Nelumbo nucifera known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae. It is colloquially called a water lily. Under favorable circumstances the seeds of this aquatic perennial may remain viable for many years, with the oldest recorded lotus germination being from that of seeds 1,300 years old recovered from a dry lakebed in northeastern China, it has a wide native distribution, ranging from central and northern India, through northern Indochina and East Asia, with isolated locations at the Caspian Sea. Today the species occurs in southern India, Sri Lanka all of Southeast Asia, New Guinea and northern and eastern Australia, but this is the result of human translocations, it has a long history of being cultivated for its edible seeds, it is cultivated in water gardens. It is the national flower of Vietnam; the lotus is confused with the true water lilies of genus Nymphaea, in particular N. caerulea, the "blue lotus".
In fact, several older systems, such as the Bentham & Hooker system refer to the lotus by its old synonym of Nymphaea nelumbo. While all modern plant taxonomy systems agree that this species belongs in the genus Nelumbo, the systems disagree as to which family Nelumbo should be placed in, or whether the genus should belong in its own unique family and order. According to the APG IV system, N. nucifera, N. lutea, their extinct relatives belong in Proteales with the protea flowers due to genetic comparisons. Older systems, such as the Cronquist system, place N. nucifera and its relatives in the order Nymphaeles based on anatomical similarities. The roots of lotus are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on top of the water surface or are held well above it; the flowers are found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the leaves. The plant grows up to a height of about 150 cm and a horizontal spread of up to 3 meters, but some unverified reports place the height as high as over 5 meters.
The leaves may be as large as 60 cm in diameter, while the showy flowers can be up to 20 cm in diameter. Researchers report that the lotus has the remarkable ability to regulate the temperature of its flowers to within a narrow range just as humans and other warmblooded animals do. Roger S. Seymour and Paul Schultze-Motel, physiologists at the University of Adelaide in Australia, found that lotus flowers blooming in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens maintained a temperature of 30–35 °C when the air temperature dropped to 10 °C, they suspect. Studies published in the journals Nature and Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences were in 1996 and 1998 important contributions in the field of thermoregulation, heat-producing, in plants. Two other species known to be able to regulate their temperature include Symplocarpus foetidus and Philodendron selloum. An individual lotus can live for over a thousand years and has the rare ability to revive into activity after stasis. In 1994, a seed from a sacred lotus, dated at 1,300 years old ± 270 years, was germinated.
The traditional Sacred Lotus is only distantly related to Nymphaea caerulea, but possesses similar chemistry. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids aporphine; the genome of the sacred lotus was sequenced in May 2013. The Sacred Lotus grows in water up to 2.5 m. The minimum water depth should not be lower than 30 cm. In colder climates such a low water level, which heats up more is helpful for better growth and flowering. Lotus germinates at temperatures above 13 °C. Most varieties are not cold-hardy. In the growing season from April to September, the average daytime temperature needed is 23 to 27 °C. In regions with low light levels in winter, the sacred lotus has a period of dormancy; the tubers are not cold resistant, but can resist temperatures below 0 °C if they are covered with an insulating cover of water or soil. During winter time, the roots have to be stored at a frost free place; the sacred lotus requires a nutrient-rich loamy soil. In the beginning of the summer period, a small part of rhizome with at least one eye is either planted in ponds or directly into a flooded field.
There are several other propagation ways via buds. Furthermore, tissue culture is a promising propagation method for the future to produce high volumes of uniform, true-to-type, disease free materials. First step of the cultivation is to plough the dry field. One round of manure is applied before flooding the field. To support a quick initial growth, the water level is hold low and is increased when plants grow. A maximum of 4000 rhizome pieces per hectare are used to plant directly into the mud 10–15 cm below the soil surface; the stolon is ready to harvest two to three months after planting. It must be harvested before the flowering. Harvesting the stolon is done by manual labour, too. For this step, the field is not drained. By pulling and shaking the young leaves in the shallow water, the stolon is pulled out of the water. Three months after planting, the first leaves and flowers can be harvested. Flowers can be picked every two days during every three days during the colder season. Four months after plant
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Architectural lighting design
Architectural lighting design is a field within architecture, interior design and electrical engineering, concerned with the design of lighting systems, including natural light, electric light, or both, to serve human needs. The design process takes account of: The kind of human activity for which lighting is to be provided The amount of light required The color of the light as it may affect the views of particular objects and the environment as a whole The distribution of light within the space to be lighted, whether indoor or outdoor The effect of the lightened system itself on the userThe objective of lighting design is the human response, to see and without discomfort; the objective of architectural lighting design is to further the design of architecture or the experience of buildings and other physical structures. Gas lighting was economical enough to light streets in major cities starting in the early 1800s, was used in some commercial buildings and in the homes of wealthy people; the gas mantle boosted the luminosity of kerosene lamps.
The next major drop in price came about with the incandescent light bulb powered by electricity. Architectural lighting design focuses on three fundamental aspects of the illumination of buildings or spaces; the first is the aesthetic appeal of a building, an aspect important in the illumination of retail environments. Secondly, the ergonomic aspect: the measure of how much of a function the lighting plays. Thirdly is the energy efficiency issue to ensure that light is not wasted by over illumination, either by illuminating vacant spaces unnecessarily or by providing more light than needed for the aesthetics or the task. Cultural factors need to be considered; as the Sun crosses the sky, it may appear to be red, yellow or white depending on its position. The changing color of the Sun over the course of the day is a result of scattering of light and is not due to changes in black-body radiation; the blue color of the sky is caused by Rayleigh scattering of the sunlight from the atmosphere, which tends to scatter blue light more than red light.
For colors based on black-body theory, blue occurs at higher temperatures, while red occurs at lower, temperatures. This is the opposite of the cultural associations attributed to colors, in which red represents hot, blue cold. Lighting fixtures come in a wide variety of styles for various functions; the most important functions are as a holder for the light source, to provide directed light and to avoid visual glare. Some are plain and functional, while some are pieces of art in themselves. Nearly any material can be used, so long as it can tolerate the excess heat and is in keeping with safety codes. An important property of light fixtures is the luminous efficacy or wall-plug efficiency, meaning the amount of usable light emanating from the fixture per used energy measured in lumen per watt. A fixture using replaceable light sources can have its efficiency quoted as the percentage of light passed from the "bulb" to the surroundings; the more transparent the lighting fixture is, the higher efficacy.
Shading the light will decrease efficiency but increase the directionality and the visual comfort probability. The PH-lamps are a series of light fixtures designed by Danish designer and writer Poul Henningsen from 1926 onwards; the lamp is designed with multiple concentric shades to eliminate visual glare, only emitting reflected light, obscuring the light source. Photometric studies are used to simulate lighting designs for projects before they are built or renovated; this enables architects, lighting designers, engineers to determine whether a proposed lighting setup will deliver the amount of light intended. They will be able to determine the contrast ratio between light and dark areas. In many cases these studies are referenced against IESNA or CIBSE recommended lighting practices for the type of application. Depending on the type of area, different design aspects may be emphasized for safety or practicality. A specialized lighting design application is used to create these, which combine the use of two-dimensional digital CAD drawings and lighting simulation software.
Color temperature for white light sources affects their use for certain applications. The color temperature of a white light source is the temperature in kelvins of a theoretical black body emitter that most matches the spectral characteristics of the lamp. An incandescent bulb has a color temperature around 2800 to 3000 kelvins. Lower color temperature lamps have more energy in the yellow and red part of the visible spectrum, while high color temperatures correspond to lamps with more of a blue-white appearance. For critical inspection or color matching tasks, or for retail displays of food and clothing, the color temperature of the lamps will be selected for the best overall lighting effect. Color may be used for functional reasons. For example, blue light thus may be used to discourage drug use; the color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of comparable hue to that of the light source. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in lighting, videography, manufacturing, astrophysics and other fields.
In practice, color temperature is only meaningful for light sources that do in fact correspond somewhat closely
Bahá'í Faith and the unity of religion
Unity of religion is a core teaching of the Bahá'í Faith which states that there is a fundamental unity in many of the world's religions. The principle states that the teachings of the major religions are part of a single plan directed from the same God, it is one of the core teachings of the Bahá'í Faith, alongside the unity of God, the unity of humanity. The Bahá'í teachings state that there is but one religion, progressively revealed by God, through prophets/messengers, to mankind as humanity matures and its capacity to understand grows; the outward differences in the religions, the Bahá'í writings state, are due to the exigencies of the time and place the religion was revealed. The Bahá'í writings state that the essential nature of the messengers is twofold: they are at once human and divine, they expound his teachings. In this light they are seen as the same. At the same time they are separate individuals and known by different names; each fulfills a definite mission, is entrusted with a particular revelation.
Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, claimed to be the most recent, but not the last, in a series of divine educators which include Krishna,Jesus, Buddha and others. The Bahá'í teachings state that religion has been revealed progressively from the same God through different prophets/messengers, who at different times through history and in different locations come to provide the teachings of God. In this way the Bahá'í teachings see that religion has the same foundation, that the various religions are "different stages in the eternal history and constant evolution of one religion"; the Bahá'í concept of progressive revelation states that God is regular and periodic in revealing his will to mankind through messengers/prophets, which are named Manifestations of God. Each messenger in turn founds a religion; this process of revelation, according to the Bahá'í writings, is never ceasing, The general theme of the successive and continuous religions founded by Manifestations of God is that there is an evolutionary tendency, that each Manifestation of God brings a larger measure of revelation to humankind than the previous one.
The differences in the revelation brought by the Manifestations of God is stated to be not inherent in the characteristics of the Manifestation of God, but instead attributed to the various worldly and human factors. The Bahá'í teaching states that while certain aspects of religious teachings are absolute, others are relative; these differences in the teachings of the various religions are seen in the Bahá'í teachings to be needed since human society has and evolved through higher stages of unification from the family to tribes and nations. Thus religious truth is seen to be relative to not absolute. In the Bahá'í view, since humanity's spiritual capacity and receptivity has increased over time, the extent to which these spiritual truths are expounded changes; the Manifestation of God is a concept in the Bahá'í Faith that refers to what are called prophets. The Manifestations of God are a series of personages who reflect the attributes of the divine into the human world for the progress and advancement of human morals and civilization.
The Manifestations of God are the only channel for humanity to know about God, they act as perfect mirrors reflecting the attributes of God into the physical world. Bahá'í teachings hold that the motive force in all human development is due to the coming of the Manifestations of God. In Bahá'í belief all of the Manifestations of God are from the same God and have the same spiritual and metaphysical nature, that there is absolute equality between them; the differences between the various Manifestations of God and their teachings, Bahá'u'lláh explained, are due to the varying needs and capacities of the civilization in which they appeared, not due to any differences in their level of importance or nature. The Manifestations of God are taught to be "one and the same", in their relationship to one another have both the station of unity and the station of distinction. In this sense, the Manifestations of God all fulfill the same purpose and perform the same function by mediating between God and creation.
In this way each Manifestation of God manifested the Word of God and taught the same religion, with modifications for the particular audience's needs and culture. Bahá'u'lláh wrote that since each Manifestation of God has the same divine attributes they can be seen as the spiritual "return" of all the previous Manifestations of God; the Bahá'í belief in the oneness of the Manifestations of God does not mean, that the same individual soul is born again at different times and in different physical bodies. In the Bahá'í view, the various Manifestations of God were all different personalities and had separate individual realities. Instead their equality is due to that Manifestation of God manifested and revealed the qualities of God to the same degree. There is no definitive list of Manifestations of God, but Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá referred to several personages as Manifestations.
The Parthenon is a former temple on the Athenian Acropolis, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Construction began in 447 BC, it was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece considered the zenith of the Doric order, its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy and Western civilization, one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. To the Athenians who built it, the Parthenon and other Periclean monuments of the Acropolis were seen fundamentally as a celebration of Hellenic victory over the Persian invaders and as a thanksgiving to the gods for that victory; as of 2007 the Greek Ministry of Culture was carrying out a programme of selective restoration and reconstruction to ensure the stability of the ruined structure. The Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC.
The temple is archaeoastronomically aligned to the Hyades. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon served a practical purpose as the city treasury. For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which became the Athenian Empire. In the final decade of the sixth century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. After the Ottoman conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early 1460s. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment; the resulting explosion damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. From 1800 to 1803, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures with the alleged permission of the Turks of the Ottoman Empire; these sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles or the Parthenon Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British Museum in London, where they are now displayed. Since 1983, the Greek government has been committed to the return of the sculptures to Greece.
The origin of the Parthenon's name is from the Greek word παρθενών, which referred to the "unmarried women's apartments" in a house and in the Parthenon's case seems to have been used at first only for a particular room of the temple. The Liddell–Scott–Jones Greek–English Lexicon states that this room was the western cella of the Parthenon, as does J. B. Bury. Jamauri D. Green holds that the parthenon was the room in which the peplos presented to Athena at the Panathenaic Festival was woven by the arrephoroi, a group of four young girls chosen to serve Athena each year. Christopher Pelling asserts that Athena Parthenos may have constituted a discrete cult of Athena, intimately connected with, but not identical to, that of Athena Polias. According to this theory, the name of the Parthenon means the "temple of the virgin goddess" and refers to the cult of Athena Parthenos, associated with the temple; the epithet parthénos meant "maiden, girl", but "virgin, unmarried woman" and was used for Artemis, the goddess of wild animals, the hunt, vegetation, for Athena, the goddess of strategy and tactics and practical reason.
It has been suggested that the name of the temple alludes to the maidens, whose supreme sacrifice guaranteed the safety of the city. Parthénos has been applied to the Virgin Mary, Parthénos Maria, the Parthenon had been converted to a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary in the final decade of the sixth century; the first instance in which Parthenon refers to the entire building is found in the writings of the 4th century BC orator Demosthenes. In 5th-century building accounts, the structure is called ho naos; the architects Iktinos and Callicrates are said to have called the building Hekatompedos in their lost treatise on Athenian architecture, and, in the 4th century and the building was referred to as the Hekatompedos or the Hekatompedon as well as the Parthenon. Because the Parthenon was dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, it has sometimes been referred to as the Temple of Minerva, the Roman name for Athena during the 19th century. Although the Parthenon is architecturally a temple and is called so, it is not one in the conventional sense of the word.
A small shrine has been excavated within the building, on the site of an older sanctuary dedicated to Athena as a way to get closer to the goddess, but the Parthenon never hosted the cult of Athena Polias, patron of Athens: the cult image, bathed in the sea and to, presented the peplos, was an olivewood xoanon, located at an older altar on the northern side of the Acropolis. The colossal statue of Athena by Phidias was not related to any cult and is not known to have inspired any religious fervour, it did not seem to have any priestess, cult name. According to Thucydides, Pericles once referred to the statue as a gold reserve, stressing that it "contained forty talents of pure gold and it was all removable"; the Athenian statesman thus implies that the metal, obtained from contemporary coinage, could be used again without any impiety. The Parthenon should be viewed as a grand setting for Phidias' votive statue rather than a cult site, it is said in many writings of the G
Kalkaji Mandir metro station
Kalkaji Mandir Metro Station is an interchange station of the Delhi Metro between Violet Line and Magenta Line. The interchange elevated. There is seamless connection between the two lines, which allows commuters to change lines without requiring to exit from the ticketed area, it is located between Nehru Place and Govind Puri stations of the Violet Line, between Nehru Enclave and Okhla NSIC stations of the Magenta Line. It provides access to tourist sites such as Kalkaji Mandir, Lotus Temple, Prachin Bhairav Mandir and ISKCON Temple which are situated near to the station; the station was opened with the first section of the Line from Central Secretariat - Sarita Vihar on 3 October 2010, in time for the Commonwealth Games opening ceremony on the same day. The metro station houses a departmental store; the interchange with Magenta Line was opened on 25 December 2017. List of Delhi Metro stations Transport in Delhi Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. Delhi Metro Annual Reports "Station Information".
Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd.. Archived from the original on 19 June 2010
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000