The Wolof people are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal, The Gambia and southwestern coastal Mauritania. In Senegal, the Wolof are the largest ethnic group, they refer to themselves as Wolof and speak the Wolof language – a West Atlantic branch of the Niger–Congo family of languages. Their early history is unclear and based on oral traditions; the earliest documented mention of the Wolof is found in the records of 15th-century Portuguese financed Italian traveller Alvise Cadamosto, who mentioned well established Islamic Wolof chiefs advised by Muslim counselors and divines. The Wolof belonged to the medieval era Wolof Empire of Senegambia region. Details of the pre-Islamic religious traditions of Wolof are unknown, their oral traditions state them to have been adherents of Islam since the founding king of Jolof. However, historical evidence left by Islamic scholars and European travelers suggest that Wolof warriors and rulers did not convert to Islam, while accepting and relying on Muslim clerics as counselors and administrators.
In and after the 18th century, the Wolofs were impacted by the violent jihads in West Africa, which triggered internal disagreements among the Wolof on Islam. In the 19th century, as the colonial French forces launched a war against the Wolof kingdoms, the Wolof people resisted the French and converted to Islam. Contemporary Wolofs are predominantly Sufi Muslims belonging to Mouride and Tijaniyyah Islamic brotherhoods; the Wolof people, like other West African ethnic groups, have maintained a rigid, endogamous social stratification that included nobility, clerics and slaves. The Wolof were close to the French colonial rulers, became integrated into the colonial administration, have dominated the Senegal culture and economy since its independence, they are referred to as Chelofes, Lolof, Olof, Volof and Yolof. The term Wolof refers to the Wolof language and to their states and traditions. Older French publications employ the spelling "Ouolof". In English and Woloff are found in reference to the Gambian Wolof.
The spelling Jolof is used, but in particular reference to the Wolof empire and kingdom in central Senegal that existed from the 14th to the 19th centuries. A West African rice dish is known in English as jollof rice; the origins of the Wolof people are obscure, states David Gamble – a professor of Anthropology specializing on Senegambia and Africa studies. Archeological artifacts have been discovered in Senegal and The Gambia, such as pre-historic pottery, the 8th century stones, 14th century burial mounds, states Gamble, these provide no evidence that link them to the Wolof ethnic group, their name as the Wolof first appears in the records of 15th century Portuguese travelers. With the Arab conquests of West Africa in last centuries of the 1st millennium CE, one theory states that the Wolof people were forced to move into north and east Senegal where over time villages developed into autonomous states such as Baol, Saloum, Dimar and Sine the overall ruling state being that of Jolof who came together voluntarily to form the Jolof Empire.
According to Gamble, this migration occurred at the end of 11th century when the Ghana Empire fell to the Muslim armies from Sudan. Another oral tradition tells of a legend in Walo, which starts with two villages near a lake in a dispute. A mysterious person arose from the lake to settle the dispute; the villagers detained him, he settled among them and became the one who settled disputes and a sovereign authority. He was called Ndyadyane Ndyaye, his descendants were called Ndiayes or Njie, these led to ruling families of Wolof and Morocco, according to this mythical legend; the documented history, from 15th-century onwards is a complex story of rivalry between powerful families, wars and conquests in Wolof society. The Jolof or Wolof Empire was a medieval West African state that ruled parts of Senegal and the Gambia from 1350 to 1890. While only consolidated into a single state structure for part of this time, the tradition of governance and culture of the Wolof dominate the history of north-central Senegal for much of the last 800 years.
Its final demise at the hands of French colonial forces in the 1870s-1890s marks the beginning of the formation of Senegal as a unified state. By the end of the 15th century, the Wolof states of Jolof, Kayor and Walo had become united in a federation with Jolof as the metropolitan power; the position of king was held by the Burba Wolof and the rulers of the other component states owed loyalty and tribute payments to him. Before the Wolof people became involved in goods and slave trading with the Portuguese merchants on the coast, they had a long tradition of established trading of goods and slaves with the Western Sudanese empires and with Imamate of Futa Toro and other ethnic groups in North Africa. Slavery has been a part of the Wolof people since their earliest known history. In the pre-colonial era, slaves were either acquired through purchase or capture; the Portuguese had begun purchasing slaves from Senegambia ports and caravan traders coming through the Wolof people lands before the 18th century.
A major source of slaves sold by Wolof elites, of Wolof slaves, were the war captives taken during the wars between the ethnic groups in West Africa. Slave raiding, just to obtain slaves for sale, were another significant source of slaves in Wolof territories; the transatlantic demand for slaves in Bri
Louga Department is one of the 45 departments of Senegal, one of the three which comprise the Louga Region. The chief settlement is the only commune in the department; the rural districts comprise: Arrondissement of Coki: Coki Ndiagne Thiamène Cayor Pété Ouarack Guet Ardo Arrondissement of Keur Momar Sarr: Keur Momar Sarr Nguer Malal Syer Gande Arrondissement of Mbédiène: Mbédiène Niomré Nguidilé Kéle Gueye Arrondissement of Sakal: Old Artillery Barracks, commune of Louga Louga Post Louga Railway Station Kadd Gui acacia tree, opposite Louga railway station Historic site of " Toundou Diéwol " Daara of Coki at Cooki
Saint-Louis, or Ndar as it is called in Wolof, is the capital of Senegal's Saint-Louis Region. Located in the northwest of Senegal, near the mouth of the Senegal River, 320 km north of Senegal's capital city Dakar, it has a population estimated at 176,000 in 2005. Saint-Louis was the capital of the French colony of Senegal from 1673 until 1902 and French West Africa from 1895 until 1902, when the capital was moved to Dakar. From 1920 to 1957, it served as the capital of the neighboring colony of Mauritania; the heart of the old colonial city is located on a narrow island in the Senegal River, 25 km from its mouth. At this point the river is separated from the Atlantic Ocean to the west by a narrow sand spit, the Langue de Barbarie, urbanized, yet a third part of the city, lies on the eastern mainland and is nearly surrounded by tidal marshes. Saint-Louis is situated on the Mauritanian border, though the border crossing is at Rosso, 100 km upstream. Three characteristics give Saint-Louis its distinctive geographic appearance: the Sahel, the marshes and the Langue de Barbarie.
Part of the Sahel, a transitional desertic band that separates “ the dunes of the Sahara from the baobabs of the savanna”, Saint-Louis’ landscape is characterized by occasional acacias and is disturbed by sand storms during the dry season. The marshes are flood basins that form during the rainy season when the river overflows into the countryside, creating ponds and stretches of mangroves that attract birds like flamingos and pelicans; the Langue de Barbarie, a 600 km long stretch of sand from Nouadhibou in Mauritania to Saint-Louis, over a stretch of 25 km separates the lower Senegal River from the Atlantic Ocean. Its vegetation consists of Filao trees, propagated to prevent soil erosion in sandy and salty soils. Saint-Louis has a hot desert climate, it only has two seasons, the rainy season from June to October, characterized by heat and storms, the dry season from November to May, characterized by cool ocean breeze and dust from the Harmattan winds. A 2011 documentary described Saint-Louis as the African city most threatened by rising sea levels.
Saint-Louis was established in 1659 by French traders on an uninhabited island called Ndar. It was baptized Saint-Louis-du-Fort in homage to the former French king Louis IX, made a saint, as well as to the contemporary king, Louis XIV, it was the first permanent French settlement in Senegal. The fortified factory commanded trade along the Senegal River. Slaves, beeswax and gum arabic were exported. During the Seven Years' War, in 1758 British forces captured Senegal. In February 1779, French forces recaptured Saint-Louis. In the late 18th century, Saint Louis had about 5,000 inhabitants, not counting an indeterminate number of slaves in transit. "Saint-Louis became the leading urban centre in sub-Saharan Africa”. Between 1659 and 1779, nine chartered companies succeeded one another in administering Saint-Louis; as in Gorée, a Franco-African Creole, or Métis, merchant community characterized by the famous "signares", or bourgeois women entrepreneurs, grew up in Saint-Louis during the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Métis were important to the economic, social and political life of the city. They created a distinctive urban culture characterized by public displays of elegance, refined entertainment and popular festivities, they controlled most of the up-country river trade and they financed the principal Catholic institutions. A Métis mayor was first designated by the Governor in 1778. Civic franchise was further consolidated in 1872, when Saint-Louis became a French "commune". Wreckage of the Medusa: La Méduse was a French naval frigate that boasted 40 guns and fought in the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century. Remarkably, the ship survived these maritime battles only to crash on a sandbank in 1816 during the reestablishment of the French colony after the British handover. A shortage of lifeboats sent sailors scrambling to build a raft. Only 10 of 150 people who boarded the raft lived through this catastrophe. Shortly thereafter, Géricault drew his inspiration from the accounts of two survivors.
Louis Faidherbe, who became the Governor of the Colony of Senegal in 1854, contributed to the development and modernization of Saint Louis. His large-scale projects included the building of bridges, provisioning of fresh drinking water, the construction of an overland telegraph line to Dakar. Saint-Louis became capital of the federation of French West African colonies in 1895, but relinquished this role to Dakar in 1902. Saint-Louis’ fortunes began to wane as those of Dakar waxed. Access to its port became awkward in the age of the steamship and the completion of the Dakar-Saint Louis railroad in 1885 meant that up-country trade circumvented its port. Large French firms, many from the city of Bordeaux, took over the new commercial networks of the interior, marginalizing the Métis traders in the process. Saint-Louis nonetheless maintained its status as capital of the Colony of Senegal after Dakar assumed the role of capital of the French West Africa federation; the colonial institutions set up in the city in the 19th century, such as the Muslim Tribunal and the School for Chiefs’ Sons, were to play important roles in the history of French Africa.
Though small in size Saint-Louis dominated Senegalese politics throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, not least because of its numerous political parties and associations and its independent newspapers. Following ind
Railway stations in Senegal
List of Railway stations in Senegal include: UN Map Go Dakar - port and national capital Hann - truncated terminus Bargny proposed deepwater port. Rufisque - cement worksKirène - cement works to be expanded in 2008. - nearest station is Thiès about 20 km away. Thiès - junction for St-Louis and Linguere. Train Express Regional
Regions of Senegal
Senegal is subdivided into 14 regions, each of, administered by a Conseil Régional elected by population weight at the arrondissement level. Senegal is further subdivided into 45 departments, 103 arrondissements and by collectivités locales which elect administrative officers. Three of these regions were created on 10 September 2008, when Kaffrine Region was split from Kaolack, Kédougou region was split from Tambacounda, Sédhiou region was split from Kolda. To date, all regions take their name from their regional capitals. List of Senegalese regions by Human Development Index Departments of Senegal Arrondissements of Senegal ISO 3166-2:SN List of administrative divisions in Senegal Collectivités locales from Republic of Senegal Government site, l'Agence de l'informatique de l'État. Map of main subdivisions and more detailed maps on subdivisions Décret fixant le ressort territorial et le chef lieu des régions et des départements, décret n°2002-166 du 21 février 2002. Code des collectivités locales, Loi n° 96-06 du 22 mars 1996
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Millau is a commune in the Aveyron department in the French Occitanie region in southern France. It is 70 kilometres from the Aveyron prefecture headquarters in Rodez, it is located at the confluence of the rivers Dourbie. It is surrounded by the landscapes of Causse du Larzac and Causse Noir, it is part of the former province of Rouergue where they communicate through a form of Occitan language: the Rouergat dialect. Its inhabitants are called Millavoises; the territory of the municipality is part of the Regional Natural Park of Grands Causses. The town dates back nearly 3000 years when it was situated on the hills above the Granède, before situating on the left bank of the Tarn on the alluvial plain in the second or first century B. C; the plain gave the town its Gallic name of Condatomagus. The site of Condatomagus was identified in the 19th century by Dieudonne du Rey and was close to the major earthenware centre in the Roman Empire, La Graufesenque; this is. Despite major new development in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, the centre of the old Roman and medieval town on the opposite bank of the Tarn remains poorly excavated, the newly renovated Maison du Peuple on the site of the old Roman forum, saw no archaeology before major mechanical excavation for recent new deep foundations.
The local museum sits adjacent to this site. By the second century A. D. the trade had collapsed from competition and subsequent invasions during the fourth and fifth centuries by barbarians saw the town relocate and settle to the opposite bank, changing its name to Amiliavum to Milhau en Rouergat to the French Millhau. By the ninth century the town has grown and is the seat of a viguerie, a mediaeval administrative court, a centre for the production of lambskin gloves. At this time the town is surrounded by ramparts; the tenth and eleventh centuries saw the creation of the Viscount of Millau and subsequently passed to the Counts of Provence, the Counts of Barcelona and in 1112, to the father of the future King of Aragon, Béranger III following his marriage to the daughter of the Viscount of Millau. In 1187, the King of Aragon grants him the seal and communal freedom of Provence by Consular Charter. A consulate was thus created, was responsible for administering the city to raise taxes and to apply justice.
In 1271, Millau passed to the crown of the kings of France. In 1361, during the Hundred Years War, the city came under English rule; the return to peace in the fifteenth century gave the city a boost. It is Louis XI. In the Middle Ages the town had one of the major mediaeval bridges across the river Tarn, it had 17 spans, but after one poorly maintained span fell in the 18th century, the bridge was demolished. Just one span remains, with a mill, now an art gallery, as testament to this significant trading route from north to south across pre-Renaissance France. In 1999, José Bové, a local Larzac anti-globalisation activist demolished the Millau McDonald's as it was being built, in symbolic protest of the decision by the Court of the World Trade Organization to allow the United States to overtax the import of the local cheese called Roquefort, in retaliation for the European Union refusing the import of US hormone treated meat, it was an opportunity to protest against the spread of fast food and the spread of'Genetically Modified Organisms/crops'.
The McDonald's was soon rebuilt, Bové spent a few weeks in jail. He is now representative at the European Parliament; the Millau Viaduct was completed in 2004. The town is now a tourist centre with one of the largest touring campsites in central France, benefiting from the attraction of the landscapes all around, the architecturally acclaimed Millau viaduct, it is a major centre for outdoor sporting activity. Traditional arms of the city of Millau "Gold with four pallets gules, a chief azure three gold fleurs-de-lis. " It has always been the arms of the Crown of Aragon since 1187, but since 1271 surmounted with the leader of France indicating that this is a good town, that is, i.e. a commune reporting directly to the king. The city itself is administered through elected consuls - like Toulouse and its sheriffs - while the king was the sole and direct lord. Few cities in France, enjoyed such a regime of autonomy; the territory of this town lies across a southern portion of the Massif Central. It covers a large area of some 16,823 hectares, which makes it the 25th largest metropolitan town in France.
The municipality lies at the heart of the Grands Causses, a part of the Causse Rouge, part of Larzac as well as part of the Black Causse. The city county seat is located in the lower part of the town, in a large depression at the confluence of the Tarn and Dourbie about 340 m altitude; the territory surrounding the town of Millau is characterized by livestock production and the maintaining of natural grasslands and temporary pastures. It consists of a multitude of gorges and defiles which are the defining characteristic of this country; these predominantly agricultural rural areas like the rest of this fragile region, are protected by the Regional Natural Park of Grands Causses. The flora in the area has more than 2000 species. There is a variety of asparagus with triple leaves, Montpellier aphyllanthe, honeysuckle from the Etruria region of Italy. During the summer, the h