World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
The name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are the intellectual property of the Secretary of State for Transport. The National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, and was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, the NR title is sometimes described as a brand. As it was used by British Rail, the operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail, the two networks are generally coincident where passenger services are run. Most major Network Rail lines carry traffic and some lines are freight only. About twenty privately owned operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government. The Rail Delivery Group is the association representing the TOCs and provides core services. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, and Rail Staff Travel and it does not compile the national timetable, which is the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail.
Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain, the look and feel of signage and marketing material is largely the preserve of the individual TOCs. However, National Rail continues to use BRs famous double-arrow symbol and it has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity. The trademark rights to the arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow was already prescribed for indicating a railway station, the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. It is a misconception that Rail Alphabet was used for printed material. The British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, TOCs may use what they like, examples include Futura, Frutiger, and a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail, LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former East London line of London Underground as the East London Railway of LO.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations, northern Ireland Railways were never part of British Rail, which was always confined to Great Britain, and therefore are not part of the National Rail network. National Rail services have a common ticketing structure inherited from British Rail, through tickets are available between any pair of stations on the network, and can be bought from any station ticket office
London Buses is the subsidiary of Transport for London that manages bus services within Greater London. Contracts are normally for five years, with two-year extensions available if performance criteria is met, operators provide staff to drive the buses, provide the buses to operate and adhere to set TfL guidelines. Operators are in return paid per mile that each bus runs, London Buses publishes a variety of bus maps. Some are traditional street maps of London marked with bus numbers, in 2002, TfL introduced the first spider maps. The arachnoid form of bus routes radiating from a centre earned them the nickname spider maps, the maps are displayed at most major bus stops, and can be downloaded in PDF format via the Internet from the TfL website. The legal identity of London Buses is London Bus Services Limited, East Thames Buses was the trading name of another wholly owned subsidiary of TfL called, rather confusingly, London Buses Limited. The operating units were sold off in 1994/95, and their purchasers make up the majority of companies awarded bus operating tenders from the current London Buses, after 1994/95, the LBL company lay dormant, passing from LRT to TfL.
It was resurrected when East Thames Buses was formed, separated by a wall from LBSL. The local bus network in London is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, over 8000 scheduled buses operate on over 700 different routes. Over the year this network carries over 1.8 billion passenger journeys, Buses in the London Buses network accept Travelcards, Oyster card products and contactless debit and credit cards. Cash fares have not been available since 6 July 2014, single journey fares used to be charged in relation to length of journey, but are now charged as single flat fares for any length of journey. Alternatively and monthly passes may be purchased and loaded onto an Oyster card, passengers using contactless payment cards are charged the same fares as on Oyster pay as you go. Unlike Oyster cards, contactless cards have a 7-day fare cap though it only operates on a Monday-Sunday basis. Under 11s can travel free on London buses and trams at any time unaccompanied by an adult, children aged 11 to 15 travel free on buses with an 11–15 Oyster photocard, without an Oyster card or Travelcard, they have to pay the full adult fare.
Visitors can have a special discount added to an ordinary Oyster card at TfLs Travel Information Centres, there are concessions for London residents aged 16 to 18. The Freedom Pass scheme allows Greater London residents over state pension age, people who have concessionary bus passes issued by English local authorities travel free on TfL bus services at any time. Each company has its own operating code, and every bus garage in London has its own garage code, London Buses in fact maintains a close control over both the age and specification of the vehicles. These have been known to tear and get dirty quickly, however there have been improvements with LED Backlights and the SmartBlind system installed on newer vehicles
Southern Railway (UK)
The Southern Railway, sometimes shortened to Southern, was a British railway company established in the 1923 Grouping. It linked London with the Channel ports, South West England, South coast resorts, the construction of what was to become the Southern Railway began in 1838 with the opening of the London and Southampton Railway, which was renamed the London & South Western Railway. The railway was noted for its use of public relations. At 2,186 miles, the Southern Railway was the smallest of the Big Four railway companies and, unlike the others and it created what was at that time the worlds largest electrified main line railway system and the first electrified InterCity route. The Southern Railway operated a number of named trains, including the Brighton Belle, the Bournemouth Belle, the Golden Arrow. The West Country services were dominated by summer holiday traffic and included named trains such as the Atlantic Coast Express. The companys best-known livery was highly distinctive and carriages were painted in a bright Malachite green above plain black frames, with bold, the Southern Railway was nationalised in 1948, becoming the Southern Region of British Railways.
These companies were amalgamated, together several small independently operated lines and non-working companies, to form the Southern Railway in 1923. The first main line railway in southern England was the London and Southampton Railway and it was quickly followed by the London and Brighton Railway, and the South Eastern Railway in February 1844. The LSWR branched out to destinations including Portsmouth and Exeter and it grew to be the largest of the four constituent companies. The LBSCR was a smaller railway than its LSWR neighbour, serving the port of Newhaven and several holiday resorts on the south coast. It had been almost bankrupt in 1867, but during the last twenty-five years of its existence it had been well-managed and it had begun to electrify routes around London from 1909 to compete with the new electric trams that were taking away some of its traffic. Finally, the SECR had been created after years of wasteful, both companies had been unpopular with the travelling public and operated poorly maintained vehicles and infrastructure.
Nevertheless, real progress had made in rectifying this during the period 1899–1922. The formation of the Southern Railway was rooted in the outbreak of the First World War, many members of staff joined the armed forces and it was not possible to build and maintain equipment at peacetime levels. The resultant amalgamation of the four south coast railways to form the Southern Railway meant that several duplicate routes, the LSWR had most influence on the new company, although genuine attempts were made to integrate the services and staff after 1923. In addition to its operations, the Southern Railway inherited several important port and harbour facilities along the south coast, including Southampton, Newhaven. It ran services to the harbours at Portsmouth and these had come into being for handling ocean-going and cross-channel passenger traffic and the size of the railway-owned installations reflected the prosperity that the industry generated
Chatham main line
The Chatham main line is a railway line in England that links London Victoria and Dover Priory / Ramsgate, travelling via Medway. Services to Cannon Street follow the route as far as St Mary Cray Junction where they diverge onto the South Eastern Main Line near Chislehurst, a shuttle service operates on the Sheerness Line which starts at Sittingbourne. This line is reserved for use only by Class 395 Javelins travelling to/from Ashford International. As the Eurostar trains have had their 750 V shoes removed, most services on the Line are run by Southeastern, part of Govia Group, which operate the Southern and the London Midland franchises. Govia Thameslink Railway run a Thameslink service, starting from London Blackfriars and travelling via Denmark Hill on the Catford Loop and it travels to Swanley before heading to Sevenoaks. Southeastern used to run this service, some services travelling via Catford may stop at Denmark Hill. From 13 December 2015, the timetable consists of two trains per hour from Victoria, calling at Bromley South, Meopham, Chatham.
One service will call at Newington, Sittingbourne and Faversham, the other service will only call at Sittingbourne and Faversham all stations to Margate and Ramsgate. These trains will no longer split or join up at Faversham, the hourly stopping service from Victoria now goes as far as Dover Priory, calling at Denmark Hill, Bromley South, St Mary Cray all stations to Gillingham. It becomes a semi-fast service, calling at Rainham, Faversham, Canterbury East, a High Speed Service sees two trains per hour from St Pancras International to Faversham via Gravesend and Chatham. One service terminates at Faversham before travelling back to St Pancras International via Chatham, the other service continues coastbound as a semi-fast service calling at Whitstable, Herne Bay, Margate and Ramsgate. A service operates in the opposite direction, during this time, a replacement bus service operated between Dover Priory and Folkestone Central. The following trains are operated on the line, Class 395 Javelin since 2009, Class 375 Electrostar since 2001, Class 465 Networker since 1992, the line was built by the London and Dover Railway, who were in competition with the South Eastern Railway.
They subsequently built lines to Sevenoaks and Ashford from the Chatham main line, the line was electrified in a series of stages. Initially the new Southern Railway electrified the urban workings of the SECR in the 1920s, in July 1925 South Eastern Electrification saw the line from Victoria to junction with the South Eastern Main line at Bickley, including the Catford Loop Line electrified. This was extend to outer suburban workings to Sevenoaks via Swanley in two stages, reaching St Mary Cray in May 1934 and Swanley in January 1935, full outer suburban electrification was achieved with the Maidstone & Gillingham Electrification scheme in July 1939, extending electrification from Swanley to Gillingham. Post war, under the BRs 1955 Modernisation plan, electrification was completed under Kent Coast Electrification stage 1 in 1959. At the same time the four track section between Shortlands and St Mary Cray junction was extended to Swanley Junction with a rebuilding of the St Mary Cray Junction
Loughborough Junction is an area of South London, in the London Borough of Lambeth, which is located between Brixton and Herne Hill. It is centred on a junction consisting of nine railway bridges, Loughborough Junction Action Group was formed by volunteer residents in 2008 with a view to regenerate the area. LJAG worked with the council to form a masterplan for the area and these plans were developed during 2013. Loughborough Junction can be found within the codes of SE5 and SW9. It forms a zone between Herne Hill and Camberwell, the main road passing through it is Coldharbour Lane, which runs from central Brixton all the way to Camberwell. Drug- and gang-related problems resulted in the closure of several pubs in the area, more recently two of these pubs have been renovated. The Green Man is now a skills hub run by Lambeth council, there are several art galleries and artists studios in the immediate area. The arch adjacent to the entrance of Loughborough Junction station is home to The Beanery, the property in the area is a mixture of Victorian and Georgian mansion blocks and town houses, and local authority housing estates.
The main estates are the Loughborough Estate, the Angell Town Estate, the area is served by four primary schools, Loughborough Infants and Juniors, Crawford Primary, St Saviours and Jessops. There is a large area and a flower garden. The neighbouring areas of London are Brixton, Denmark Hill, Herne Hill, North Dulwich and Stockwell
London, Chatham and Dover Railway
The London and Dover Railway was a railway company in south-eastern England created 1 August 1859, when the East Kent Railway was given Parliamentary approval to change its name. Its lines ran through London and northern and eastern Kent to form a significant part of the Greater London commuter network. The company existed until 31 December 1922 when its assets were merged with those of companies to form the Southern Railway as a result of the grouping determined by the Railways Act 1921. The railway was always in a financial situation and went bankrupt in 1867. Many of the difficulties were caused by the competition and duplication of services with the South Eastern Railway. However, in 1898 the LCDR agreed with the SER to share the operation of the two railways, work them as a system and pool receipts, but it was not a full amalgamation. The SER and LCDR remained separate companies with separate shareholders until both becoming constituents of the Southern Railway on 1 January 1923, as a result, it had an excellent safety record.
In return the SER agreed not to any future application for an extension of the line to Dover. On 29 March 1858 a second section from Strood to Chatham, around July 1858 a station opened at New Brompton. Rochester station opened after the rival SER opened Chatham Central station, on 3 March 1858 the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway opened the extension of their line from Norwood to Beckenham Junction and Shortlands. On 22 November 1858 the Mid-Kent Railway constructed a line from New Beckenham to Beckenham Junction station, from there the Crays Company was building a line on to Bromley South and Bickley. The Mid Kent line connected with the WELCPR that provided the access to London. In 1859 the EKR changed its name to the LCDR though Dover had not been reached,1860 openings,9 July 1860, Faversham – Canterbury – Whitstable 19 July 1860, Sittingbourne & Sheerness Railway, which became part of LCDR from 1866), including Queenborough. Sheerness-on-Sea railway station dates from 1883, the terminus became the freight depot.
There are branch lines to Queenborough Pier and Sheerness Dockyard,22 July 1861, extension from Canterbury East to Dover, with Bekesbourne, Shepherds Well and Dover Priory stations opening with the line. 31 July 1861, Whitstable to Herne Bay,1 November 1861, Route to Victoria station opened, LCDR first access to London. 1862 openings,2 June 1862, the Sevenoaks Railway opened from Sevenoaks Junction to Sevenoaks, worked by LCDR, with stations at Eynsford, Shoreham and Sevenoaks Bat & Ball. Knights Hill, now West Dulwich was opened,1863 openings, Wandsworth Road station 5 October 1863, Herne Bay to Ramsgate
Tramlink is a light rail tram system serving Croydon and surrounding areas in South London, England. It began operation in 2000, the first tram system in London since 1952 and it is owned by London Trams, an arm of Transport for London, and operated by FirstGroup. The Tramlink is the fourth-busiest light rail network in the UK behind Manchester Metrolink and Wear Metro, in 1990 Croydon Council with London Regional Transport put the project to Parliament and the Croydon Tramlink Act 1994 resulted, which gave LRT the power to build and run Tramlink. In 1996 Tramtrack Croydon Limited won a 99-year Private Finance Initiative contract to design, operate, TCL was a partnership comprising FirstGroup, Bombardier Transportation, Sir Robert McAlpine and Amey, and Royal Bank of Scotland and 3i. TCL kept the revenue generated by Tramlink and LRT had to pay compensation to TCL for any changes to the fares, TCL subcontracted operations to CentreWest Buses. One of the leading to its creation was that the London Borough of Croydon has no London Underground service.
There are four routes, Route 1 – Elmers End to Croydon, Route 2 – Beckenham Junction to Croydon, Route 3 – New Addington to Wimbledon, and Route 4 – Therapia Lane to Elmers End. Route 2 runs parallel to the Crystal Palace to Beckenham Junction line of the Southern network between Birkbeck and Beckenham Junction – the National Rail track had been singled some years earlier. At Woodside the old station buildings stand disused, and the platforms have been replaced by accessible low platforms. From Woodside to near Sandilands and from near Sandilands almost to Lloyd Park, Tramlink follows the former Woodside and South Croydon Railway, including the Park Hill tunnels. The section of Route 3 between Wimbledon and West Croydon mostly follows the single-track British Rail route, closed on 31 May 1997 so that it could be converted for Tramlink, a partial obstruction near this point has necessitated the use of interlaced track. A Victorian footbridge beside Waddon New Road was dismantled to make way for the flyover over the West Croydon to Sutton railway line, the footbridge has been re-erected at Corfe Castle station on the Swanage Railway.
In March 2008, TfL announced that it had reached agreement to buy TCL for £98m, the purchase was finalised on 28 June 2008. The background to this purchase relates to the requirement that TfL compensates TCL for the consequences of any changes to the fares, in 2007 that payment was £4m, with an annual increase in rate. In October 2008 TfL introduced a new livery, using the blue and green of the routes on TfL maps, the colour of the cars was changed to green, and the brand name was changed from Croydon Tramlink to simply Tramlink. These refurbishments were completed in early 2009, the tram stops have low platforms,35 cm above rail level. They are unstaffed and have automated ticket machines, in general, access between the platforms involves crossing the tracks by pedestrian level crossing. There are 39 stops, most being 32.2 m long and they are virtually level with the doors and are all wider than 2 m
London Buses route 45
London Buses route 45 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between Clapham Park and St Pancras station, it is operated by London Central, on 17 January 1951 it was extended from Battersea to South Kensington station. On 1 February 1961, the route was extended from Farringdon Street to Hampstead Heath via Grays Inn Road, on 8 January 1972, it was withdrawn between Kings Cross and Hampstead and replaced by route 46. On 28 October 1978, the route was extended from Kings Cross to Archway station, on 3 August 1985, route 45 was converted to one man operation with the AEC Routemasters replaced by Leyland Titans. The southern terminus changed again to Brixton garage on 29 January 1994, upon being re-tendered, route 45 was retained by London Central with a new contract commencing on 13 November 2010
Brixton is a district of London, located in the borough of Lambeth in south London. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London, Brixton is mainly residential with a prominent street market and substantial retail sector. It is a community, with a large percentage of its population being of Caribbean descent. It lies within Inner south London and is bordered by Stockwell, Streatham, Tulse Hill, the district houses the main offices of the London Borough of Lambeth. Brixton is 2.7 miles south-southwest of the centre of London near Lambeth North tube station. The name Brixton is thought to originate from Brixistane, meaning the stone of Brixi, Brixi is thought to have erected a boundary stone to mark the meeting place of the ancient hundred court of Surrey. The location is unknown but is thought to be at the top of Brixton Hill, at a road known at the time as Bristow or Brixton Causeway, Brixton marks the rise from the marshes of North Lambeth up to the hills of Upper Norwood and Streatham.
At the time the River Effra flowed from its source in Upper Norwood through Herne Hill to Brixton, at Brixton the river was crossed by low bridges for Roman roads to the south coast of Britain, now Brixton Road and Clapham Road. The main roads were connected through a network of country lanes, such as Acre Lane, Coldharbour Lane, Brixton Water Lane and Lyham Road. The area remained undeveloped until the beginning of the 19th century, with the opening of Vauxhall Bridge in 1816, improved access to Central London led to a process of suburban development. One of a few surviving windmills in London, built in 1816, is just off Brixton Hill, Brixton was transformed into a middle class suburb between the 1860s and 1890s. Railways linked Brixton with the centre of London when the Chatham Main Line was built through the area by the London, Chatham, in 1880, Electric Avenue was so named after it became the first street in London to be lit by electricity. By 1925, Brixton attracted thousands of new people and it housed the largest shopping centre in South London at the time, as well as a thriving market, pubs and a theatre.
In the 1920s, Brixton was the capital of South London with three large department stores and some of the earliest branches of what are now Britains major national retailers. Today, Brixton Road is the shopping area, fusing into Brixton Market. A prominent building on Brixton High Street is Morleys, an independent department store established in the 1920s, on the western boundary of Brixton with Clapham stands the Sunlight Laundry, an Art Deco factory building. Designed by architect F. E. Simpkins and erected in 1937, the Brixton area was bombed during World War II, contributing to a severe housing crisis, which in turn led to urban decay. This was followed by slum clearances and the building of council housing, in the 1940s and 1950s, many immigrants, particularly from the West Indies, settled in Brixton
Elephant & Castle railway station
Elephant & Castle railway station is a National Rail station that serves Newington and Walworth, south London. Along with the London Underground station of the name, it is located in the London Borough of Southwark and is in both Travelcard Zone 1 and 2. The station is managed by Thameslink, with services operated by both Thameslink and Southeastern, there is out-of-station interchange with the nearby Elephant and Castle tube station. The London and Dover Railway built the station on a viaduct in 1863. It has two entrances, one on Elephant Road and one connected to the level of the Elephant. There is an indicator in the shopping centre as well as separate platform indicators in the ticket hall. There are four platforms, two being on the island between the lines, the station is not directly connected to the London Underground station. To change from the Underground it is necessary to leave the Underground station, pass through the ticket barrier, four staircases provide the only access to the platforms, as there are no lifts or escalators.
Services from the National Rail station are operated by Thameslink and Southeastern, there is an out of station interchange facility with Elephant & Castle station. Train times and station information for Elephant & Castle railway station from National Rail
East London line extension
The East London line extension project was a British railway engineering project in London, managed by Transport for London. The project involved extending the East London Line and making it part of the mainline London Overground network, New rolling stock was introduced and four new stations built along the route, with a fifth scheduled to be added in 2015. The work, costing around £1 billion, began in 2005 and was carried out in two phases, trains go to New Cross, where they make connection with the South Eastern Main Line. On 28 February 2011 the line was connected at its end to the North London Line at Highbury & Islington. In the second phase of the project, on 9 December 2012 a branch was connected to the South London Line enabling services to run to Clapham Junction, Phase 1 of the ELLX project involved the extension of the original line at its northern and southern ends. The southern extension of phase 1 from New Cross Gate to Crystal Palace and West Croydon was completed simultaneously with that to Dalston in 2010 and it bypasses Shoreditch station, which closed permanently in June 2006.
Four new stations have built at Shoreditch High Street, Hoxton and Dalston Junction. The stations between New Cross Gate and Crystal Palace/West Croydon were previously managed by Southern, which ran all services to these stations. The existing section of line was overhauled, with the replacement of all track. The ELLX Phase 2 project extended the line from Surrey Quays on to the Network Rail South London Line, trains on this route run to Clapham Junction via Queens Road Peckham, Peckham Rye, Denmark Hill, Clapham High Street and Wandsworth Road. From Wandsworth Road, instead of running to Victoria, westbound trains branch off at Factory Junction, a new station was proposed at Surrey Canal Road. The new station could open in 2015, depending on the pace of new housing development in the vicinity, at Clapham Junction, former Platform 2 is being divided into two separate, staggered platforms, Platform 1 and Platform 2. In addition, a staircase at Platform 2 is being brought back into use. Trains will run every 15 minutes between Clapham Junction and Highbury & Islington, there are no plans to operate trains through from the South London line to the West London line, so passengers from one to the other will have to change at Clapham Junction.
Transport for London will take over the management of Clapham High Street, the core section of the line, between Dalston and Surrey Quays, is served by 16 trains per hour. New Cross Gate to Sydenham has 8 trains per hour, the remainder of the line is served by four trains per hour. A total of 30 stations are served by the new line, as part of the upgrade, new mainline rolling stock replaced the former London Underground A60 and A62 Stock, which had been in service for 50 years. As of 2012 the line operated 23 Class 378/1 Capitalstar four-car electric multiple units, unlike the London Underground stock which they replaced, the trains have longitudinal seating similar to most classes of Tube trains, to cater for the expected higher level of usage