Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ
1977 World Series
The 1977 World Series was the 74th edition of Major League Baseball's championship series. The best-of-seven playoff was contested between the New York Yankees, champions of the American League and defending American League champions, the Los Angeles Dodgers, champions of the National League; the Yankees defeated the Dodgers, four games to two, to win the franchise's 21st World Series championship, their first since 1962, the first under the ownership of George Steinbrenner. The Series was played between October 11 and 18, broadcast on ABC. During this Series, Reggie Jackson earned his nickname "Mr. October" for his heroics. Billy Martin won what would be his only World Series title as a manager after guiding the Yankees to a second straight pennant; the New York Yankees returned to the Fall Classic after being swept by the Cincinnati Reds the previous year. In free agency, the Yankees signed slugging right fielder Reggie Jackson for US$2.96 million over five years and Cincinnati Reds ace pitcher Don Gullett for $2 million over six years.
Two other key players were acquired by the Yankees through trades. Shortstop Bucky Dent was picked up from the Chicago White Sox for outfielder Oscar Gamble, pitcher LaMarr Hoyt, $200,000, and after only one year with the Oakland Athletics, pitcher Mike Torrez was acquired in exchange for pitcher Dock Ellis and utilitymen Marty Perez and Larry Murray. After a lackluster first half, the Yankees finished strong, winning 38 of their last 51 games edging both the Boston Red Sox and the Baltimore Orioles by 2 1⁄2 games. In amongst the star-laden lineup was an emerging superstar in the left arm of Ron Guidry. Early in the season Guidry was moved from the bullpen into the starting rotation, finishing 16-7 with a 2.82 ERA. The Yankees advanced to the World Series after beating the Kansas City Royals in an exciting fifth and final 1977 American League Championship Series game, winning it with three runs in the top of the ninth on a string of singles and a costly error by George Brett; the National League champion Los Angeles Dodgers were skippered by Tommy Lasorda, in his first full season as manager.
The 1977 Dodgers became the first team to have four players hit 30 or more home runs in one season, as Steve Garvey hit 33, Reggie Smith hit 32, Ron Cey hit 30, Dusty Baker hit 30. The pitching staff, which led the National League in ERA, 3.22, were led by 20-game winner, Tommy John and closer Charlie Hough with 22 saves. The Dodgers won 22 of their first 26 games, winning the Western Division by 10 games over the Cincinnati Reds eliminated the Philadelphia Phillies in the 1977 National League Championship Series in four games; the matchup of the Yankees and the Dodgers hearkened back to the World Series matchups between the two teams of the 1950s. SummaryAL New York Yankees vs. NL Los Angeles Dodgers Composite box scoreThis World Series is notable for being one of the few six-game series in which the winning team was outscored, it happened in 1918 and 1959 and in 1992, 1996, 2003. Seven-game series winners were outscored in 1957, 1960, 1962, 1964, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1991, 1997, 2002; the Dodgers scored twice in the top of the first inning, when Davey Lopes walked and scored on a Bill Russell triple off Don Gullett.
Ron Cey made it 2–0 on a sacrifice fly. In the bottom of the inning, the Yankees responded with consecutive two-out singles by Thurman Munson, Reggie Jackson, Chris Chambliss, scoring Munson. In the top of the sixth, Steve Garvey beat out a bunt and, with one out, attempted to score from first on a hit-and-run single to center field by Glenn Burke. Mickey Rivers, who did not possess a strong throwing arm, threw home. Replays showed Garvey beat the tag but he was called out at the plate; the Yankees tied it in their half of the sixth. The Yankees took the lead in the eighth. In the inning, the Yankees loaded the bases with one out, but Dodger reliever Elías Sosa struck out Lou Piniella and retired Bucky Dent on a forceout to end the threat; the Dodgers tied it at 3–3 in the ninth. Dusty Baker led off with a single and was picked off first when pinch-hitter Manny Mota failed on a bunt attempt. Mota flied out. In extra innings, the Yankees got their leadoff hitters on in both the tenth and eleventh innings, but did not score due to failure to lay down sacrifice bunts.
In the twelfth, Randolph led off and doubled and Munson was walked intentionally. Yankee manager Billy Martin at first wanted Paul Blair, the next hitter, to try to sacrifice again, but after two failed attempts, Martin had Blair hit away and Blair singled home Randolph with the game-winner. 1977 AL Cy Young award winner Sparky Lyle took the win in Game 1 and, coupled with his wins in Games 4 and 5 of the 1977 ALCS, to this day is the only pitcher to win three consecutive decisions in a single postseason. With aces Ron Guidry and Mike Torrez having both pitched in Game 5 of the ALCS, Billy Martin was forced to use a sore-shouldered Catfish Hunter in Game 2; the Dodgers hit three homers in the first three innings off Hunter, as Ron Cey hit a two-run home run in the first, Steve Yeager a home run in the second, Reggie Smith a two-run home run in the third. Steve Garvey hit a home run in the ninth off of Sparky Lyle. Burt Hooton pitched a five-hit complete game, allowing only run one in the fourth on Reggie Jackson's ground ball double play after Willie Randolph and Thurman Munson led off the inning with back-to-back singles.
Hooton made amends for his meltdown in Game 3 of the 197
The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball in North America, contested since 1903 between the American League champion team and the National League champion team. The winner of the World Series championship is determined through a best-of-seven playoff, the winning team is awarded the Commissioner's Trophy; as the series is played during the fall season in North America, it is sometimes referred to as the Fall Classic. Prior to 1969, the team with the best regular season win-loss record in each league automatically advanced to the World Series; as of 2018, the World Series has been contested 114 times, with the AL winning 66 and the NL winning 48. The 2018 World Series took place between the Los Angeles Dodgers and Boston Red Sox from October 23–28, with the Red Sox winning in five games to earn their ninth title; this was the first World Series meeting between these two teams since 1916. Having lost to the Houston Astros in the 2017 World Series, the Dodgers became the 11th team to lose the World Series in consecutive seasons.
In the American League, the New York Yankees have played in 40 World Series and won 27, the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics have played in 14 and won 9, the Boston Red Sox have played in 13 and won 9, including the first World Series. In the National League, the St. Louis Cardinals have appeared in 19 and won 11, the New York/San Francisco Giants have played in 19 and won 8, the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers have appeared in 20 and won 6, the Cincinnati Reds have appeared in 9 and won 5; as of 2018, no team has won consecutive World Series championships since the New York Yankees in 1998, 1999, 2000—the longest such drought in Major League Baseball history. Until the formation of the American Association in 1882 as a second major league, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players and the National League represented the top level of organized baseball in the United States. All championships were awarded to the team with the best record at the end of the season, without a postseason series being played.
From 1884 to 1890, the National League and the American Association faced each other in a series of games at the end of the season to determine an overall champion. These series were disorganized in comparison to the modern World Series, with the terms arranged through negotiation of the owners of the championship teams beforehand; the number of games played ranged from as few as three in 1884, to a high of fifteen in 1887. Both the 1885 and 1890 Series ended in each team having won three games with one tie game; the series was promoted and referred to as "The Championship of the United States", "World's Championship Series", or "World's Series" for short. In his book Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883, Simon Winchester mentions in passing that the World Series was named for the New York World newspaper, but this view is disputed; the 19th-century competitions are, not recognized as part of World Series history by Major League Baseball, as it considers 19th-century baseball to be a prologue to the modern baseball era.
Until about 1960, some sources treated the 19th-century Series on an equal basis with the post-19th-century series. After about 1930, many authorities list the start of the World Series in 1903 and discuss the earlier contests separately. Following the collapse of the American Association after the 1891 season, the National League was again the only major league; the league championship was awarded in 1892 by a playoff between half-season champions. This scheme was abandoned after one season. Beginning in 1893—and continuing until divisional play was introduced in 1969—the pennant was awarded to the first-place club in the standings at the end of the season. For four seasons, 1894–1897, the league champions played the runners-up in the post season championship series called the Temple Cup. A second attempt at this format was the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup series, played only once, in 1900. In 1901, the American League was formed as a second major league. No championship series were played in 1901 or 1902 as the National and American Leagues fought each other for business supremacy.
After two years of bitter competition and player raiding, the National and American Leagues made peace and, as part of the accord, several pairs of teams squared off for interleague exhibition games after the 1903 season. These series were arranged by the participating clubs. One of them matched the two pennant winners, Pittsburgh Pirates of the NL and Boston Americans of the AL, it had been arranged well in advance by the two owners, as both teams were league leaders by large margins. Boston upset Pittsburgh by five games to three, winning with pitching depth behind Cy Young and Bill Dinneen and with the support of the band of Royal Rooters; the Series brought much civic pride to Boston and proved the new American League could beat the Nationals. The 1904 Series, if it had been held, would have been between the AL's Boston Americans and the NL's New York Giants. At that point there was no gover
The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division, they were a charter member of the American Association in 1882 and joined the NL in 1890. The Reds played in the NL West division from 1969 to 1993, before joining the Central division in 1994, they have won five World Series titles, nine NL pennants, one AA pennant, 10 division titles. The team plays its home games at Great American Ball Park, which opened in 2003 replacing Riverfront Stadium. Bob Castellini has been chief executive officer since 2006. For 1882-2018, the Reds' overall win-loss record is 10524-10306; the origins of the modern Cincinnati Reds can be traced to the expulsion of an earlier team bearing that name. In 1876, Cincinnati became one of the charter members of the new National League, but the club ran afoul of league organizer and long-time president William Hulbert for selling beer during games and renting out their ballpark on Sundays.
Both were important activities to entice the city's large German population. While Hulbert made clear his distaste for both beer and Sunday baseball at the founding of the league, neither practice was against league rules in those early years. On October 6, 1880, seven of the eight team owners pledged at a special league meeting to formally ban both beer and Sunday baseball at the regular league meeting that December. Only Cincinnati president W. H. Kennett refused to sign the pledge, so the other owners formally expelled Cincinnati for violating a rule that would not go into effect for two more months. Cincinnati's expulsion from the National League incensed Cincinnati Enquirer sports editor O. P. Caylor, who made two attempts to form a new league on behalf of the receivers for the now bankrupt Reds franchise; when these attempts failed, he formed a new independent ballclub known as the Red Stockings in the Spring of 1881, brought the team to St. Louis for a weekend exhibition; the Reds' first game was a 12–3 victory over the St. Louis club.
After the 1881 series proved a success, Caylor and a former president of the old Reds named Justus Thorner received an invitation from Philadelphia businessman Horace Phillips to attend a meeting of several clubs in Pittsburgh with the intent of establishing a rival to the National League. Upon arriving in the city, however and Thorner discovered that no other owners had decided to accept the invitation, with Phillips not bothering to attend his own meeting. By chance, the duo met a former pitcher named Al Pratt, who hooked them up with former Pittsburgh Alleghenys president H. Denny McKnight. Together, the three men hatched a scheme to form a new league by sending a telegram to each of the other owners who were supposed to attend the meeting stating that he was the only person who did not attend and that everyone else was enthusiastic about the new venture and eager to attend a second meeting in Cincinnati; the ploy worked, the American Association was formed at the Hotel Gibson in Cincinnati with the new Reds a charter member with Thorner as president.
Led by the hitting of third baseman Hick Carpenter, the defense of future Hall of Fame second baseman Bid McPhee, the pitching of 40-game-winner Will White, the Reds won the inaugural AA pennant in 1882. With the establishment of the Union Association Justus Thorner left the club to finance the Cincinnati Outlaw Reds and managed to acquire the lease on the Reds Bank Street Grounds playing field, forcing new president Aaron Stern to relocate three blocks away at the hastily built League Park; the club never placed higher than second or lower than fifth for the rest of its tenure in the American Association. The Cincinnati Red Stockings left the American Association on November 14, 1889 and joined the National League along with the Brooklyn Bridegrooms after a dispute with St. Louis Browns owner Chris Von Der Ahe over the selection of a new league president; the National League was happy to accept the teams in part due to the emergence of the new Player's League. This new league, an early failed attempt to break the reserve clause in baseball, threatened both existing leagues.
Because the National League decided to expand while the American Association was weakening, the team accepted an invitation to join the National League. It was at this time that the team first shortened their name from "Red Stockings" to "Reds"; the Reds wandered through the 1890s signing aging veterans. During this time, the team never finished above never closer than 10 1⁄2 games. At the start of the 20th century, the Reds had hitting Cy Seymour. Seymour's.377 average in 1905 was the first individual batting crown won by a Red. In 1911, Bob Bescher stole 81 bases, still a team record. Like the previous decade, the 1900s were not kind to the Reds, as much of the decade was spent in the league's second division. In 1912, the club opened Redland Field; the Reds had been playing baseball on that same site, the corner of Findlay and Western Avenues on the city's west side, for 28 years, in wooden structures, damaged by fires. By the late 1910s the Reds began to come out of the second division; the 1918 team finished fourth, new manager Pat Moran led the Reds to an NL pennant in 1919, in what the club advertised as its "Golden Anniversary".
The 1919 team had hitting stars Edd Roush and Heinie Groh while the pitching staff was led by Hod Eller and left-hander Harry "Slim" Sallee. The Reds finished ahead of John McGraw's New York Giants, won the world championship in eight games over the
Seattle Mariners Hall of Fame
The Seattle Mariners Hall of Fame is an American museum and hall of fame for the Seattle Mariners of Major League Baseball. It is located at T-Mobile Park in the SoDo district of downtown Seattle. Seattle Mariners former chairman and CEO John Ellis announced on June 14, 1997 the creation of a Mariners Hall of Fame, it is operated by the Seattle Mariners organization. It honors the players and other individuals that contributed to the history and success of the Mariners franchise, it is located at the Baseball Museum of the Pacific Northwest in T-Mobile Park. Inductees are selected on the criteria that they spent at least five seasons in a Mariners uniform and have been retired from baseball for two seasons. Inductees include Alvin Davis, Dave Niehaus, Jay Buhner, Edgar Martínez, Randy Johnson, Dan Wilson, Lou Piniella, Ken Griffey, Jr. and Jamie Moyer. Davis, who batted left-handed and threw right-handed, played college baseball at Arizona State, he broke into the majors with the Mariners in 1984 and remained there until 1992.
Well liked by Mariners fans, Davis held most of the franchise's offensive team records until the advent of Ken Griffey Jr. Edgar Martínez, Alex Rodriguez, he burst onto the major league scene in 1984, homering in his first two big-league games and collecting three doubles in his third. Davis reached base in each of the first 47 games of his career, was chosen for his only All-Star Game as a rookie. Named the Mariners MVP, he was voted the American League's Rookie of the Year Award after batting.284 with 27 home runs and 116 RBI. Davis, nicknamed Mr. Mariner, was inducted into the Seattle Mariners Hall of Fame in 1997. Dave Niehaus was the team's lead announcer from its first game in 1977 until his death on November 10, 2010. Despite working for a franchise who from its first year in 1977 until 1991 was without a winning season, his talent was recognizable, Niehaus was considered one of the few attractions for Mariner fans. In the period before the team's memorable 1995 season, the Mariners were one of the leading major-league teams in terms of the percentage of radios in use.
Niehaus will continue to be immensely popular in Seattle. The team chose him to throw out the ceremonial first pitch at the opening of its new ballpark, Safeco Field, on July 15, 1999. In 2000, he was the second figure to be inducted into the Mariners Hall of Fame. In 2008, Niehaus was named the recipient of the Ford C. Frick Award, an award presented by the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum which recognizes career excellence in baseball broadcasting and is considered the highest baseball broadcasting honor. Now the left-hander ready, branding iron hot, the 1-2 pitch.... K inserted! It's over!! Right over the heart of the plate! Randy looks to the skies, covered by the dome, bedlam! As the Mariners now erupt! 19 long years of frustration is over! Right now, the Mariners looking for the tie, they would take a fly ball, they would love a base hit into the gap and they could win it with Junior's speed. The stretch... and the 0-1 pitch on the way to Edgar Martínez swung on and LINED DOWN THE LEFT FIELD LINE FOR A BASE HIT!
HERE COMES JOEY, HERE IS JUNIOR TO THIRD BASE, THEY'RE GOING TO WAVE HIM IN! THE THROW TO THE PLATE WILL BE... LATE! THE MARINERS ARE GOING TO PLAY FOR THE AMERICAN LEAGUE CHAMPIONSHIP! I DON'T BELIEVE IT! IT JUST CONTINUES! MY, OH MY! On November 10, 2010, Dave was the first member to pass away, he died of a heart attack at his home in Bellevue. He is survived by his wife, three children, six grandchildren, countless friends, he was traded from the New York Yankees to the Seattle Mariners along with two career minor leaguers in exchange for Ken Phelps. This trade is considered one of the worst made by the Yankees of that period, the best in Mariner history; the trade was once noted humorously on the television program Seinfeld, in the episode "The Caddy", in which the Yankees' owner, George Steinbrenner, appears at the home of George Costanza's parents to inform them – mistakenly – that their son is dead. All Mr. Costanza can say is, "What the hell did you trade Jay Buhner for?! He had 30 home runs, over 100 RBIs last year!
He's got a rocket for an arm... You don't know what the hell you're doing!" The clip was played at Safeco Field when Buhner was inducted into the Mariners' Hall of Fame in 2004. Buhner retired at the end of the 2001 season as one of the most popular players in Mariners history; the Mariners have not issued his # 19 jersey. According to Mariners team policy, he did not become eligible to have his number retired until 2006; the Mariners require a player to have spent at least five years with the team and be elected to the Hall of Fame or narrowly miss election after spending his entire career with the team. He holds the Seattle Mariners career record for strikeouts, with 1375, has the lowest career stolen base percentage since 1954, he was known throughout baseball for his ability to vomit on command. His 18 seasons with the Mariners netted him 7 All-Star appearances, along with two batting titles and five Silver Slugger Awards, he finished first or second in on-base percentage in 6 different years, in the top 5 in the same category in 10 different years.
Over the seven-year span of 1995–2001 he was considered one of the most consistent right-handed hitters in the game. During this time he hit.329 with a.445 on-base percentage and a.574 slugging percentage for an OPS of 1.019. In 1996, he became only the
The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Cubs compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division; the team plays its home games at Wrigley Field, located on the city's North Side. The Cubs are one of two major league teams in Chicago; the Cubs, first known as the White Stockings, were a founding member of the NL in 1876, becoming the Chicago Cubs in 1903. The Cubs have appeared in a total of eleven World Series; the 1906 Cubs won 116 games, finishing 116–36 and posting a modern-era record winning percentage of.763, before losing the World Series to the Chicago White Sox by four games to two. The Cubs won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first major league team to play in three consecutive World Series, the first to win it twice. Most the Cubs won the 2016 National League Championship Series and 2016 World Series, which ended a 71-year National League pennant drought and a 108-year World Series championship drought, both of which are record droughts in Major League Baseball.
The 108-year drought was the longest such occurrence in all major North American sports. Since the start of divisional play in 1969, the Cubs have appeared in the postseason nine times through the 2017 season; the Cubs are known as "the North Siders", a reference to the location of Wrigley Field within the city of Chicago, in contrast to the White Sox, whose home field is located on the South Side. The Cubs have multiple rivalries. There is a divisional rivalry with the St. Louis Cardinals, a newer rivalry with the Milwaukee Brewers and an interleague rivalry with the Chicago White Sox; the Cubs began playing in 1870 as the Chicago White Stockings, joining the National League in 1876 as a charter member. Owner William Hulbert signed multiple star players, such as pitcher Albert Spalding and infielders Ross Barnes, Deacon White, Adrian "Cap" Anson, to join the team prior to the N. L.'s first season. The White Stockings played their home games at West Side Grounds and established themselves as one of the new league's top teams.
Spalding won forty-seven games and Barnes led the league in hitting at.429 as Chicago won the first National League pennant, which at the time was the game's top prize. After back-to-back pennants in 1880 and 1881, Hulbert died, Spalding, who had retired to start Spalding sporting goods, assumed ownership of the club; the White Stockings, with Anson acting as player-manager, captured their third consecutive pennant in 1882, Anson established himself as the game's first true superstar. In 1885 and'86, after winning N. L. pennants, the White Stockings met the champions of the short-lived American Association in that era's version of a World Series. Both seasons resulted in matchups with the St. Louis Brown Stockings, with the clubs tying in 1885 and with St. Louis winning in 1886; this was the genesis of what would become one of the greatest rivalries in sports. In all, the Anson-led Chicago Base Ball Club won six National League pennants between 1876 and 1886; as a result, Chicago's club nickname transitioned, by 1890 they had become known as the Chicago Colts, or sometimes "Anson's Colts", referring to Cap's influence within the club.
Anson was the first player in history credited with collecting 3,000 career hits. After a disappointing record of 59–73 and a ninth-place finish in 1897, Anson was released by the Cubs as both a player and manager. Due to Anson's absence from the club after 22 years, local newspaper reporters started to refer to the Colts as the "Orphans". After the 1900 season, the American Base-Ball League formed as a rival professional league, incidentally the club's old White Stockings nickname would be adopted by a new American League neighbor to the south. In 1902, who by this time had revamped the roster to boast what would soon be one of the best teams of the early century, sold the club to Jim Hart; the franchise was nicknamed the Cubs by the Chicago Daily News in 1902, although not becoming the Chicago Cubs until the 1907 season. During this period, which has become known as baseball's dead-ball era, Cub infielders Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers, Frank Chance were made famous as a double-play combination by Franklin P. Adams' poem Baseball's Sad Lexicon.
The poem first appeared in the July 1910 edition of the New York Evening Mail. Mordecai "Three-Finger" Brown, Jack Taylor, Ed Reulbach, Jack Pfiester, Orval Overall were several key pitchers for the Cubs during this time period. With Chance acting as player-manager from 1905 to 1912, the Cubs won four pennants and two World Series titles over a five-year span. Although they fell to the "Hitless Wonders" White Sox in the 1906 World Series, the Cubs recorded a record 116 victories and the best winning percentage in Major League history. With the same roster, Chicago won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first Major League club to play three times in the Fall Classic and the first to win it twice. However, the Cubs would not win another World Series until 2016; the next season, veteran catcher Johnny Kling left the team to become a professional pocket billiards player. Some historians think Kling's absence was significant enough to prevent the Cubs from winning a third straight title in 1909, as they finished 6 games out of first place.
When Kling returned the next year, the Cubs won the pennant again, but lost to the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1910 World Series. In 1914, adver
The Baltimore Orioles are an American professional baseball team based in Baltimore, Maryland. As one of the American League's eight charter teams in 1901, this particular franchise spent its first year as a major league club in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as the Milwaukee Brewers before moving to St. Louis, Missouri, to become the St. Louis Browns. After 52 often-beleaguered years in St. Louis, the franchise was purchased in November 1953 by a syndicate of Baltimore business and civic interests led by attorney/civic activist Clarence Miles and Mayor Thomas D'Alesandro Jr; the team's current majority owner is lawyer Peter Angelos. The Orioles adopted their team name in honor of the official state bird of Maryland. Nicknames for the team include the "O's" and the "Birds"; the Orioles experienced their greatest success from 1966 to 1983, when they made six World Series appearances, winning three of them. This era of the club featured several future Hall of Famers who would be inducted representing the Orioles, such as third baseman Brooks Robinson, outfielder Frank Robinson, starting pitcher Jim Palmer, first baseman Eddie Murray, shortstop Cal Ripken Jr. and manager Earl Weaver.
The Orioles have won a total of nine division championships, six pennants, three wild card berths. After suffering a stretch of 14 straight losing seasons from 1998 to 2011, the team qualified for the postseason three times under manager Buck Showalter and general manager Dan Duquette, including a division title and advancement to the American League Championship Series for the first time in 17 years in 2014. However, the 2018 team finished with a franchise-worst record of 47–115, prompting the team to move on from Showalter and Duquette following the season's conclusion; the Orioles' current manager is Brandon Hyde, while Mike Elias serves as general manager and executive vice president. The Orioles are well known for their influential ballpark, Oriole Park at Camden Yards, which opened in 1992 in downtown Baltimore; the modern Orioles franchise can trace its roots back to the original Milwaukee Brewers of the minor Western League, beginning in 1894, when the league reorganized. The Brewers were there when the WL renamed itself the American League in 1900.
At the end of the 1900 season, the American League removed itself from baseball's National Agreement. Two months the AL declared itself a competing major league; as a result of several franchise shifts, the Brewers were one of only two Western League teams that didn't fold, move or get kicked out of the league. In its first game in the American League, the team lost to the Detroit Tigers 14–13 after surrendering a nine-run lead in the 9th inning. To this day, it is a major league record for the biggest deficit overcome that late in the game. In the first American League season in 1901, they finished last with a record of 48–89, its lone Major League season, the team played at Lloyd Street Grounds, between 16th and 18th Streets in Milwaukee. After one year in Milwaukee the club relocated to St Louis, for a while enjoyed some success in the 1920s behind Hall of Fame first baseman George Sisler. However, the team's fortunes declined from on, as playing success and gate receipts instead went to the Browns' own tenants at Sportsman's Park, the National League Cardinals.
During this period the Browns only won one pennant, in the 1944 season stocked with wartime replacement players, lost to the Cardinals in the third and last World Series played in one ballpark. In 1953, with the Browns unable to afford stadium upkeep, owner Bill Veeck sold Sportsman's Park to the Cards and attempted to move the club back to Milwaukee, but this was vetoed by the other Major League owners. Instead, Veeck sold his franchise to a partnership of Baltimore businessmen; the Miles-Krieger -Hoffberger group renamed their new team the Baltimore Orioles soon after taking control of the franchise. The name has a rich history in Baltimore. In 1901, Baltimore and John McGraw were awarded an expansion franchise in the growing American League, naming the team the Orioles. After a battle with Ban Johnson, the Head of the American League in 1902, McGraw took many of the top players including Walter Scott "Steve" Brodie, Dan McGann, Roger Bresnahan, Joe McGinnity to the New York Giants; as an affront to Johnson, McGraw kept the black and orange colors of the New York Giants, which San Francisco wears to this day.
In 1903, the franchise—the remaining players and debts, the corporation—was transferred to New York where they were nicknamed the Highlanders until circa 1912, by which time Yanks or Yankees had taken over as their popular moniker. As a member of the high-minor league level International League, the Orioles competed at what is now known as the AAA level from 1903 to 1953; when Oriole Park burned down in 1944, the team moved to a temporary home, Municipal Stadium, where they won the Junior World Series. Their large postseason crowds caught the attention of the major leagues leading to a new MLB franchise in Baltimore. After starting the 1954 campaign with a two-game split agai