Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame
The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame is an American history museum and hall of fame, located at 1000 Hall of Fame Avenue in Springfield, Massachusetts. It serves as the sport's most complete library, in addition to promoting and preserving the history of basketball. Dedicated to Canadian-American physician and inventor of the sport James Naismith, it was opened and inducted its first class in 1959; as of the induction of the Class of 2018, the Hall has formally inducted 389 individuals. The Naismith Hall of Fame was established in 1959 by Lee Williams, a former athletic director at Colby College. In the 1960s, the Basketball Hall of Fame struggled to raise enough money for the construction of its first facility. However, during the following half-decade the necessary amount was raised, the building opened on Feb. 17, 1968, less than one month after the National Basketball Association played its 18th All-Star Game. The Basketball Hall of Fame's Board named four inductees in its first year.
In addition to honoring those who contributed to basketball, the Hall of Fame sought to make contributions of its own. In 1979, the Hall of Fame sponsored a pre-season college basketball exhibition; this Tip-Off Classic has been the start to the college basketball season since, although it does not always take place in Springfield, Massachusetts it returns every few years. In the 17 years that the original Basketball Hall of Fame operated at Springfield College, it drew more than 630,000 visitors; the popularity of the Basketball Hall of Fame necessitated that a new facility be constructed, in 1985, an $11 million facility was built beside the scenic Connecticut River in Springfield. As the new hall opened, it recognized women for the first time, with inductees such as Senda Berenson Abbott, who first introduced basketball to women at Smith College. During the years following its construction, the Basketball Hall of Fame's second facility drew far more visitors than anticipated, due in large part to the increasing popularity of the game but to the scenic location beside the river and the second Hall's interesting modern architecture.
In 2002, the Basketball Hall of Fame moved again—albeit 100 yards south along Springfield's riverfront—into a $47 million facility designed by renowned architects Gwathmey Siegel & Associates. The building's architecture features a metallic silver, basketball-shaped sphere flanked by two symmetrical rhombuses; the dome is illuminated at night and features 80,000 square foot, including numerous restaurants and an extensive gift shop. The second Basketball Hall of Fame was not torn down but rather converted into an LA Fitness health clubs; the current Basketball Hall of Fame features Center Court, a full-sized basketball court on which visitors can play. Inside the building there are a game gallery, many interactive exhibits, several theaters, an honor ring of inductees. A large theater for ceremonies seats up to 300; the honorees inducted in 2002 included the Harlem Globetrotters and Magic Johnson, a five-time NBA champion, three-time NBA finals MVP and Olympic gold medalist. As of 2011, the current Basketball Hall of Fame has exceeded attendance expectations, with basketball fans traveling to the Hall of Fame from all over the world.
Despite the new facility's success, a logistical problem remains for the Basketball Hall of Fame and the City of Springfield. The two entities are separated by the Interstate 91 elevated highway—one of the eastern United States' busiest highways—which inhibits foot-traffic and other interaction between the Basketball Hall of Fame and Springfield's lively Metro Center. Both the Hall and Springfield have made public statements about cooperating further so as to facilitate more business and recreational growth for both. Urban planners at universities such as UMass Amherst have called for the I-91 to be moved, or to be re-configured so as to be pedestrian-friendly to Hall of Fame visitors. In 2010, the Urban Land Institute announced a plan to make the walk between Springfield's Metro Center and the Hall of Fame easier. In contrast to the Pro Football and the National Baseball Halls of Fame, Springfield honors international and American professionals, as well as American and international amateurs, making it arguably the most comprehensive Hall of Fame among major sports.
From 2011 to 2015 seven committees were, as of 2016 six committees are employed to both screen and elect candidates. Four of the committees screen prospective candidates: North American Screening Committee Women's Screening Committee International Screening Committee Veterans Screening Committee, with "Veterans" defined as individuals whose careers ended at least 35 years before they are considered for election. Since 2011, the Veterans and International Committees vote to directly induct one candidate for each induction class. Three committees were formed in 2011 to directly elect one candidate for each induction class: American Basketball Association Committee - This committee was permanently disbanded in 2015 because it had fulfilled its purpose over the previous five years. Contributor Direct Election Committee Other committees may choose to elect contributors. For example, the 2014 class included two contributors. Early African-American Pioneers of the Game CommitteeIndividuals who receive at least seven votes from the North American Screening Committee or five votes from one of the other screening committees in a given year are eligible to advance to an Honors Committee, composed of 12 members plus rotating groups of 12 specialists (one group for
Catholic High School Athletic Association
The Catholic High School Athletic Association or CHSAA is a high school athletic association made up of Catholic high schools based in New York City, Long Island and Buffalo. It is the largest Catholic high school athletic league in the United States; the NYCHSAA is divided into four sections. The New York Section consists of schools in Westchester, the Bronx and Staten Island, corresponding to the Archdiocese of New York; the Brooklyn-Queens Section consists of schools in Brooklyn and Queens, corresponding to the Diocese of Brooklyn. The Nassau-Suffolk Section consists of schools in Nassau and Suffolk counties, corresponding to the Diocese of Rockville Centre; the Buffalo Section consists of schools in Buffalo area corresponding to the Diocese of Buffalo. New York's Catholic High School Athletic Association was formed in March 1927; the Catholic schools in the city from 1908 to 1922 competed along with their grammar school counterparts in baseball and track, but no larger organization arose from the competition.
The Catholic secondary schools of the city remained unorganized, while their counterparts in such cities as Chicago and Philadelphia had been organized into leagues for years. In 1927, the Southern Branch of the New York Catholic High Schools’ Athletic Association organized league competition with an outdoor track meet held at Fordham University on May 26, 1927; the charter members of the league were Fordham Prep, All Hallows, LaSalle Academy, Regis, St. Ann’s, Xavier High, all in Manhattan. In 1928, the CHSAA introduced indoor track and baseball to the program, in 1929 added cross country and ice hockey. In 1930, swimming was added to the program; the basketball winner would compete with the three other sectional winners in the state for the right to compete in the Loyola National Catholic Basketball tournament in Chicago. A. G. Spalding & Co. contributed two silver loving cups for the football competition. The first team winning the league title in baseball or football three times would receive permanent possession of the cup.
Listed below are former CHSAA students. All Hallows Gaels Olden Polynice – Former NBA playerArchbishop Molloy Stanners: Xavier Rescigno – Former Major League baseball player. Lou Carnesecca – St. John's University basketball coach Tommy Kearns – Former NBA Player York Larese – Former NBA Player Tom Farrell – Bronze medalist in the 800 metres run at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City Jim Larranaga – former College men's basketball coach at George Mason University and current coach University of Miami Kevin Joyce – NBA player and Captain of the 1972 USA Olympic Basketball Team Brian Winters – Former NBA All-Star and Coach Vitas Gerulaitis – Former professional tennis player & winner of the 1977 Australian Open Edward Kurpiel – Former Major League Baseball player Kenny Smith – Former NBA All-Star and two-time NBA Champion and current television sports host and analyst who hit the buzzer-beating tying 3-pointer to send Game 1 of the 1995 NBA Finals into overtime, where the Rockets would win.
Robert Werdann – Former NBA Player Kenny Anderson – Former NBA All-Star and three-time parade All-American, the first prep to achieve that feat since Lew Alcindor. Held the New York State High School Scoring Record for 18 years, with 2,621 points. Mike Jerzembeck – Former Major League Pitcher Uka Agbai – Assistant Men's Basketball coach at Northeastern University Sundiata Gaines - NBA PlayerArchbishop Stepinac Crusaders: Marty Conlon – 10 year NBA career with Milwaukee Bucks, Orlando Magic, Boston Celtics. Art White – 4th round draft pick of Milwaukee Bucks, played professionally in Belgium. Bob Hyland – 1st round draft pick of the Green Bay Packers in 1967. Played 11 seasons in the NFL. Super Bowl IIChampion under Vince Lombardi. Eric Ogbogu – NCAA Hula Bowl MVP at Maryland. Drafted in 1998 by New York Jets. Curren national spokesperson for Under Armour. Brian Sweeney – MLB pitcher for the San Diego PadresBishop Ford Central Catholic High School Falcons Charles Jones - NBA Player, 2 time NCAA Scoring Leader Armond Hill - professional basketball player in the NBA and first-round pick in the 1976 NBA draft John Halama: Major League Baseball pitcher Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School Lions: Ronald Holmberg - Professional Tennis Player Mark Jackson – NBA Player Devin Ebanks - NBA Player Doron Lamb - NBA Player JayVaughn Pinkston McDonald's All American Villanova University- BasketballCardinal Hayes Cardinals: Jamal Mashburn – NBA Player Will Colon – NFL Player Jimmy Black – University of North Carolina Tar Heels and New Jersey Nets Stalin Colinet - NFL Player Gerry Ward - NBA Dermie O'Connell - NBA Kevin Loughery - NBABrooklyn Preparatory School Eagles: John Dockery – New York Jets Kenny Charles – NBAChaminade Flyers: Joe Mullaney – Collegiate and professional basketball coach Al Groh – former New York Jets head coach and current head coach of the University of Virginia Gene Larkin – first baseman for the Minnesota Twins who drove in the winning run in Game 7 of the 1991 World Series John Paul Foschi – tight end for the Oakland Raiders John Lannan – MLB pitcher for the Washington NationalsChrist the King Royals: Jayson Williams – Former NBA Player Allen Watson – Former MLB Player Steve Karsay – Former MLB Player Khalid Reeves – Former NBA Player Derrick Phelps – Former NBA P
NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
The NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament known and branded as NCAA March Madness, is a single-elimination tournament played each spring in the United States featuring 68 college basketball teams from the Division I level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, to determine the national championship. The tournament was created in 1939 by the National Association of Basketball Coaches, was the idea of Ohio State coach Harold Olsen. Played during March, it has become one of the most famous annual sporting events in the United States; the tournament teams include champions from 32 Division I conferences, 36 teams which are awarded at-large berths. These "at-large" teams are chosen by an NCAA selection committee announced in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the "First Four" play-in games held in Dayton and dubbed Selection Sunday; the 68 teams are divided into four regions and organized into a single-elimination "bracket", which pre-determines, when a team wins a game, which team it will face next.
Each team is "seeded", or ranked, within its region from 1 to 16. After the First Four, the tournament occurs during the course of three weekends, at pre-selected neutral sites across the United States. Teams, seeded by rank, proceed through a single-game elimination bracket beginning with a "first four" consisting of 8 low-seeded teams playing in 4 games for a position in the first round the Tuesday and Wednesday before the first round begins, a first round consisting of 64 teams playing in 32 games over the course of a week, the "Sweet Sixteen" and "Elite Eight" rounds the next week and weekend and – for the last weekend of the tournament – the "Final Four" round; the Final Four is played during the first weekend of April. These four teams, one from each region, compete in a preselected location for the national championship; the tournament has been at least televised since 1969. The games are broadcast by CBS, TBS, TNT, truTV under the trade-name NCAA March Madness. Since 2011, all games are available for viewing nationwide and internationally.
As television coverage has grown, so too has the tournament's popularity. Millions of Americans fill out a bracket, attempting to predict the outcome of 63 games of the tournament. With 11 national titles, UCLA has the record for the most NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships; the University of Kentucky is second, with eight national titles. The University of North Carolina is third, with six national titles, Duke University and Indiana University are tied for fourth with five national titles; the University of Connecticut is sixth with four national titles. The University of Kansas & Villanova are tied for 7th with three national titles. Since 1985, when the tournament expanded to 64 teams, Duke has won five championships; the NCAA has changed the tournament format several times since its inception, most being an increase of the number of teams. This section describes the tournament as it has operated since 2011. A total of 68 teams qualify for the tournament played during April. Thirty-two teams earn automatic bids as their respective conference champions.
Of the 32 Division I "all-sports" conferences, all 32 hold championship tournaments to determine which team receives the automatic qualification. The Ivy League was the last Division I conference. If two or more Ivies shared a regular-season championship, a one-game playoff was used to decide the tournament participant. Since 2017, the league conducts their own postseason tournament; the remaining 36 tournament slots are granted to at-large bids, which are determined by the Selection Committee in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the First Four play-in tournament and dubbed Selection Sunday by the media and fans, by a group of conference commissioners and school athletic directors who are appointed into service by the NCAA. The committee determines where all sixty-eight teams are seeded and placed in the bracket; the tournament is divided into four regions and each region has at least sixteen teams, but four additional teams are added per the decision of the Selection Committee.
The committee is charged with making each of the four regions as close as possible in overall quality of teams from wherever they come from. The names of the regions vary from year to year, are broadly geographic. From 1957 to 1984, the "Mideast" corresponding to the Southeastern region of the United States, designation was used. From 1985 to 1997, the Mideast region was known as "Southeast" and again changed to "South" starting from 1998; the selected names correspond to the location of the four cities hosting the regional finals. From 2004 to 2006, the regions were named after their host cities, e.g. the Phoenix Regional in 2004, the Chicago Regional in 2005, the Minneapolis Regional in 2006, but reverted to the traditional geographic designations beginning in 2007. For example, during 2012, the regions were named South, Midwest (St. Louis, Mis
Carnesecca Arena is a 5,602-seat multi-purpose arena in the borough of Queens in New York City, New York. It was built in 1961 and renamed in honor of Hall of Fame Coach Lou Carnesecca on November 23, 2004, it is the exclusive home to the St. John's University Red Storm women's basketball team, along with Madison Square Garden, hosts home Red Storm men's basketball games; the building hosted first round games of the NCAA men's basketball tournament from 1970 to 1974. Up until March 2014, it was the most recent New York City venue to host the tournament. List of NCAA Division I basketball arenas Carnesecca Arena at RedStormSports.com
St. John's University (New York City)
St. John's University is a private Catholic university in New York City. Founded and run by the Congregation of the Mission in 1870, the school was located in the neighborhood of Bedford–Stuyvesant in the borough of Brooklyn. In the 1950s, the school was relocated to its current site at Utopia Parkway in Queens. St. John's has campuses in Staten Island and Manhattan in New York City and overseas in Rome, Italy. In addition, the university has a Long Island Graduate Center in Hauppauge, along with academic locations in Paris and Limerick, Ireland; the university is named after Saint John the Baptist. St. John's is organized into six graduate schools. In 2016, the university had 4,647 graduate students. St. John's offers more than 100 bachelor and doctoral degree programs as well as professional certificates. St. John's University was founded in 1870, by the Vincentian Fathers of the Roman Catholic Church in response to an invitation by the first Bishop of Brooklyn, John Loughlin, to provide the underprivileged youth of the city with an intellectual and moral education.
St. John's Vincentian values stem from the ideals and works of St Vincent de Paul, the patron saint of Christian charity. Following the Vincentian tradition, the university seeks to provide an education that encourages greater involvement in social justice and service; the Vincentian Center for Church and Society, located on the university's Queens campus serves as "a clearinghouse for and developer of Vincentian information, poverty research, social justice resources, as an academic/cultural programming Center."The English translation of the Greek on the original seal of the University is "a lamp burning and shining" or "a lamp shining brightly" a reference to St. John the Baptist. St. John's University was founded as the College of St. John the Baptist at 75 Lewis Avenue, in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. Ground was broken for St. John's College Hall, the university's first building, on May 28, 1868; the cornerstone was laid on July 25, 1869. The building was opened for educational purposes on September 5, 1870.
Beginning with the law school in 1925, St. John's started founding other schools and it became a university in 1933. In April 1936, St. John's bought the Hillcrest Golf Club's 100 acres of land for about $500,000, with the intention of moving the school to the new site. Under the terms of the sale, the golf club continued to operate on the site for a few years. On February 11, 1954, St. John's broke ground on a new campus in Queens, on the former site of the Hillcrest Golf Club. During the official groundbreaking ceremony, the shovel used was the same shovel that had broken ground on the original campus in 1868; the following year, the original school of the university, St. John's College, moved from Bedford-Stuyvesant to the new campus; the high school, now St. John's Prep, took over its former buildings and moved to its present location in the Hillcrest-Jamaica sections in Queens. Over the next two decades, the other schools of the university, which were located at a separate campus at 96 Schermerhorn Street in Downtown Brooklyn, moved out to the new campus in Queens.
The last of the schools to relocate to Queens moved there in 1972, bringing an end to the Downtown Brooklyn campus of the university. In 1959, the university established a Freedom Institute to provide lectures and programs that would focus, in the words of university president Rev. John A. Flynn, focus "attention on the dangers of communism threatening free institutions here and abroad," with Arpad F. Kovacs of the St. John's history department as its director; the university hired the noted historian Paul Kwan-Tsien Sih to establish an Institute of Asian Studies in 1959, set up a Center for African Studies under the directorship of the economic geographer Hugh C. Brooks; the university received praise from Time Magazine in 1962 for being a Catholic university that accepted Jews with low household income. St. John's was the defendant in a lawsuit by Donald Scheiber for discrimination after being removed because he was Jewish; the court ruled against St. John's University in this lawsuit. Time ranked St. John's as "good−small" on a list of the nation's Catholic universities in 1962.
The St. John's University strike of 1966-1967 was a protest by faculty at the university which began on January 4, 1966, ended in June 1967; the strike began after 31 faculty members were dismissed in the fall of 1965 without due process, dismissals which some felt were a violation of the professors' academic freedom. The tension of that year was noted in Time Magazine stating, "cademically, has never ranked high among Catholic schools; the strike ended without any reinstatements, but led to the widespread unionization of public college faculty in the New York City area. In 1970 arbitrators ruled. On January 27, 1971, the New York State Board of Regents approved the consolidation of the university with the former Notre Dame College a private women's college and the Staten Island campus of St. John's University became a reality. Classes began in the fall of 1971, combining the original Notre Dame College with the former Brooklyn campus of St. John's, offering undergraduate degrees in liberal arts and education.
Archbishop Molloy High School
Archbishop Molloy High School is a co-educational, college preparatory, Catholic school for grades 9-12, located on 6 acres on Manton Street, near Queens Boulevard and Main Street in the Briarwood section of Queens in New York City, New York, United States. It is located within the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn next to the Briarwood subway station. Molloy has an endowment of about $6,000,000; the school's current principal is Darius Penikas, who started his term in 2015. Molloy's motto is "Non Scholae Sed Vitae,", Latin for "Not For School, But For Life." The school is staffed by the Marist Brothers, founded by Saint Marcellin Champagnat. In 1892, Br. Zephiriny opened St. Ann's Academy in two brownstone buildings at East 76 Street and Lexington Avenue. A parish elementary school, the program soon expanded to include a two-year commercial course and a full four-year high school program. Conducted in French, the school moved to English-language instruction, by the start of the 20th century, the Brothers anglicized the name to St. Ann's.
During the Theodore Roosevelt era, the school took on a military air, with uniforms and a marching band. Boarding facilities were added, the growth of the school began; when the original parish church was replaced in 1912 with the present-day church, the Brothers acquired the old building and converted it as a gymnasium. A purpose-built five-story school building was constructed, other neighboring buildings were acquired.65 years after its foundation, the school enrollment had increased to 800 in grades one through twelve, all available buildings were full. Moreover, some of the earliest buildings had deteriorated structurally, required replacement. Archbishop Thomas Edmund Molloy, the Ordinary of the Diocese of Brooklyn, offered the Marist Brothers a 6-acre site he had purchased in central Queens County. In 1957, the Brothers moved to the new site; the building itself received an award from the Queens Chamber of Commerce's annual architectural competition in 1957. The expanded facilities enabled the school to nearly double its enrollment, meeting the urgent needs of the post–World War II baby boom generation.
Despite the move, many of the hallowed St. Ann's traditions continued as the faculty and students moved en masse to the new site. Today, students are still known as Stanners, the school newspaper is the Stanner. In 1987, the Ralph DiChiaro Center for Arts and Sciences was dedicated, giving the school new state-of-the-art facilities, including a theater, computer labs and a biology lab. In 2000, Molloy opened the doors to women for the first time, it graduated its first female in 2004. Richard Karsten, class of 1981, was appointed President of Molloy in July 2010, he is a member of the Stanner Hall of Fame. "Stanner" is a word created by Archbishop Molloy High School. Before modern-day Molloy was built in Briarwood, the school was named St. Ann's Academy; the students were known as "St. Ann-ers," a nickname which, over time became "Stanners." All of Molloy's students and alumni, are known as Stanners. Several things in the school have this name, including The Stanner; the school's athletic teams are known as the Stanners.
Archbishop Molloy's academic program is competitive. A variety of honors classes and thirteen Advanced Placement Program classes are offered. Among Catholic schools, Molloy has the highest percentage of its graduates earning Regents diplomas; the U. S. Department of Education recognized the school as a "National School of Excellence." Molloy was named as 1 of 96 most "Outstanding American High School" by U. S. News and World Report in 1999, as well as an "Exemplary School" by the United States Department of Education. 100% of Molloy's graduates attend college. Admission is based on the entrance examination and a review of 6th, 7th, early 8th grade records. Molloy is known for its successful sports program in basketball, baseball and track and field, its basketball and baseball teams were coached by Jack Curran, the winningest coach in New York City and New York state history in both sports, until his death on March 14, 2013. His replacement was announced as Mike McCleary. After taking over as coach for Lou Carnesecca in 1958, Curran led Molloy basketball to over 870 wins and five city titles.
He produced six NBA players. Curran coached Molloy's baseball team since 1958, leading them to more than 1,300 wins and 17 CHSAA titles. In 1966, Curran coached Molloy baseball to win 68 consecutive games, a national record which would stand until April 2, 2005. Curran is the only coach to be named National Coach of the Year in two different sports: basketball in 1990 and 2009 and baseball in 1988, he was named CHSAA Coach of the Year 25 times in baseball, 22 times in basketball, won city championships in three different decades and has been elected into seven different Hall of Fames, including the New York City Basketball Hall of Fame. Molloy's track team has won 24 CHSAA indoor track titles since its inception. Tom Farrell, a Molloy graduate, won a bronze medal at the 1968 Olympics in the 800 m run. Chris Lopez has the New York High School indoor state record in the triple jump, set on March 2, 1991 with a mark of 50' 7.25". Molloy's dominant track and field program has more CHSAA team titles than any other CHSAA school.
Molloy's soccer team was undefeated in the 2004 season and won its second state championship that season. Archbishop Molloy High School website
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea