Frank Vincent Zappa was an American musician, composer and filmmaker. His work is characterized by nonconformity, free-form improvisation, sound experiments, musical virtuosity, satire of American culture. In a career spanning more than 30 years, Zappa composed rock, jazz, jazz fusion and musique concrète works, produced all of the 60-plus albums that he released with his band the Mothers of Invention and as a solo artist. Zappa directed feature-length films and music videos, designed album covers, he is considered one of the stylistically diverse rock musicians of his era. As a self-taught composer and performer, Zappa's diverse musical influences led him to create music, sometimes difficult to categorize. While in his teens, he acquired a taste for 20th-century classical composers such as Edgard Varèse, Igor Stravinsky, Anton Webern, Halim El-Dabh, along with 1950s rhythm and blues and doo-wop music, he began writing classical music in high school, while at the same time playing drums in rhythm and blues bands switching to electric guitar.
His 1966 debut album with the Mothers of Invention, Freak Out!, combined songs in conventional rock and roll format with collective improvisations and studio-generated sound collages. He continued this eclectic and experimental approach, irrespective of whether the fundamental format was rock, jazz or classical. Zappa's output is unified by a conceptual continuity he termed "Project/Object", with numerous musical phrases and characters reappearing across his albums, his lyrics reflected his iconoclastic views of established social and political processes and movements humorously so, he has been described as the "godfather" of comedy rock. He was a strident critic of mainstream education and organized religion, a forthright and passionate advocate for freedom of speech, self-education, political participation and the abolition of censorship. Unlike many other rock musicians of his generation, he disapproved of drugs, but supported their decriminalization and regulation. During Zappa's lifetime, he was a productive and prolific artist with a controversial critical standing.
He had some commercial success in Europe, worked as an independent artist for most of his career. He remains a major influence on composers, his honors include his 1995 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the 1997 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2000, he was ranked number 36 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him at number 71 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", in 2011 at number 22 on its list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". Zappa was born on December 1940 in Baltimore, Maryland, his mother, Rosemarie was of French ancestry. Frank, the eldest of four children, was raised in an Italian-American household where Italian was spoken by his grandparents; the family moved because his father, a chemist and mathematician, worked in the defense industry. After a time in Florida in the 1940s, the family returned to Maryland, where Zappa's father worked at the Edgewood Arsenal chemical warfare facility of the Aberdeen Proving Ground run by the U.
S. Army. Due to their home's proximity to the arsenal, which stored mustard gas, gas masks were kept in the home in case of an accident; this living arrangement had a profound effect on Zappa, references to germs, germ warfare and the defense industry occur throughout his work. Zappa was sick as a child, suffering from asthma and sinus problems. A doctor treated his sinusitis by inserting a pellet of radium into each of Zappa's nostrils. At the time, little was known about the potential dangers of small amounts of therapeutic radiation, although it has since been claimed that nasal radium treatment has causal connections to cancer, no studies have provided significant enough evidence to confirm this. Nasal imagery and references appear in his music and lyrics, as well as in the collage album covers created by his long-time collaborator Cal Schenkel. Zappa believed his childhood diseases might have been due to exposure to mustard gas, released by the nearby chemical warfare facility, his health worsened when he lived in Baltimore.
In 1952, his family relocated for reasons of health to Monterey, where his father taught metallurgy at the Naval Postgraduate School. They soon moved to Claremont, to El Cajon, before settling in San Diego. Zappa joined his first band at Mission Bay High School in San Diego as the drummer. At about the same time, his parents bought a phonograph, which allowed him to develop his interest in music, to begin building his record collection. R&B singles were early purchases, he was interested in sounds for their own sake the sounds of drums and other percussion instruments. By age 12, he began learning the basics of orchestral percussion. Zappa's deep interest in modern classical music began when he read a LOOK magazine article about the Sam Goody record store chain that lauded its ability to sell an LP as obscure as The Complete Works of Edgard Varèse, Volume One; the article described Varèse's percussion composition Ionisation, produced by EMS Record
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U. S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city lies just south of the geographical midpoint of South Carolina's coastline and is located on Charleston Harbor, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean formed by the confluence of the Ashley and Wando rivers. Charleston had an estimated population of 134,875 in 2017; the estimated population of the Charleston metropolitan area, comprising Berkeley and Dorchester counties, was 761,155 residents in 2016, the third-largest in the state and the 78th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Charleston was founded in 1670 as Charles Town, its initial location at Albemarle Point on the west bank of the Ashley River was abandoned in 1680 for its present site, which became the fifth-largest city in North America within ten years. Despite its size, it remained unincorporated throughout the colonial period.
Election districts were organized according to Anglican parishes, some social services were managed by Anglican wardens and vestries. Charleston adopted its present spelling with its incorporation as a city in 1783 at the close of the Revolutionary War. Population growth in the interior of South Carolina influenced the removal of the state government to Columbia in 1788, but the port city remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840 census. Historians estimate that "nearly half of all Africans brought to America arrived in Charleston", most at Gadsden's Wharf; the only major antebellum American city to have a majority-enslaved population, Charleston was controlled by an oligarchy of white planters and merchants who forced the federal government to revise its 1828 and 1832 tariffs during the Nullification Crisis and launched the Civil War in 1861 by seizing the Arsenal, Castle Pinckney, Fort Sumter from their federal garrisons. Known for its rich history, well-preserved architecture, distinguished restaurants, hospitable people, Charleston is a popular tourist destination.
It has received numerous accolades, including "America's Most Friendly " by Travel + Leisure in 2011 and in 2013 and 2014 by Condé Nast Traveler, "the most polite and hospitable city in America" by Southern Living magazine. In 2016, Charleston was ranked the "World's Best City" by Travel + Leisure; the city proper consists of six distinct districts. Downtown, or sometimes referred to as The Peninsula, is Charleston's center city separated by the Ashley River to the west and the Cooper River to the east. West Ashley, residential area to the west of Downtown bordered by the Ashley River to the east and the Stono River to the west. Johns Island, far western limits of Charleston home to the Angel Oak, bordered by the Stono River to the east, Kiawah River to the south and Wadmalaw Island to the west. James Island, popular residential area between Downtown and the town of Folly Beach where the McLeod Plantation is located. Cainhoy Peninsula, far eastern limits of Charleston bordered by the Wando River to the west and Nowell Creek to the east.
Daniel Island, fast-growing residential area to the north of downtown, east of the Cooper River and west of the Wando River. The incorporated city fit into 4–5 square miles as late as the First World War, but has since expanded, crossing the Ashley River and encompassing James Island and some of Johns Island; the city limits have expanded across the Cooper River, encompassing Daniel Island and the Cainhoy area. The present city has a total area of 127.5 square miles, of which 109.0 square miles is land and 18.5 square miles is covered by water. North Charleston blocks any expansion up the peninsula, Mount Pleasant occupies the land directly east of the Cooper River. Charleston Harbor runs about 7 miles southeast to the Atlantic with an average width of about 2 miles, surrounded on all sides except its entrance. Sullivan's Island lies to the north of Morris Island to the south; the entrance itself is about 1 mile wide. The tidal rivers are evidence of drowned coastline. There is a submerged river delta off the mouth of the harbor and the Cooper River is deep.
Charleston has a humid subtropical climate, with mild winters, hot humid summers, significant rainfall all year long. Summer is the wettest season. Fall remains warm through the middle of November. Winter is short and mild, is characterized by occasional rain. Measurable snow only occurs several times per decade at the most however freezing rain is more common. However, 6.0 in fell at the airport on December 23, 1989, the largest single-day fall on record, contributing to a single-storm and seasonal record of 8.0 in snowfall. The highest temperature recorded within city limits was 104 °F on June 2, 1985, June 24, 1944, the lowest was 7 °F on February 14, 1899. At the airport, where official records are kept, the historical range is 105 °F on August 1, 1999, down to 6 °F on January 21, 1985. Hurricanes are a major threat to the area during the summer and early fall, with several severe hurrican
Monza is a city and comune on the River Lambro, a tributary of the Po in the Lombardy region of Italy, about 15 kilometres north-northeast of Milan. It is the capital of the Province of Brianza. Monza is best known for its Grand Prix motor racing circuit, the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, which hosts the Formula One Italian Grand Prix with a massive Italian support tifosi for the Ferrari team. On 11 June 2004 Monza was designated the capital of the new province of Brianza; the new administrative arrangement came into effect in summer 2009. Monza is the third-largest city of Lombardy and is the most important economic and administrative centre of the Brianza area, supporting a textile industry and a publishing trade. Monza hosts a Department of the University of Milan Bicocca, a Court of Justice and several offices of regional administration. Monza Park is one of the largest urban parks in Europe. Monza is located in the high plains of Lombardy, between Brianza and Milan, at an altitude of 162 metres above sea level.
It is 15 kilometres from the centre of the region's capital, although when considering the cities borders, they are separated by less than 5 km. Monza is about 40 km from Como. Monza shares its position with Milan in the same metro area, is a big part of its new province. Monza is crossed from north to south by the River Lambro; the river enters Monza from the north, between Via Via Zanzi streets. This is an artificial fork of the river, created for defensive purposes in the early decades of the 14th century; the fork is known as Lambretto and it rejoins the main course of the Lambro as it exits to the south, leaving Monza through the now demolished ancient circle of medieval walls. Another artificial stream is the Canale Villoresi, constructed in the late 19th century. Monza has a typical submediterranean climate of the Po valley, with cool, short winters and warm summers. Precipitation is abundant, with most occurring in the least in winter and summer. Funerary urns found in the late 19th century show that humans were in the area dating at the least to the Bronze Age, when people would have lived in pile dwelling settlements raised above the rivers and marshes.
During the Roman Empire, Monza was known as Modicia. During the 3rd century BCE, the Romans subdued the Insubres, a Gaul tribe that had crossed the Alps and settled around Mediolanum. A Gallo-Celtic tribe the Insubres themselves, founded a village on the Lambro; the ruins of a Roman bridge named. Theodelinda, daughter of Garibald I of Bavaria and wife of the Lombard king Authari, chose Monza as her summer residence. Here in 595 she founded an oraculum dedicated to St. John the Baptist. According to the legend, asleep while her husband was hunting, saw a dove in a dream that told her: modo indicating that she should build the oraculum in that place, the queen answered etiam, meaning "yes". According to this legend, the medieval name of Monza, "Modoetia", is derived from these two words, she had a palace built here. Berengar I of Italy located his headquarters in Monza. A fortified castrum was constructed to resist the incursions of the Hungarians. Under Berengar's reign, Monza enjoyed a certain degree of independence: it had its own system of weights and measures, could seize property and mark the deeds with their signatures.
Berengar was generous evident by the donation of numerous works to the Monza Cathedral, including the famous cross, by giving large benefits to its 32 canons and other churches. In 980 Monza hosted Emperor Otto II inside the walled city; the Glossary of Monza, one of the earliest examples of the evolution of Italian language dates to the early 10th century. In 1000 Emperor Otto III became the protector of Monza and its possessions: Bulciago, Lurago and Garlate. In 1018, Lord of Monza, was consecrated bishop of Milan, resulting in the city losing its independence from its rival; these years saw a power struggle between the emperor Conrad II, Aribert. When the emperor died, he left important donations to the church of Monza. In the 12th century, it is estimated. Agriculture was the main occupation. In 1128 Conrad III of Hohenstaufen was crowned King of Italy in the Church of San Michele at Monza. In 1136 emperor Lothair III guaranteed the independence of the clergy of Monza from Milan. Monza subsequently regained its autonomy, not limited to the feudal government of lands and goods.
This autonomy was never absolute, as the church of Monza was not able to cut its ties from the bishop of Milan. Frederick I Barbarossa visited Monza twice. In this period the city again regained its independence from a city hostile to the emperor. Frederick declared that Monza was his property and gave the Curraria, a right granted only to royal seats. During the period of the struggle against Milan and other cities of the Lombard League, Monza was prim
James Vernon Taylor is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist. A five-time Grammy Award winner, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000, he is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 100 million records worldwide. Taylor achieved his breakthrough in 1970 with the No. 3 single "Fire and Rain" and had his first No. 1 hit in 1971 with his recording of "You've Got a Friend", written by Carole King in the same year. His 1976 Greatest Hits album has sold 12 million US copies. Following his 1977 album, JT, he has retained a large audience over the decades; every album that he released from 1977 to 2007 sold over 1 million copies. He enjoyed a resurgence in chart performance during the late 1990s and 2000s, when he recorded some of his most-awarded work, he achieved his first number-one album in the US in 2015 with his recording Before This World. He is known for his popular covers, such as "How Sweet It Is" and "Handy Man", as well as originals such as "Sweet Baby James".
James Vernon Taylor was born at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston on March 12, 1948, where his father, Isaac M. Taylor, worked as a resident physician, his father came from a wealthy Scottish family from the South. His mother, the former Gertrude Woodard, studied singing with Marie Sundelius at the New England Conservatory of Music and was an aspiring opera singer before the couple's marriage in 1946. James was the second of five children, the others being Alex, Kate and Hugh. In 1951, his family moved to Chapel Hill, North Carolina, when Isaac took a job as an assistant professor of medicine at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, they built a house in the Morgan Creek area off the present Morgan Creek Road, sparsely populated. James would say, "Chapel Hill, the Piedmont, the outlying hills, were tranquil, beautiful, but quiet. Thinking of the red soil, the seasons, the way things smelled down there, I feel as though my experience of coming of age there was more a matter of landscape and climate than people."
James attended public primary school in Chapel Hill. Isaac's career prospered, but he was away from home, on military service at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland, or as part of Operation Deep Freeze in Antarctica in 1955 and 1956. Isaac Taylor rose to become dean of the UNC School of Medicine from 1964 to 1971. Beginning in 1953, the Taylors spent summers on Martha's Vineyard. James first learned to play the cello as a child in North Carolina and switched to the guitar in 1960, his guitar style evolved, influenced by hymns and the music of Woody Guthrie, his technique derived from his bass clef-oriented cello training and from experimenting on his sister Kate's keyboards: "My style was a finger-picking style, meant to be like a piano, as if my thumb were my left hand, my first and third fingers were my right hand." He began attending Milton Academy, a preparatory boarding school in Massachusetts in fall 1961. Summering before with his family on Martha's Vineyard, he met Danny Kortchmar, an aspiring teenage guitarist from Larchmont, New York.
The two began listening to and playing blues and folk music together, Kortchmar realized that Taylor's singing had a "natural sense of phrasing, every syllable beautifully in time. I knew James had that thing." Taylor wrote his first song on guitar at 14, he continued to learn the instrument effortlessly. By the summer of 1963, he and Kortchmar were playing coffeehouses around the Vineyard, billed as "Jamie & Kootch". Taylor faltered during his junior year at Milton, feeling uneasy in the high-pressure college prep environment despite good scholastic performance; the Milton headmaster would say, "James was more sensitive and less goal-oriented than most students of his day." He returned home to North Carolina to finish out the semester at Chapel Hill High School. There, he joined. Having lost touch with his former school friends in North Carolina, Taylor returned to Milton for his senior year. There, Taylor soon descended into depression. In late 1965 he committed himself to the renowned McLean Hospital in Belmont, where he was treated with Thorazine and where the organized days began to give him a sense of time and structure.
As the Vietnam War escalated, Taylor received a psychological rejection from Selective Service System when he appeared before them with two white-suited McLean assistants and was uncommunicative. Taylor earned a high school diploma in 1966 from the hospital's associated Arlington School, he would view his nine-month stay at McLean as "a lifesaver... Like a pardon or like a reprieve," and both his brother Livingston and sister Kate would be patients and students there as well; as for his mental health struggles, Taylor would think of them as innate and say: "It's an inseparable part of my personality that I have these feelings." At Kortchmar's urging, Taylor checked himself out of McLean and moved to New York City to form a band. They recruited Joel O'Brien of Kortchmar's old band King Bees, to play drums, Taylor's childhood friend Zachary Wiesner (son of noted academic J
Zappa in New York
Zappa in New York is a double live album by Frank Zappa, released internationally in March 1978. It was recorded in December 1976 at a series of concerts at the Palladium in New York City. Zappa in New York was released in the UK by Zappa's DiscReet Records label in 1977 quickly withdrawn. A second version was re-released internationally in March 1978 with changes ordered by DiscReet's distributor, Warner Bros. Records; the 1978 edition reached #57 on the Billboard 200 albums chart in the United States. Following the 1976 concerts, Zappa spent time in the studio adding a significant number of overdubs to the live recordings. Several of these recordings were intended for the shelved album Läther, including "The Illinois Enema Bandit", "The Black Page #1", "Big Leg Emma", "Punky's Whips", "The Purple Lagoon" and "I Promise Not to Come in Your Mouth." The album features members of the Saturday Night Live band, including Lou Marini and Tom Malone, as well as the Brecker Brothers. In addition, Don Pardo was invited by Zappa to the Palladium concert, he provides introductory narrations to "Punky's Whips" and "The Illinois Enema Bandit".
On the CD version, Pardo delivers a verse of "I'm the Slime". Zappa in New York was first released in early 1977 with Zappa's original intended track listing. A small number of LP copies reached stores in England before the album was withdrawn. In 1978, some original cassette copies appeared in the United States, though this was by mistake. Before re-issuing the album Warner removed one of the longest songs, "Punky's Whips"; this reduced the playing time of side one to a mere ten minutes, moving "Big Leg Emma" from side 2 to the end of side 1. The changes made to the album violated Zappa's contract, which gave him complete artistic control over album content; when Zappa's distribution agreement with Warner ended in 1982, all release rights reverted to him. Zappa re-issued Zappa in New York as a double CD in 1991 with the addition of four bonus tracks; the CD reissue was remixed to feature guitar overdubs that were recorded at the time of the album's issue but not included on the original vinyl, contained a different recording of "Punky's Whips" and the full-length "Titties & Beer".
Frank Zappa – conductor, lead guitar, producer.
Hedmark is a county in Norway, bordering Trøndelag to the north, Oppland to the west and Akershus to the south. The county administration is in Hamar. Hedmark makes up the northeastern part of the southeastern part of the country, it has a long border with Dalarna County and Värmland County. The largest lakes are the largest lake in Norway. Parts of Glomma, Norway's longest river, flow through Hedmark. Geographically, Hedmark is traditionally divided into: Hedemarken, east of Mjøsa, Østerdalen, north of Elverum, Glåmdalen, south of Elverum. Hedmark and Oppland are the only Norwegian counties with no coastline. Hedmark hosted some events of the 1994 Winter Olympic Games. Hamar, Kongsvinger and Tynset are cities in the county. Hedmark is one of the less urbanized areas in Norway; the population is concentrated in the rich agricultural district adjoining Mjøsa to the southeast. The county's extensive forests supply much of Norway's timber; the Hedmark municipality of Engerdal has the distinction of marking the current southernmost border in Norway of Sápmi, the traditional region of the Sami people.
The county is divided into three traditional districts. These are Østerdalen and Solør. Hedmark was a part of the large Akershus amt, but in 1757 Oplandenes amt was separated from it; some years in 1781, this was divided into Kristians amt and Hedemarkens amt. Until 1919, the county was called Hedemarkens amt; the Old Norse form of the name was Heiðmǫrk. The first element is heiðnir, the name of an old Germanic tribe and is related to the word heið, which means moorland; the last element is mǫrk'woodland, march'. The coat of arms is from modern times, it shows three barkespader. Every four years the inhabitants of Hedmark elect 33 representatives to Hedmark Fylkesting, the Hedmark County Assembly. After the elections of September 2007 the majority of the seats of the assembly were held by a three-party coalition consisting of the Labour Party, the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party. Eight parties are represented in the assembly, the remaining 5 being the Progress Party, the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, the Christian Democratic Party and the Pensioners Party.
The assembly is headed by the county mayor. As of the 2007 elections the county mayor is Arnfinn Nergård, he represents the Centre Party. In 2003 a parliamentary system was established, which means that the county assembly elects a political administration or council to hold executive power; this county council reflects the majority of the county assembly and includes the three parties holding the majority of the assembly seats, i.e. the Labour Party, the Center Party and the Socialist Left Party. The council is led by a member of the Labour Party. Official homepage Media related to Hedmark at Wikimedia Commons Hedmark travel guide from Wikivoyage
Aerosmith is an American rock band formed in Boston, Massachusetts in 1970. The group consists of Steven Tyler, Joe Perry, Tom Hamilton, Joey Kramer, Brad Whitford, their style, rooted in blues-based hard rock, has come to incorporate elements of pop rock, heavy metal, rhythm and blues, has inspired many subsequent rock artists. They are sometimes referred to as "the Bad Boys from Boston" and "America's Greatest Rock and Roll Band". Perry and Hamilton in a band together called the Jam Band, met up with Tyler and guitarist Ray Tabano, formed Aerosmith. In 1971, Tabano was replaced by Whitford, the band began developing a following in Boston, they were signed to Columbia Records in 1972, released a string of gold and platinum albums, beginning with their 1973 eponymous debut album, followed by Get Your Wings in 1974. In 1975, the band broke into the mainstream with the album Toys in the Attic, their 1976 follow-up Rocks cemented their status as hard rock superstars. Draw the Line and Night in the Ruts followed in 1977 and 1979 respectively.
Their first five albums have since attained multi-platinum status. Throughout the 1970s, the band toured extensively and charted a dozen Billboard Hot 100 singles, including their first Top 40 hit "Sweet Emotion" and the Top 10 hits "Dream On" and "Walk This Way". By the end of the decade, they were among the most popular hard rock bands in the world and developed a following of fans referred to as the "Blue Army". However, drug addiction and internal conflict took their toll on the band, which led to the departures of Perry and Whitford in 1979 and 1981, respectively; the band did not fare well between 1980 and 1984, releasing the album Rock in a Hard Place, certified gold but failed to match their previous successes. Perry and Whitford returned to Aerosmith in 1984 and the band signed a new deal with Geffen Records. After a comeback tour, the band recorded Done with Mirrors, which won some critical praise but failed to match commercial expectations, it was not until the band's collaboration with rap group Run–D.
M. C. in 1986, the 1987 multi-platinum release, Permanent Vacation, that they regained the level of popularity they had experienced in the 1970s. In the late 1980s and 1990s, the band scored several Top 40 hits and won numerous awards for music from the multi-platinum albums Pump, Get a Grip, Nine Lives, while they embarked on their most extensive concert tours to date, their biggest hit singles during this time included "Dude", "Angel", "Rag Doll", "Love in an Elevator", "Janie's Got a Gun", "What it Takes", "Livin' on the Edge", "Cryin'", "Crazy". The band became a pop culture phenomenon with popular music videos and notable appearances in television and video games. In 1998, they achieved their first number-one hit with "I Don't Want to Miss a Thing" from the Armageddon soundtrack and the following year, their own roller coaster attraction opened at Walt Disney World, their comeback has been described as one of the spectacular in rock history. Additional albums Just Push Play, Honkin' on Bobo, Music from Another Dimension!
Followed in 2001, 2004, 2012 and in 2008, they released Guitar Hero: Aerosmith, considered to be the best-selling band-centric video game. After 49 years of performing, the band continues to tour and record music, but is embarking on a farewell tour that will last several years; the band will be performing at a residency in Las Vegas in 2019. Aerosmith is the best-selling American hard rock band of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide, including over 70 million records in the United States alone. With 25 gold albums, 18 platinum albums, 12 multi-platinum albums, they hold the record for the most total certifications by an American band and are tied for the most multi-platinum albums by an American band; the band has scored twenty-one Top 40 hits on the Billboard Hot 100, nine number-one Mainstream Rock hits, four Grammy Awards, six American Music Awards, ten MTV Video Music Awards. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001, were included among both Rolling Stone's and VH1's lists of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time at number 57 and number 30 respectively.
In 2013, the band's principal songwriters and Perry, were inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame, in 2019, the band will receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 1964, Steven Tyler formed his own band called the Strangeurs—later Chain Reaction—in Yonkers, NY. Meanwhile and Hamilton formed the Jam Band, based on free-form and blues. Hamilton and Perry moved to Boston, Massachusetts in September 1969. There they met a drummer from Yonkers, New York. Kramer had always hoped to play in a band with him. Kramer, a Berklee College of Music student, decided to leave the school, joined Jam Band. In 1970, Chain Reaction and Jam Band played at the same gig. Tyler loved Jam Band's sound, wanted to combine the two bands. In October 1970, the bands considered the proposition. Tyler, a drummer and backup singer in Chain Reaction, adamantly refused to play drums in this new band, insisting that he would take part only if he could be frontman and lead vocalist; the others agreed, a new band was formed.
The band moved into a home together at 1325 Commonwealth Avenue in Boston, where they wrote and rehearsed music together and relaxed in between shows. The members