The Frankfurt Parliament was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, elected on 1 May 1848. The session was held from 18 May 1848 to 31 May 1849 and its existence was both part of and the result of the March Revolution in the states of the German Confederation. After long and controversial debates, the assembly produced the so-called Frankfurt Constitution which proclaimed a German Empire based on the principles of parliamentary democracy, the parliament proposed a constitutional monarchy headed by a hereditary emperor. In the 20th century, major elements of the Frankfurt constitution became models for the Weimar Constitution of 1919, in 1806, the Emperor, Francis II had relinquished the crown of the Holy Roman Empire and dissolved the Empire. This was the result of the Napoleonic Wars and of military pressure from Napoléon Bonaparte. After the victory of Prussia, the United Kingdom and other states over Napoléon in 1816, Austria dominated this system of loosely connected, independent states, but the system failed to account for the rising influence of Prussia.
After the so-called Wars of Liberation, many contemporaries had expected a nation-state solution, apart from this nationalist component, calls for civic rights influenced political discourse. The Napoleonic Code Civil had led to the introduction of civic rights in some German states in the early 19th century, some German states had adopted constitutions after the foundation of the German Confederacy. Between 1819 and 1830, the Carlsbad Decrees and other instances of Restoration politics limited such developments, the mid-1840s saw an increase of the frequency of internal crises. Additionally, a series of bad harvests in parts of Germany, notably the southwest, the changes caused by the beginnings of industrialisation exacerbated social and economic tensions considerably. Meanwhile, in the states, such as Baden, the development of a lively scene of Vereine provided an organisational framework for democratic, or popular. Especially in south west Germany, censorship could not effectively suppress the press, at such rallies by as the Offenburg Popular Assembly of September 1847, radical democrats called to overthrow the status quo.
At the same time, the opposition had increased its networking activities. Thus, at the Heppenheim Conference on 10 October 1847, eighteen members from a variety of German states met to discuss common motions for a German nation-state. In 1847 and 1848, broader European developments aggravated this tension, in France, revolutionary workers and students deposed the Citizen King Louis-Philippe in the February Revolution, their action resulted in the declaration of the Second Republic. In many European states, the resistance against Restoration policies increased and led to revolutionary unrest, Friedrich Daniel Bassermann, a liberal deputy in the second chamber of the parliament of Baden, helped to trigger the final impulse for the election of a pan-German assembly. The Bundestag, made up of representatives of the princes, was the only institution representing the whole confederation. Two weeks later, news of the coup in France fanned the flames of the revolutionary mood
Sarthe is a French department situated in the Grand-Ouest of the country. It is named after the River Sarthe, which flows from east of Le Mans to just north of Angers, in the late 18th century, before it was officially Sarthe, the nobility built their Mansions and Chateaus there, as an escape from Paris. The department was created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, pursuant to the law of 22 December 1789, the latter was divided into two departments, Sarthe to the east and Mayenne to the west. In Roman times, this contained the city of Mans. The Roman Thermal Bathhouse attracts many tourists, as does the Theater of Aubigné-Racan, marin Mersenne, perhaps the most important scientific figure in the early 17th century, was born in the vicinity of Sarthe. The department of Sarthe is at the end of the administrative region of Pays-de-la-Loire. It is south of Normandy and on the edge of the Armorican Massif. It is bordered by the departments of Orne, Eure-et-Loir, Loir-et-Cher, Indre-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire, approximately 300,000 people, comprising more than half of the departments population, live in Le Mans, its conurbation, or the essentially urban communes close by.
The rest of the department retains a rural character, with agriculture as the part of the economy. The arrival of the railways in 1854 boosted trade for the local economy, a TGV connection was constructed in 1989, connecting the community to high-speed transport. In terms of connections, the A11 autoroute, which was constructed to Le Mans from the east in 1978. The department was the base of former Prime Minister Francois Fillon
Minister of the Armed Forces (France)
The Ministry of Defence is the French cabinet member charged with running the military of France. The minister in charge of the French military has evolved within the epoque, the minister is always attached to a ministry or state secretary bureau, today attached to the Ministry of Defense. The Secretary of State of War was one of the four specialised secretaries of state established in France in 1589 and this State Secretary was responsible for the French Army. In 1791, the secretary of state of war becomes Minister of War, with this function being abolished in 1794. In 1930, the position was referred to as Minister of War. The current Minister of Defence and Veterans Affairs is Jean-Yves Le Drian. org
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was a Russian revolutionary anarchist, and founder of collectivist anarchism. He is considered among the most influential figures of anarchism, Bakunins enormous prestige as an activist made him one of the most famous ideologues in Europe, and he gained substantial influence among radicals throughout Russia and Europe. From Fichte, Bakunin went on to himself in the works of Hegel. That led to his embrace of Hegelianism, bedazzled by Hegels famous maxim, in 1840, Bakunin traveled to St. Petersburg and Berlin with the intention of preparing himself for a professorship in philosophy or history at the University of Moscow. In 1842, Bakunin moved from Berlin to Dresden, eventually he arrived in Paris, where he met Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Karl Marx. He was eventually deported from France for speaking against Russias oppression of Poland, in 1849, Bakunin was apprehended in Dresden for his participation in the Czech rebellion of 1848, and turned over to Russia where he was imprisoned in the Peter-Paul Fortress in Saint Petersburg.
He remained there until 1857, when he was exiled to a camp in Siberia. Escaping to Japan, the US and finally ending up in London for a short time, in 1863, he left to join the insurrection in Poland, but he failed to reach his destination and instead spent some time in Switzerland and Italy. The Bakuninist or anarchist trend rapidly expanded in influence, especially in Spain, a showdown loomed with Marx, who was a key figure in the General Council of the International. Bakunin could not attend the congress, as he could not reach the Netherlands, Bakunins faction present at the conference lost, and Bakunin was expelled for supposedly maintaining a secret organisation within the international. However, the anarchists insisted the congress was unrepresentative and exceeded its powers and this repudiated the Hague meeting, including Bakunins supposed expulsion. The great majority of sections of the International affiliated to the St. Imier body, the far larger Bakuninist international outlasted its small Marxist rival, which was isolated in New York, it greatly facilitated the global spread of anarcho-socialism.
In the International, as well as in his writings, Bakunin articulated the basic ideas of syndicalism and of anarchism and he had by this stage abandoned the anti-imperialist nationalism of his youth. From 1870 to 1876, Bakunin wrote some of his works, such as Statism and Anarchy and God. Bakunin remained, however, a participant in struggles. In 1870, he was involved in an insurrection in Lyon, the Paris Commune closely corresponded to many elements of Bakunins anarchist programme – self-management, mandates delegates, a militia system with elected officers, and decentralisation. Anarchists like Élisée Reclus, and those in the tradition of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon – who had greatly influenced Bakunin – were key figures in the Commune and he remained active in the workers and peasants movements of Europe and was a major influence on movements in Egypt and Latin America. His father was a diplomat who, as a young attache, had lived for years in Florence
French Executive Commission (1848)
The Executive Commission of 1848 was a short-lived government during the French Second Republic, chaired by François Arago, that exercised executive power from 9 May 1848 to 24 June 1848. It succeeded the Provisional Government of 1848 and was in turn replaced by the Cabinet of General Cavaignac, the members of the Commission acted as joint head of state. The Commission lacked support in the National Assembly and it soon found itself at odds with the conservative majority and effectively unable to properly govern. The closure of the National Workshops, by leading to the June Days Uprising, judging the Commission unable to quell the uprising, the Assembly effectively dissolved it on June 24 by a vote of no confidence and gave full powers to General Louis Eugène Cavaignac. In May 1848 the National Assembly decided to establish the Executive Commission as a form of collective presidency, the members were chosen from prominent members of the former Provisional Government. These members acted jointly as head of state, Lamartine was seen by many as representing order and respect for property, while Ledru-Rollin stood for violence and communism.
However, Lamartine used his strong popular mandate to force the National Assembly to make Ledru-Rollin one of the members of the Executive Commission, lamartines motives are unclear, but perhaps he was concerned that the power was swinging too far towards the Conservatives. The members of the Executive Commission were not assigned ministries, instead, at the first meeting on 11 May 1848 the commission appointed ministers. They were all moderate republicans apart from Ferdinand Flocon, the composition of the government was thus unsatisfactory to both the conservative majority of the National Assembly and the radical left. At this time the bourgeoisie were becoming increasingly uneasy about the possibility of mob rule leading to a repeat of the Reign of Terror of the first French Revolution. Ledru-Rollin planned a fête de la Concorde on 15 May celebrating peace, on 13 May the Executive Commission, nervous about rumors of planned demonstrations, announced that the festival was postponed. A crowd led by Louis Auguste Blanqui launched an attack on 15 May on the Palais Bourbon, the head of the National Guard of Paris, General Amable de Courtais, would not order his men to use violence.
For three hours the Assembly was paralyzed by the demonstrators, order was restored, but the authority of the Commission was damaged. The conservative majority in the Assembly blamed the Executive Committee for allowing the incident to occur, the arrest of the leaders of the workers, Armand Barbès and Blanqui, left the working people without leaders. General Coutais was arrested, accused of treason, the government reorganized the National Guard and moved a large garrison of regular army troops into the center of Paris. On 22 May 1848 the Executive Commission dissolved the Club Raspail, Louis Napoleon, who was in exile in London, was elected to the National Assembly on 4 June 1848. He was known to be ambitious to take power, and had already made two failed attempts, in 1836 and 1840. A circular appeared in the departments on 16 June 1848 in which the Executive Government ordered the arrest of Louis Napoleon and it appears to have been issued just before the question was raised in the National Assembly, and indicates that the government was confident that the motion would pass
French Revolution of 1848
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution, was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France the revolutionary events ended the Orleans monarchy and led to the creation of the French Second Republic, following the overthrow of King Louis Philippe in February 1848, the elected government of the Second Republic ruled France. In the months that followed, this government steered a course became more conservative. On 2 December 1848, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the Second Republic, exactly three years he suspended the elected assembly, establishing the Second French Empire, which lasted until 1870. Louis Napoléon would go on to become the de facto last French monarch, the February revolution established the principle of the right to work, and its newly established government created National Workshops for the unemployed. At the same time a sort of parliament was established at the Luxembourg Palace, under the presidency of Louis Blanc.
These tensions between liberal Orleanist and Radical Republicans and Socialists led to the June Days Uprising, under the Charter of 1814, Louis XVIII ruled France as the head of a constitutional monarchy. He had no desire to rule as a monarch, taking various steps to strengthen his own authority as monarch. In 1830, Charles X of France, presumably instigated by one of his chief advisors Jules, Prince de Polignac and these ordinances abolished freedom of the press, reduced the electorate by 75%, and dissolved the lower house. This action provoked a reaction from the citizenry, who revolted against the monarchy during the Three Glorious Days of 26–29 July 1830. Charles was forced to abdicate the throne and to flee Paris for the United Kingdom, as a result, Louis Philippe, of the Orléanist branch, rose to power, replacing the old Charter by the Charter of 1830, and his rule became known as the July Monarchy. Nicknamed the Bourgeois Monarch, Louis Philippe sat at the head of a liberal state controlled mainly by educated elites.
Supported by the Orleanists, he was opposed on his right by the Legitimists and on his left by the Republicans, Louis Philippe was an expert businessman and, by means of his businesses, he had become one of the richest men in France. Still Louis Philippe saw himself as the embodiment of a small businessman. Consequently, he and his government did not look with favour on the big business, Louis Philippe did, support the bankers and small. Indeed, at the beginning of his reign in 1830, Jaques Laffitte, a banker and liberal politician who supported Louis Philippes rise to the throne, said From now on, by 1848 only about one percent of the population held the franchise. Even though France had a press and trial by jury, only landholders were permitted to vote. Louis Philippe was viewed as generally indifferent to the needs of society, early in 1848, some Orleanist liberals, such as Adolphe Thiers, had turned against him, disappointed by Louis Philippes opposition to parliamentarism
French First Republic
In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic, was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, under the Legislative Assembly, which was in power before the proclamation of the First Republic, France was engaged in war with Prussia and Austria. The foreign threat exacerbated Frances political turmoil amid the French Revolution and deepened the passion, in the violence of 10 August 1792, citizens stormed the Tuileries Palace, killing six hundred of the Kings Swiss guards and insisting on the removal of the king. A renewed fear of action prompted further violence, and in the first week of September 1792, mobs of Parisians broke into the citys prisons. This included nobles and political prisoners, but numerous common criminals, such as prostitutes and petty thieves, many murdered in their cells—raped and this became known as the September Massacres. The resulting Convention was founded with the purpose of abolishing the monarchy.
The Conventions first act, on 10 August 1792, was to establish the French First Republic, the King, by a private citizen bearing his family name of Capet, was subsequently put on trial for crimes of high treason starting in December 1792. On 16 January 1793 he was convicted, and on 21 January, throughout the winter of 1792 and spring of 1793, Paris was plagued by food riots and mass hunger. The new Convention did little to remedy the problem until late spring of 1793, despite growing discontent with the National Convention as a ruling body, in June the Convention drafted the Constitution of 1793, which was ratified by popular vote in early August. The Committees laws and policies took the revolution to unprecedented heights, after the arrest and execution of Robespierre in July 1794, the Jacobin club was closed, and the surviving Girondins were reinstated. A year later, the National Convention adopted the Constitution of the Year III and they reestablished freedom of worship, began releasing large numbers of prisoners, and most importantly, initiated elections for a new legislative body.
On 3 November 1795, the Directory was established, the period known as the French Consulate began with the coup of 18 Brumaire in 1799. Members of the Directory itself planned the coup, indicating clearly the failing power of the Directory, Napoleon Bonaparte was a co-conspirator in the coup, and became head of the government as the First Consul. He would proclaim himself Emperor of the French, ending the First French Republic and ushering in the French First Empire