding 90 mph, although a race-prepared Seven was clocked at 127 mph whilst driven by Brausch Niemann through a speed-trap at the 1962 Natal Grand Prix. In addition, clamshell style wings tend to generate lift at higher speeds. Cycle wings help alleviate this tendency, low height Brookland aeroscreens or the lighter Perspex variants that can replace the windscreen help improve top end speed.

Sevens do suffer from front end lift at high speed — the nose creates more lift than downforce at speeds over around 70 mph, although retro fitted "winglets" may counter this. Nearly all Sevens, due to their light weight have excellent acceleration up to 70 mph (

Naegi Domain

Naegi Domain was a feudal domain of Edo period Japan It was located in Mino Province, in central Honshū. The domain was centered at Naegi Castle, located in what is now the city of Nakatsugawa in Gifu Prefecture, it is the smallest domain within the Tokugawa shogunate, styled as a “castle holding domain”. The Tōyama clan were rulers of this portion of southeast Mino Province since the Kamakura period. Toyama Tomotada and his son Toyama Tomomasa pledged fealty to Oda Nobunaga. However, after Nobunaga’s death, their territory was overrun by the Mōri clan, was given to Kawajiri Hidenaga; the Toyama fled to Hamamatsu. During the Battle of Sekigahara, Kawajiri Hidenaga sided with the pro-Toyotomi Western Army under Ishida Mitsunari, was killed in battle. Ieyasu sent Toyama Tomomasa to retake his clan’s ancestral domains. With the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, he was confirmed as daimyō of the 10,500 koku Naegi Domain. Tomomasa went on to participate in the Siege of Osaka, died in Naegi in 1619.

The domain remained in the hands of the Tōyama clan throughout its existence. However, as a small domain with heavy expenditures, it soon fell into severe debt, which continued to mount from generation to generation, despite efforts to open new rice lands, impose fiscal frugality, the issuance of paper currency on several occasions.. The 12th daimyō, Tōyama Tomoyoshi, served as wakadoshiyori for two terms during the Bakumatsu period, led the domain’s forces in the Second Chōshū expedition. At the time of the Meiji restoration, the domain was 143,000 gold ryō and 15,900 paper ryō in debt; when Naegi Castle was pulled down by order of the new government, its furnishing and timber were all sold as part of the effort the repay this debt. The stipend received from the government as compensation for relinquishing the domain went towards debt repayment, many samurai were forced to abandon their social status in order to take up money-making trades. By August 1871, at the time of the abolition of the han system, the debt had been reduced to 52,600 gold and 5000 paper ryō.

The former domain lands were absorbed into Gifu Prefecture. This created great discontent, the State Councilor responsible, Aoyama Naomichi, faced several assassination attempts, the last of, in 1891; as with most domains in the han system, Naegi Domain consisted of a discontinuous territories calculated to provide the assigned kokudaka, based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. Mino Province 34 villages in Kamo District, 13 villages in Ina District Tōyama clan 1600-1871 List of Han Naegi Domain on Edo 500

Lito Ramirez

Lito Ramirez is a Philippine international rugby union and rugby sevens player. Ramirez is the first homegrown player, the product of the grassroots program of the Philippine Rugby Football Union to become part of the national rugby team when he was named part of the rugby sevens squad that participated at the 2015 ARFU Men's Sevens Championships in July 2015.fly-half in local rugby union games but a winger and full-back Ramirez plays as a fly-half locally but plays as a winger and full-back for the Philippine national team. Ramirez was a street urchin since the age of five and was abandoned in the streets of Quezon City, Metro Manila by his parents when he was seven years old, he has an older brother Jay. He had no birth certificate and is unsure of his age when he was abandoned but celebrates his birthday on March 17, 1995, he was taken to the shelter for children in Quezon City at age 11 and was transferred to the Tuloy Foundation, an orphanage and school for street children in Muntinlupa.

His surname was derived from the person. At age 13 at the Tuloy Foundation, Ramirez first learned about rugby and took up the sport after having played basketball and football. Rocky Evangelista, the priest founder of the institution has discouraged Ramirez and other boys who showed interest to the sport due to its physical nature, although reluctantly allowed the boys to play touch rugby. Ramirez and his Tuloy peers watched YouTube videos of rugby players Shaun Johnson, Benji Marshall and Dan Carter and imitated their movements; the Tuloy rugby team came to beat various teams in Manila and the Philippines, including squads from international schools. Ramirez himself was called up to the under-18 Philippine national teams; the Tuloy youths however wanted to regular rugby. Ramirez and some of his peers from Tuloy, left the foundation in 2012 to join the Mavericks Rugby Club, founded in 2011 by New Zealander, Bill Brown, Rick Santos, current PRFU President and Mike Flynn, Head of Operations at International School Manila.

He managed to become part of the national men's development squad in 2014. He participated at the 2015 Philippine National Games as part of the Clark Jets team and won a gold medal, it was his stint with the Clark Jets that led to his inclusion to the training squad of the Philippine national rugby sevens team and was named as part of the squad that participated at the 2015 ARFU Men's Sevens Championships, becoming the first homegrown player to be named as part of the national team. In July 2016 Lito was awarded a four-week international rugby scholarship by the Inside Running Rugby Academy of New Zealand. Mavericks Rugby Club sponsored him in terms of his airfare and living and spending money, but the Inside Running Academy organization covered his accommodation and lunch and more for Lito 4 weeks of intense rugby training, where he got to play against local club players; as of May 2016, Ramirez along with Jayson Fabon, his Mavericks long-time peer resides in a house he rents in Muntinlupa.

His stint as a rugby player helped him secured a job with the Philippine Rugby Football Union as a development officer to coach rugby in schools and universities

Jacaranda mimosifolia

Jacaranda mimosifolia is a sub-tropical tree native to south-central South America, planted elsewhere because of its attractive and long-lasting pale indigo flowers. It is known as jacaranda, blue jacaranda, black poui, or as the fern tree. Older sources call it Jacaranda acutifolia, but it is nowadays more classified as Jacaranda mimosifolia. In scientific usage, the name "jacaranda" refers to the genus Jacaranda, which has many other members, but in horticultural and everyday usage, it nearly always means the blue jacaranda; the blue jacaranda has been cultivated in every part of the world where there is no risk of frost. In the US, 48 km east of Los Angeles where winter temperatures can dip to −12 °C for short several-hour periods, the mature tree survives with little or no visible damage; when young trees are damaged by a hard frost and suffer die back, they will rebound from the roots and grow in a shrub-like, multi-stemmed form. In the United States, the Jacaranda is grown extensively in California, in southwestern Arizona, southeast Texas and Florida.

In California they are grown most extensively in Southern California, but are planted as far north as the San Francisco Bay Area and along the frost-free coastal regions of Northern California. In California flowering and growth will be stunted if grown directly on the coast, where a lack of heat combined with cool ocean winds discourages flowering. In Europe it is grown on the entire Mediterranean coast of Spain, in the southern part of Portugal, southern Italy, southern Greece and on the Islands of Malta and Cyprus, it was introduced to Cape Town by Baron von Ludwig in about 1829. It is regarded as an invasive species in parts of South Africa and Australia, the latter of which has had problems with the Blue Jacaranda preventing growth of native species. In other parts of Africa jacarandas are present in Lusaka, the capital of Zambia, the capital of Kenya, Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe; the tree grows to a height of up to 20 m. Its bark is thin and grey-brown in colour, smooth when the tree is young though it becomes finely scaly.

The twigs are slender and zigzag. The flowers are up to 5 cm long, are grouped in 30 cm panicles, they appear in spring and early summer, last for up to two months. They are followed by woody seed pods, about 5 cm in diameter, which contain numerous flat, winged seeds; the Blue Jacaranda is cultivated in areas where it blooms, for the sake of its large compound leaves. These are up with leaflets little more than 1 cm long. There is a white form available from nurseries; the unusually shaped, tough pods, which are 5.1 to 7.6 cm across, are gathered and used to decorate Christmas trees and dried arrangements. The wood is pale grey to whitish, straight-grained soft and knot-free, it dries without difficulty and is used in its green or wet state for turnery and bowl carving. The taxonomic status of the blue jacaranda is unsettled. ITIS regards Jacaranda acutifolia, as a synonym for J. mimosifolia. However, some modern taxonomists maintain the distinction between these two species, regarding them as geographically distinct: J. acutifolia is endemic to Peru, while J. mimosifolia is native to Bolivia and Argentina.

If this distinction is made, cultivated forms should be treated as J. mimosifolia, since they are believed to derive from Argentine stock. Other synonyms for the Blue Jacaranda are J. ovalifolia. The Blue Jacaranda belongs to the section Monolobos of the genus Jacaranda. Pretoria in South Africa is popularly known as The Jacaranda City due to the enormous number of jacaranda trees planted as street trees and in parks and gardens. In flowering time the city appears blue/purple in colour when seen from the nearby hills because of all the jacaranda trees. Jacarandas are grown as ornamental trees in Australia, from Melbourne in the south to Cairns in the north. Jacarandas in bloom have become associated with Ipswich and South East Queensland; the Ipswich City Council have used jacarandas to line avenues, commercial developments in some areas along the Bremer River have incorporated jacarandas into their landscape design. The trees are common in parks throughout the city, most notably in a long curved avenue in New Farm Park in Brisbane, in Goodna, in private gardens.

The jacaranda blooms in Queensland around October. The city of Grafton on the north coast of New South Wales, Australia, is famous for its jacarandas; each year in late October and early November, the city has a jacaranda festival during the period of full bloom. A street parade, local public holiday and a series of events are held. A local public holiday sees the city's businesses perform street theatre for passersby and street stalls proliferate. A Jacaranda Queen and Jacaranda Princess are named at a formal ball; the Perth suburb of Applecross, Western Australia, has streets lined with jacaranda trees, hosts a "Jacaranda Festival" each year in November. The festival is held in the Applecross Village district, surrounding local businesses sell products and

Fitzgerald Toussaint

Fitzgerald D'Andre Toussaint is an American football running back, a free agent. He played college football at Michigan and signed with the Baltimore Ravens as an undrafted free agent in 2014, he has been a member of the Pittsburgh Steelers. Toussaint grew up in Youngstown, Ohio, to an African American mother, he graduated from Liberty High School, where as a senior in 2008, he rushed for 2,229 yards and 28 touchdowns and was named Ohio's co-offensive player of the year in Division III. Toussaint committed to the University of Michigan after his senior year and was considered one of the five impact players in Michigan's recruiting class for 2009. After committing to Michigan, Toussaint donned the scarlet uniform of the Ohio high school all-star team for the annual Big 33 Football Classic against the Pennsylvania high school all-star team. Toussaint was on the school's track & field team, where he competed as a sprinter. At the 2007 OHSAA Regional Track and Field Championships, he won the 100 meters by running a personal-best time of 10.74 seconds.

He won the 60 meters at the 2009 Kent State HS Open, recording a career-best time of 6.89 seconds. Toussaint enrolled at the University of Michigan on a football scholarship in 2009, he was redshirted during the 2009 season. Toussaint missed the first three games of the 2010 season with a knee injury. In his first appearance for the Wolverines, Toussaint rushed for 129 yards on six carries, including a 61-yard gain in the fourth quarter, against Bowling Green, he suffered a shoulder injury in October 2010. After spending the 2010 season as a back-up to Michael Shaw, Toussaint challenged Shaw for the starting running back position during 2011 summer practice. In the end, head coach Brady Hoke named Toussaint as the Wolverines' No. 1 running back at the start of the 2011 season. After gaining 80 yards on 11 carries and scoring two touchdowns in Michigan's 2011 season opener against Western Michigan, Hoke confirmed that Toussaint remained the team's No. 1 running back. After suffering a shoulder injury, he did not play against Notre Dame in the second week of the season.

He returned to the lineup the following week and went on to record his second 100-yard rushing game in the Battle for the Little Brown Jug against Minnesota in the fifth game of the season, totaling 108 yards on 11 carries for an average of 9.8 yards per carry. On October 29, Toussaint ran for 170 yards and two touchdowns on 20 carries in a 36–14 victory over Purdue, he carries. On November 12, Toussaint set new career highs with 27 carries, a 65-yard run, 192 rushing yards against Illinois. In the subsequent two weeks, he followed up with 138 rushing yards against Nebraska on November 19, 2011, 120 yards rushing against Ohio State on November 26, in "The Game". Toussaint rushed for 1,041 yards in the 2011 season. With quarterback Denard Robinson rushing for over 1,000 yards, the Wolverines had a tandem of 1,000-yard rushers for the first time since 1975. Toussaint averaged 5.6 yards per carry during the season. He ranked second in the Big Ten Conference in yards per carry behind Wisconsin running back Montee Ball.

He earned All-Big Ten Conference honorable mention recognition from the media. At the end of the regular season, Michigan offensive coordinator Al Borges praised Toussaint's late season performance and compared him to USC Heisman Trophy winner Charles White: "You put the jersey on him, you would hardly be able to tell the difference. That's who he reminds me of." At the time of Michigan's spring practice in April 2012, Borges said there was no running back controversy for the 2012 team: "Fitz is our tailback. If he isn't, I'm not smart."On July 21, 2012, Toussaint was arrested in Ann Arbor after running a red light and charged with driving under the influence. On July 23, he was suspended from the team. In late August, Toussaint pleaded guilty to operating a vehicle while visibly impaired, after telling the court that he had been drinking brandy before driving. On October 23, he was sentenced to 10 months probation and ordered by the Court to attend 10 Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, pay $1,500 in fees and fines, undergo random drug and alcohol tests.

Toussaint remained suspended from the team for the opening game of the 2012 season, but returned to the lineup as Michigan's lead running back in the second week of the season against Air Force. Through the tenth game of the 2012 season, Toussaint had gained 483 yards and scored five touchdown on 127 carries, an average of 3.8 yards per carry. On November 17, 2012, during a first quarter run in the game against the Iowa Hawkeyes, Toussaint sustained a broken leg, ending his season. After successful rehabilitation on his leg injury, Toussaint returned as the starting running back for the 2013 Michigan Wolverines football team. Through the first two games of the season, he had 128 rushing yards on 36 carries, including 71 rushing yards on 22 carries in Michigan's 41–30 victory over Notre Dame on September 7, 2013. On October 19, against Indiana, he had 32 carries for four rushing touchdowns, he finished his final season with the Wolverines with 185 carries for 648 rushing yards and 13 rushing touchdowns.

On May 29, 2014, Toussaint was signed as an undrafted free agent by the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League. Toussaint rushed for 20 yards on four attempts during the Ravens' first preseason game against the San Francisco 49ers, he did not play again until the fourth preseason game against the New Orleans Saints, where he rushed for a game-high 103 yards on 17 carries and caught his only targeted pass for another nine yards. Desp

John Clayton (botanist)

John Clayton was a Colonial plant collector and botanist in Virginia. Clayton was born in England and is believed to have moved to Virginia around 1715 with his father named John Clayton, who served as one of the Attorneys General for colonial Virginia, he did not show up on any colonial records until October 7, 1720, when he was identified as a clerk in Gloucester County. The site of his home, Windsor, is today located in Mathews County, he married granddaughter of Peter Beverley. The two had three daughters and five sons, one of, William Clayton, who went on to serve on the Virginia Ratifying Convention. Clayton died, still serving as county clerk, on December 15, 1773. Clayton explored the Gloucester County region botanically and in 1734 sent many specimens and manuscript descriptions to the English naturalist Mark Catesby, who sent them on to the Dutch botanist Jan Frederik Gronovius. Clayton would send work to Gronovius directly. Unprepared for the amount of material sent to him, Gronovius enlisted the help of the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus.

However unbeknownst to Clayton, Gronovius would use much of Clayton's specimen and manuscript work in his 1739 book Flora Virginica without seeking his permission. Whether or not Gronovius properly credited Clayton in the work is the subject of debate, as some felt that Gronovius downplayed his contributions. However, in 1975 William T. Stearn stated that Gronovius was the true author of the work, as he had performed quite a bit of work with the material prior to the publication of Flora Virginica and that "but for Gronovius's publication Clayton's work would lack modern relevance." A second part of Flora Virginica was published in 1743 with additional information. Clayton sought to publish his own version of Flora Virginica but was unable to find a publisher before a second edition of Gronovius's book was printed in 1762, his manuscript is believed to have been lost in a 1787 fire in the New Kent County clerk's office where the papers were being stored. Clayton's work was studied by the European botanist George Clifford and Linnaeus named a flower in Clayton's honor, a common eastern North American wildflower, the spring beauty, Claytonia virginica.

Linneus recommended Clayton to the Swedish Royal Academy of Science, who elected him as a member on May 3, 1747. The specimens sent to Gronovius were collected by Joseph Banks and the material is now part of the Natural History Museum in London and makes up the John Clayton Herbarium; the site of Clayton's home is memorialized by a historical marker erected in 1951 by the Virginia State Library in Mathews County, near the community of North. It is located north of Virginia State Route 14, known as the John Clayton Memorial Highway. Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley. John Clayton: Pioneer of American Botany. University of North Carolina press, Chapel Hill.. Clayton herbarium page J. F. Gronovius: Flora Virginica 1745 on GoogleBooks