The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division, they were a charter member of the American Association in 1882 and joined the NL in 1890. The Reds played in the NL West division from 1969 to 1993, before joining the Central division in 1994, they have won five World Series titles, nine NL pennants, one AA pennant, 10 division titles. The team plays its home games at Great American Ball Park, which opened in 2003 replacing Riverfront Stadium. Bob Castellini has been chief executive officer since 2006. For 1882-2018, the Reds' overall win-loss record is 10524-10306; the origins of the modern Cincinnati Reds can be traced to the expulsion of an earlier team bearing that name. In 1876, Cincinnati became one of the charter members of the new National League, but the club ran afoul of league organizer and long-time president William Hulbert for selling beer during games and renting out their ballpark on Sundays.
Both were important activities to entice the city's large German population. While Hulbert made clear his distaste for both beer and Sunday baseball at the founding of the league, neither practice was against league rules in those early years. On October 6, 1880, seven of the eight team owners pledged at a special league meeting to formally ban both beer and Sunday baseball at the regular league meeting that December. Only Cincinnati president W. H. Kennett refused to sign the pledge, so the other owners formally expelled Cincinnati for violating a rule that would not go into effect for two more months. Cincinnati's expulsion from the National League incensed Cincinnati Enquirer sports editor O. P. Caylor, who made two attempts to form a new league on behalf of the receivers for the now bankrupt Reds franchise; when these attempts failed, he formed a new independent ballclub known as the Red Stockings in the Spring of 1881, brought the team to St. Louis for a weekend exhibition; the Reds' first game was a 12–3 victory over the St. Louis club.
After the 1881 series proved a success, Caylor and a former president of the old Reds named Justus Thorner received an invitation from Philadelphia businessman Horace Phillips to attend a meeting of several clubs in Pittsburgh with the intent of establishing a rival to the National League. Upon arriving in the city, however and Thorner discovered that no other owners had decided to accept the invitation, with Phillips not bothering to attend his own meeting. By chance, the duo met a former pitcher named Al Pratt, who hooked them up with former Pittsburgh Alleghenys president H. Denny McKnight. Together, the three men hatched a scheme to form a new league by sending a telegram to each of the other owners who were supposed to attend the meeting stating that he was the only person who did not attend and that everyone else was enthusiastic about the new venture and eager to attend a second meeting in Cincinnati; the ploy worked, the American Association was formed at the Hotel Gibson in Cincinnati with the new Reds a charter member with Thorner as president.
Led by the hitting of third baseman Hick Carpenter, the defense of future Hall of Fame second baseman Bid McPhee, the pitching of 40-game-winner Will White, the Reds won the inaugural AA pennant in 1882. With the establishment of the Union Association Justus Thorner left the club to finance the Cincinnati Outlaw Reds and managed to acquire the lease on the Reds Bank Street Grounds playing field, forcing new president Aaron Stern to relocate three blocks away at the hastily built League Park; the club never placed higher than second or lower than fifth for the rest of its tenure in the American Association. The Cincinnati Red Stockings left the American Association on November 14, 1889 and joined the National League along with the Brooklyn Bridegrooms after a dispute with St. Louis Browns owner Chris Von Der Ahe over the selection of a new league president; the National League was happy to accept the teams in part due to the emergence of the new Player's League. This new league, an early failed attempt to break the reserve clause in baseball, threatened both existing leagues.
Because the National League decided to expand while the American Association was weakening, the team accepted an invitation to join the National League. It was at this time that the team first shortened their name from "Red Stockings" to "Reds"; the Reds wandered through the 1890s signing aging veterans. During this time, the team never finished above never closer than 10 1⁄2 games. At the start of the 20th century, the Reds had hitting Cy Seymour. Seymour's.377 average in 1905 was the first individual batting crown won by a Red. In 1911, Bob Bescher stole 81 bases, still a team record. Like the previous decade, the 1900s were not kind to the Reds, as much of the decade was spent in the league's second division. In 1912, the club opened Redland Field; the Reds had been playing baseball on that same site, the corner of Findlay and Western Avenues on the city's west side, for 28 years, in wooden structures, damaged by fires. By the late 1910s the Reds began to come out of the second division; the 1918 team finished fourth, new manager Pat Moran led the Reds to an NL pennant in 1919, in what the club advertised as its "Golden Anniversary".
The 1919 team had hitting stars Edd Roush and Heinie Groh while the pitching staff was led by Hod Eller and left-hander Harry "Slim" Sallee. The Reds finished ahead of John McGraw's New York Giants, won the world championship in eight games over the
A fraternity, or fraternal organization is an organization, club or fraternal order traditionally of men associated together for various religious or secular aims. Fraternity in the Western concept developed in the Christian context, notably with the religious orders in the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages; the concept was further extended with medieval confraternities and guilds. In the early modern era, these were followed by fraternal orders such as freemasons and odd fellows, along with gentlemen's clubs, student fraternities, fraternal service organizations. Members are referred to as a brother or – in religious context – Frater or Friar. Today, connotations of fraternities vary according to context including companionships and brotherhoods dedicated to the religious, academic, physical, or social pursuits of its members. Additionally, in modern times, it sometimes connotes a secret society regarding freemasonry, odd fellows, various academic, student societies. Although membership in fraternities was and still is limited to men since the development of orders of Catholic sisters and nuns in the Middle Ages and henceforth, this is not always the case.
There are mixed male and female fraternities and fraternal orders, as well as wholly female religious orders and societies, some of which are known as sororities in North America. Notable modern fraternities or fraternal orders that with time have evolved to more or less permit female members, include some grand lodges operating among freemasons and odd fellows. There are known fraternal organizations which existed as far back as ancient clan hero and goddess cults of Greek religions and in the Mithraic Mysteries of ancient Rome; the background of the modern world of fraternities can be traced back to the confraternities in the Middle Ages, which were formed as lay organisations affiliated with the Catholic Church. Some were groups of men and women who were endeavoring to ally themselves more with the prayer and activity of the church; these confraternities evolved into purely secular fraternal societies, while the ones with religious goals continue to be the format of the modern Third Orders affiliated with the mendicant orders.
Other yet took the shape as military orders during the Crusades, which provided inspiration for elements of quite a few modern fraternal orders. The development of modern fraternal orders was dynamic in the United States, where the freedom to associate outside governmental regulation is expressly sanctioned in law. There have been hundreds of fraternal organizations in the United States, at the beginning of the 20th century the number of memberships equaled the number of adult males; this led to the period being referred to as "the Golden age of fraternalism." In 1944 Arthur M. Schlesinger coined the phrase "a nation of joiners". Alexis de Tocqueville referred to the American reliance on private organization in the 1830s in Democracy in America. There are many attributes that fraternities may or may not have, depending on their structure and purpose. Fraternities can have differing degrees of secrecy, some form of initiation or ceremony marking admission, formal codes of behavior, dress codes disciplinary procedures differing amounts of real property and assets.
The only true distinction between a fraternity and any other form of social organizations is the implication that the members are associated as equals for a mutually beneficial purpose rather than because of a religious, commercial, or familial bond - although there are fraternities dedicated to each of these fields of association. On college campuses, fraternities may be divided into four different groups: social, service and honorary. Fraternities can be organized for many purposes, including university education, work skills, ethnicity, politics, chivalry, other standards of personal conduct, service, performing arts, family command of territory, crime. There is always an explicit goal of mutual support, while there have been fraternal orders for the well-off there have been many fraternities for those in the lower ranks of society for national or religious minorities. Trade unions grew out of fraternities such as the Knights of Labor; the ability to organize apart from the institutions of government and religion, was a fundamental part of the establishment of the modern world.
In Living the Enlightenment, Margaret C. Jacobs showed that the development of Jurgen Habermas's "public space" in 17th-century Netherlands was related to the establishment of lodges of Freemasons; the development of fraternities in England can be traced from guilds that emerged as the forerunners of trade unions and friendly societies. These guilds were set up to protect and care for their members at a time when there was no welfare state, trade unions or universal health care. Various secret signs and handshakes were created to serve as proof of their membership allowing them to visit guilds in distant places that are associated with the guild they belong. Over the next 300 years or so, the idea of "ordinary" people joining together to improve their situation met with varying degrees of opposition from "People in Power", depending on whether they were seen as a source of revenue or a threat to their power; when Henry VIII broke from the Roman Catholic Church, he viewed the guilds as supporters of the Pope, in 1545 expropriated
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
Joshua Holt Hamilton is an American former professional baseball outfielder. He played for the Cincinnati Reds, Texas Rangers, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Hamilton is a five-time MLB All-Star and won the American League Most Valuable Player Award in 2010. Josh Hamilton was the first overall pick in the 1999 MLB draft by the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, he was considered a blue chip prospect until injuries and a drug addiction derailed his career, beginning in 2001. Prior to the 2007 season, Hamilton was selected by the Chicago Cubs in the Rule 5 draft. During the off-season he was traded to the Rangers. During the 2008 season, Hamilton was named to the AL All-Star team, he participated in the Home Run Derby, where he hit a record 28 home runs in the opening round and finished with 35 home runs, second-most all-time in derby history. He made the All-Star team the next four seasons as well. In 2012, Hamilton received more votes than any other player on the All-Star Game ballot, besting by 3.5 million votes the vote count set in 2011 by José Bautista.
Hamilton won the AL batting title in 2010. On October 22, 2010, Hamilton was selected as MVP of the 2010 ALCS. On November 23, 2010, Hamilton was named the 2010 AL MVP. On May 8, 2012, Hamilton became the 16th player in MLB history to hit four home runs in a game. All 4 home runs were 2-run home runs, he set an AL record for total bases in a game with 18. Hamilton was born and grew up in Raleigh, North Carolina, playing little league baseball alongside former South Carolina and Oakland Athletics catcher Landon Powell. Hamilton attended Athens Drive High School, in Raleigh, North Carolina where he starred as both a pitcher and outfielder; as a high school senior, Hamilton ran the 60-yard dash in 6.7 seconds and was clocked at 97 miles per hour on the mound. After hitting.529 in 25 games with 13 home runs, 20 stolen bases, 35 runs batted in, 34 runs scored, Hamilton was considered one of the top two prospects for the 1999 MLB draft, along with Josh Beckett, a Texas high school product. Hamilton signed a letter of intent to play college baseball for North Carolina State.
The Tampa Bay Devil Rays owned the number one pick and on June 2, selected Hamilton with the first overall selection. Hamilton signed with Tampa Bay, receiving a $3.96 million signing bonus, joined their minor league system. His first stop in the minors was the rookie level Princeton Devil Rays of the Appalachian League where he played 56 games, he joined the Hudson Valley Renegades, helped lead them to their first New York–Penn League championship. He spent the 2000 season with the Charleston RiverDogs in the South Atlantic League. Hamilton enjoyed a breakout season where he hit.301 average in 96 games, with 13 home runs and 61 RBIs. He was selected to the South Atlantic League All Star game and took home MVP honors after 2–6 with two triples and two runs scored. In addition, Hamilton was named to the 2000 All-Star Futures Game, a game designed to showcase minor league prospects. Hamilton was voted Minor League Player of the year by USA Today. At the start of his pro career, Hamilton's parents quit their jobs so they could travel with their son.
Prior to the 2001 season, Hamilton was involved in an automobile accident. His mother and father were injured but recovered; the 2001 season marked the beginning of his drug and alcohol use, he made his first attempt at rehabilitation. Hamilton only played 45 games in the 2001 season, split between Charleston and the Orlando Rays, a Double-A team in the Southern League. Hamilton began the 2002 season with the Bakersfield Blaze, batting.303 with nine home runs and 44 RBIs in 56 games before his season came to an end due to lingering toe and neck injuries. The Devil Rays noticed a change in Hamilton and reacted by sending him to the Betty Ford Center for drug rehabilitation. During Spring training of the 2003 season, Hamilton failed his first drug test. At the start of the season, Hamilton showed up late several times during spring training and was reassigned to the team's minor league camp, he left the team and resurfaced several times, but took the rest of the season off for personal reasons. Hamilton was hoping to return to spring training with the Devil Rays in 2004, but he was suspended 30 days and fined for violating the drug policy put in place by MLB.
A "failed" test is one. A month MLB suspended him for the entire season after he failed two more tests. Hamilton was out of baseball for three years, he made several attempts at rehabilitation, started off the 2005 season with hopes of being a star major league outfielder. However, he was arrested before the season for smashing the windshield of a friend's truck; the Rays placed him on the restricted list. After another relapse, MLB suspended him for the entire 2006 season. During the days of his most prolific abuse, Hamilton met a businessman named Michael Chadwick who made an attempt to steer him in the right direction, it was through this relationship that he ended up meeting his wife, Chadwick's daughter. His return to baseball was helped along by former minor league outfielder and manager Roy Silver, who owned a baseball academy in Florida. After hearing about Hamilton's desire to return to baseball, Silver offered the use of his facility if Hamilton agreed to work there. Hamilton first started working at Silver's Academy in January 2006.
His duties included raking the infield. He spent his nights sleeping on an air mattress in one of the facilities offices. After
Michael August Timlin is an American former relief pitcher in Major League Baseball. Timlin played on four World Series championship teams in an 18-year career. Timlin was born in Texas, to Jerome Francis Timlin Sr. and Nancy Sharon Beyer. Timlin graduated from Midland High School. Listed at 6 feet 4 inches and 205 pounds, Timlin batted right-handed. Timlin was known for his 93 mph fastball, his sliders and sinkers had a downward break. Timlin was drafted in the 5th round of the 1987 amateur draft by the Toronto Blue Jays, signed with the team on June 6, 1987. From 1987 through 1990, Timlin played for several of Toronto's minor league teams. Timlin spent the 1991 season with Toronto, he made his first major league appearance on opening day, April 8, pitching 1 1⁄3 innings in relief against the Boston Red Sox. Two days he recorded his first strikeout and had his first win, after pitching an inning in relief against the Red Sox. For the regular season, Timlin appeared in 63 games, all but 3 in relief, compiling a record of 11–6 with 3 saves and a 3.16 earned run average.
In the postseason, he made four relief appearances in the American League Championship Series against the Minnesota Twins, including taking the loss in Game 3 after giving up a home run to Mike Pagliarulo in the 10th inning. Timlin was sixth in Rookie of the Year voting. During the 1992 season, Timlin spent time with the High A Dunedin Blue Jays, the Triple-A Syracuse Chiefs, the major league Blue Jays. With Toronto he compiled a record of 0–2 with 1 save and a 4.12 ERA. In the postseason, he made two relief appearances in the ALCS against the Oakland Athletics, two relief appearances in the World Series against the Atlanta Braves, he recorded his first postseason save in the deciding Game 6, facing a single batter, Otis Nixon, who Timlin threw out at first base on a bunt attempt in the 11th inning, for the final out of the series. For the 1993 season, Timlin played 4 games with the High A Dunedin Blue Jays, 54 games with Toronto, all in relief, his record with Toronto was 4–2, with 1 save and a 4.69 ERA.
In the postseason he made one appearance in the ALCS against the Chicago White Sox, two appearances in the World Series against the Philadelphia Phillies. The Blue Jays won the World Series for the second consecutive year, giving Timlin two World Series rings in his first three MLB seasons. Timlin made 34 appearances with Toronto in the 1994 season, 31 appearances in the 1995 season. In 1995 he appeared in 8 games with Triple-A Syracuse. For the 1996 season he appeared in 59 games with Toronto. During the 1997 season, Timlin made 38 appearances with Toronto through July 29. Timlin and Paul Spoljaric were traded to the Seattle Mariners in exchange for José Cruz Jr. on July 31, 1997. In his seven seasons with the Blue Jays, Timlin appeared in 305 MLB games, compiling a record of 23–22, with 52 saves and a 3.62 ERA. In 393 1⁄3 innings pitched, he struck out 331 batters while walking 167. Timlin made his first appearance with the Mariners on August 1, 1997, pitching one inning in relief against the Milwaukee Brewers.
He made 26 total appearances with Seattle during the regular season. He appeared in one game in the American League Division Series, giving up 4 runs to the Baltimore Orioles in 2⁄3 of an inning during Game 1. For the 1998 season, Timlin appeared in 70 games with Seattle. After the season, Timlin became a free agent. In his two seasons with Seattle, he appeared in a total of 96 games with 20 saves, while striking out 69 and walking 21 in 105 innings pitched, with a 3.17 ERA. On November 16, 1998, Timlin signed with the Orioles. During the 1999 season, he appeared in 62 games for the Orioles, with a record of 3–9, 27 saves and a 3.57 ERA. For the 2000 season, he was with the Orioles through late July, appearing in 37 games, with a record of 2–3, 11 saves and a 4.89 ERA. On July 29, 2000, Timlin was traded to the St. Louis Cardinals in exchange for Chris Richard and minor league player Mark Nussbeck. In two seasons with Baltimore, Timlin appeared in a total of 99 games, compiling a record of 5–12, with 38 saves and a 4.04 ERA, while striking out 76 and walking 38 in 98 innings pitched.
Timlin made his first appearance with the Cardinals on July 30, 2000, pitching one inning in relief against the New York Mets. He made 25 total appearances with the Cardinals during the regular season, he appeared in two games of the National League Division Series against the Atlanta Braves, in three games of the National League Championship Series against the Mets. He took the loss in Game 2 of the NLCS. For the 2001 season, Timlin appeared in 67 games with St. Louis, he had his first major league at bat on October 6 against the Houston Astros, grounding out in the 5th inning. He made one appearance in the postseason, pitching 1 1⁄3 scoreless innings against
Derek Sanderson Jeter is an American former professional baseball shortstop and baseball executive. He has been the chief executive officer and part owner of the Miami Marlins of Major League Baseball since September 2017; as a shortstop, Jeter spent his entire 20-year MLB playing career with the New York Yankees. A five-time World Series champion, Jeter is regarded as one of the primary contributors to the Yankees' success of the late 1990s and early 2000s for his hitting, baserunning and leadership, he is the Yankees' all-time career leader in hits, games played, stolen bases, times on base, plate appearances and at bats. His accolades include 14 All-Star selections, five Gold Glove Awards, five Silver Slugger Awards, two Hank Aaron Awards, a Roberto Clemente Award. Jeter was the 28th player to reach 3,000 hits and finished his career ranked sixth in MLB history in career hits and first among shortstops. In 2017, the Yankees retired his uniform number 2; the Yankees drafted Jeter out of high school in 1992, he debuted in the major leagues at age 21 in 1995.
The following year, he became the Yankees' starting shortstop, won the Rookie of the Year Award, helped push the team to win the 1996 World Series. Jeter continued to play during the team's championship seasons of 1998–2000, he placed among the AL leaders in hits and runs scored for most of his career, served as the Yankees' team captain from 2003 until his retirement in 2014. Throughout his career, Jeter contributed reliably to the Yankees' franchise successes, he holds many postseason records, has a.321 batting average in the World Series. Jeter earned the nicknames of "Captain Clutch" and "Mr. November" due to his outstanding play in the postseason. Jeter was one of the most marketed athletes of his generation and is involved in numerous product endorsements; as a celebrity, his personal life and relationships with other celebrities has drawn the attention of the media. Derek Sanderson Jeter was born on June 26, 1974 in Pequannock Township, New Jersey, the son of accountant Dorothy and substance abuse counselor Sanderson Charles Jeter.
His mother is of English and Irish ancestry, while his father is African-American. They met, his father played baseball at Fisk University in Tennessee as a shortstop, holds a PhD. When Jeter was a child, his parents made him sign a contract every year that defined acceptable and unacceptable forms of behavior. Dorothy instilled a positive attitude in her son, insisting that he not use the word "can't", it was a baseball family, Jeter's younger sister Sharlee was a softball star in high school. The Jeters lived in New Jersey until Derek was four years old, at which point they moved to Kalamazoo, Michigan. At the age of five Jeter began playing little league baseball; the children lived with their parents during the school year and spent their summers with their grandparents in New Jersey. Attending New York Yankees games with his grandparents, Jeter became a passionate fan of the team. Watching star outfielder Dave Winfield inspired him to pursue a career in baseball. Jeter attended Kalamazoo Central High School, where he ran cross country in the fall, played basketball in the winter and baseball in the spring.
Jeter posted high batting averages for the school's baseball team. In his senior year, he batted.508 and compiled 23 runs batted in, 21 walks, four home runs, a.637 on-base percentage, a.831 slugging percentage, 12 stolen bases, only one strikeout. Jeter received several honors after his senior season; these included an All-State honorable mention, distinguishing him as one of the best high school baseball players in Michigan, the Kalamazoo Area B'nai B'rith Award for Scholar Athlete, the 1992 High School Player of the Year Award from the American Baseball Coaches Association, the 1992 Gatorade High School Player of the year award, USA Today's High School Player of the Year. Kalamazoo Central High School inducted Jeter into its Athletic Hall of Fame in 2003 and renamed its baseball field in his honor in 2011. Jeter earned a baseball scholarship to attend the University of Michigan and play college baseball for the Michigan Wolverines; the Houston Astros held the first overall pick in the 1992 MLB draft.
Hall of Fame pitcher Hal Newhouser, who worked for the Astros as a scout, evaluated Jeter extensively and lobbied team management to select him. Fearing Jeter would insist on a salary bonus of at least $1 million to forgo college for a professional contract, they chose Cal State Fullerton outfielder Phil Nevin, who signed for $700,000. Newhouser felt so about Jeter's potential that he quit his job with the Astros in protest after they ignored his drafting advice; the Yankees, who selected sixth rated Jeter highly. Yankees scout Dick Groch, assigned to scout in the Midwest, watched Jeter participate in an all-star camp held at Western Michigan University. Though Yankees officials were concerned that Jeter would attend college instead of signing a professional contract, Groch convinced them to select him, saying, "the only place Derek Jeter's going is to Cooperstown"; the second through fifth picks were Paul Shuey, B. J. Wallace, Jeffrey Hammonds, Chad Mottola; the Yankees drafted Jeter, who chose to turn pro, signin
Henry Louis Gehrig, nicknamed "the Iron Horse", was an American baseball first baseman who played his entire professional career in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees, from 1923 until 1939. Gehrig was renowned for his prowess as a hitter and for his durability, which earned him his nickname "the Iron Horse." He was an All-Star seven consecutive times, a Triple Crown winner once, an American League Most Valuable Player twice, a member of six World Series champion teams. He had a career.340 batting average.632 slugging average, a.447 on base average. He hit 493 home had 1,995 runs batted in. In 1939, he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame and was the first MLB player to have his uniform number retired by a team. A native of New York City and a student at Columbia University, Gehrig signed with the Yankees in 1923, he set several major-league records during his career, including the most career grand slams and most consecutive games played, a record that stood for 56 years and was long considered unbreakable until surpassed by Cal Ripken, Jr. in 1995.
Gehrig's consecutive game streak ended on May 2, 1939, when he voluntarily took himself out of the lineup, stunning both players and fans, after his performance on the field became hampered by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, an incurable neuromuscular illness now referred to in North America as "Lou Gehrig's disease." The disease forced him to retire at age 36, was the cause of his death two years later. The pathos of his farewell from baseball was capped off by his iconic 1939 "Luckiest Man on the Face of the Earth" speech at Yankee Stadium. In 1969, the Baseball Writers' Association voted Gehrig the greatest first baseman of all time, he was the leading vote-getter on the Major League Baseball All-Century Team chosen by fans in 1999. A monument in Gehrig's honor dedicated by the Yankees in 1941 resides in Monument Park at Yankee Stadium; the Lou Gehrig Memorial Award is given annually to the MLB player who best exhibits Gehrig's integrity and character. Gehrig was born in 1903 at 309 East 94th Street in the Yorkville neighborhood of Manhattan.
He was the second of four children of Christina Foch and Heinrich Gehrig. His father was a sheet-metal worker by trade, unemployed due to alcoholism, his mother, a maid, was the main breadwinner and disciplinarian in the family, his two sisters measles. From an early age, Gehrig helped his mother with work, doing tasks such as folding laundry and picking up supplies from the local stores. Gehrig spoke German during his childhood. In 1910, he lived with his parents at 2266 Amsterdam Avenue in Washington Heights. In 1920, the family resided on 8th Avenue in Manhattan, his name was anglicized to Henry Louis Gehrig and he was known as "Lou" so he would not be confused with his identically named father, known as Henry. Gehrig first garnered national attention for his baseball ability while playing in a game at Cubs Park on June 26, 1920, his New York School of Commerce team was playing a team from Chicago's Lane Tech High School in front of a crowd of more than 10,000 spectators. With his team leading 8–6 in the top of the ninth inning, Gehrig hit a grand slam out of the major league park, an unheard-of feat for a 17-year-old.
Gehrig attended PS 132 in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan went to Commerce High School, graduating in 1921. He studied at Columbia University for two years, before leaving to pursue a career in professional baseball, he went to Columbia on a football scholarship, where he was preparing to pursue a degree in engineering. Before his first semester began, New York Giants manager John McGraw advised him to play summer professional baseball under an assumed name, Henry Lewis, despite the fact that it could jeopardize his collegiate sports eligibility. After he played a dozen games for the Hartford Senators in the Eastern League, he was discovered and banned from collegiate sports his freshman year. In 1922, Gehrig returned to collegiate sports as a fullback for the Columbia Lions football program. In 1923, he played first base and pitched for the Columbia baseball team. At Columbia, he was a member of Phi Delta Theta fraternity. On April 18, 1923, the same day Yankee Stadium opened for the first time and Babe Ruth inaugurated the new stadium with a home run against the Boston Red Sox, Columbia pitcher Gehrig struck out 17 Williams College batters to set a team record, though Columbia lost the game.
Only a handful of collegians were at South Field that day, but more significant was the presence of Yankee scout Paul Krichell, trailing Gehrig for some time. Gehrig's pitching did not impress him. During the time Krichell observed him, Gehrig had hit some of the longest home runs seen on various eastern campuses, including a 450-foot home run on April 28 at Columbia's South Field, which landed at 116th Street and Broadway, he signed a contract with the Yankees on April 30. He returned to the minor-league Hartford Senators to play parts of two seasons, 1923 and 1924, batting.344 and hitting 61 home runs in 193 games, the only time Gehrig had played any level of baseball – sandlot, high school, collegiate or pro – for a team based outside New York City. Gehrig joined the New York Yankees midway through the 1923 season and made his major-league debut as a pinch hitter at age 19 on June 15, 1923. Gehrig wor