Concarneau is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France. Concarneau is bordered to the west by the Baie de La Forêt; the town has two distinct areas: the modern town on the mainland and the medieval Ville Close, a walled town on a long island in the centre of the harbour. The old town was a centre of shipbuilding; the Ville Close is now devoted to tourism with many shops aimed at tourists. However restraint has been shown in resisting the worst excesses of souvenir shops. In the Ville Close is the fishing museum; the Ville Close is connected to the town by a bridge and at the other end a ferry to the village of Lanriec on the other side of the harbour. In August the town holds the annual Fête des Filets Bleus; the festival, named after the traditional blue nets of Concarneau's fishing fleet, is a celebration of Breton and pan-Celtic culture. Such festivals can occur throughout Brittany but the Filets Bleus is one of the oldest and largest, attracting in excess of a thousand participants in traditional dress with many times that number of observers.
In 2005, the 100th festival was celebrated. Concarneau was the setting for Belgian mystery writer Georges Simenon's 1931 novel Le Chien jaune, featuring his celebrated sleuth Maigret. Fishing for tuna, has long been the primary economic activity in Concarneau; the Les Mouettes d'Arvor is one of the last traditional canning factories in Concarneau. Concarneau is one of the biggest fishing ports in France. Since the 1980s, other industries have arisen, such as summer tourism; the Ville Close separates the working port from the yacht basin. Inhabitants of Concarneau are called in French Concarnois. In 2008, 2.16% of primary-school children attended bilingual schools. The football club US Concarneau is based in the town. Michel Desjoyeaux, navigator Samantha Davies, sailor Guy Cotten, founder of a clothes factory Stéphane Guivarc'h, French footballer, won the FIFA World Cup 1998 with the French national side Théophile Deyrolle and Alfred Guillou, founders of the Concarneau Art Colony. Valérie Hermann President of Ralph Lauren Twinned towns: Bielefeld, Germany since 1969 M'bour, Senegal since 1974 Penzance, United Kingdom since 1982 Communes of the Finistère department Walled town of Concarneau Calypso Lionel Floch Fernand-Marie-Eugène Le Gout-Gérard Henri Alphonse Barnoin Henri Guinier INSEE Official website |Concarneau Cultural Heritage French Ministry of Culture list for Concarneau
Jean Chassagne was a pioneer submariner and French racecar driver active 1906-1930. Chassagne finished third in the 1913 French Grand Prix, he was second in the 1921 Italian Grand Prix with a Ballot, set speed records and won races at Brooklands and hill climbs internationally. Chassagne was associated with the Bentley Boys, who are described as having captured the spirit of the times, partying as hard as they worked. Larger than life, their restless and reckless love of speed and adventure complemented the big green Bentleys from Cricklewood perfectly; as a result of his association with Bentley Motors, Chassagne Square in Crewe was named in his honour. Chassagne applied to serve as a pilot during the Great War but under the request of the British Admiralty he joined Sunbeam to advise and test aero engines for the war effort. Chassagne’s long career spans the early heroic road races as riding mechanic on Darracq, Clément-Bayard and Hispano Suiza before he joined Sunbeam, where he achieved his most notable success as a racing driver, including winning the 1922 Tourist Trophy.
Chassagne raced well into his forties with others in Le Mans and elsewhere. His first Grand Prix was the first French Grand Prix in Le Mans 1906, his last was in 1930, during which period he was responsible for numerous speed records. His mechanical knowledge, gained early in his education and augmented during his service with the French Navy on early submarines, stood him in good stead both in racing and the development and testing of the latest technology in early aviation for Demoiselles Santons-Dumont monoplanes, the first Hanriot monoplanes and Clément-Bayard, he was involved in the development and testing of racing cars, namely Grand Prix Sunbeams and the Bugatti type 35. Jean Chassagne was not born into wealth, competing at the cutting edge of technology could not have been easy. Despite this, he retained a “twinkle in his eye and un air fortement sympathique” throughout his life. Meticulous, calm with a delicate driving touch and mechanical sympathy ‘Chass’ was held with the utmost regard and affection by his friends and colleagues, the finest engineers and drivers of their time.
Born 1881 July 26 and was brought up at La Croisille-sur-Briance, Haute-Vienne, France and in Burgundy, France in modest circumstances. His father, a horse trainer, was killed in a riding accident, he attended L’Ecole Professionnelle de St Leonard de Noblat followed by the regarded L’Ecole des Arts et Métiers, formative in his life at the cutting edge of motorised racing. In 1900 November 29 Jean Chassagne joined the French Navy, he was trained as a mechanic and in 1901 worked at the Flotte Workshops as a mechanic and in 1903 as a Torpedo Boat Mechanic volunteered to serve on the Montcalm for two years in defence of Saigon as well as sailing to America, Africa and Japan. In 1905 he volunteered as a submariner and was stationed for ten months on three Submarines: first l'Espadon a Sirène class, 157 tons with 13 crew. Submarines were much at the forefront of naval marine technology at that time. In 1906 June 26/7 the first French Grand Prix de l’ACF was held in Le Mans. Chassagne continued working at Darracq as a mechanic for two years until 1908 acting as riding mechanic during the heroic pioneering age of racing to Hanriot and Demogeot.
In 1908 Chassagne travelled to the USA for the American Grand Prize, where he was again a riding mechanic to Hautvost on a Clément-Bayard. During this period, Chassagne was working at Clément-Bayard, Senat workshops for airships and race-car engines on the development and testing of the experimental Demoiselles Santons-Dumont monoplanes. Development and testing of the first Hanriot Monoplanes, Reims followed and in August 1910 Chassagne received his pilot licence certificate no. 160. He subsequently participated in various events including the ‘Baie de Seine’ estuary crossing. Chassagne crashed in Deauville due to engine problem but escaped with only a few splinters from the wooden frame in his thighs, he was appointed Chief Pilot to Hanriot Flying School where he trained many of the early pioneering aviators and in 1911 he became Director of the Algeciras Flying School, Spain where he was responsible for the training of Spanish officers. In 1912 Chassagne was again flying with Clément-Bayard where he was responsible for the testing and development of the new aero engines in long-distance flights such as Paris to Reims, Paris to Mourmelon to Reims to Soissons and to Paris, as well as, remarkably Issy to Reims.
That year Jean Chassagne met Louis Coatalen, joined the Sunbeam racing team and withdrew from flying. Throughout this period, Chassagne combined his aviation activities with racing and with the Hispano Suiza Racing Team in 1910 he competed at Coupe des Voiturettes, Bolougne gaining second place and in the Catalan Cup Race a fourth, it is at Hispano Suiza that Chassagne was acquainted with Works drivers Pilleverdier and Zucarelli the latter becoming with Georges Boillot, Jules Goux & Ernest Hen
Capri is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. The main town Capri, located on the island shares the name, it has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic. Some of the main features of the island include the Marina Piccola, the Belvedere of Tragara, the limestone crags called sea stacks that project above the sea, the town of Anacapri, the Blue Grotto,the ruins of the Imperial Roman villas, the various towns surrounding the Island of Capri including Positano, Ravello, Sorrento and Naples. Capri is part of the region of Metropolitan City of Naples; the town of Capri is the island's main population centre. The island has Marina Piccola and Marina Grande; the separate comune of Anacapri is located high on the hills to the west. The etymology of the name Capri is unclear, but it could derive from Latin capreae. Fossils of wild boars have been discovered, lending credence to the "kapros" etymology.
There is the possibility that the name derives from an Etruscan word for "rocky", though any historical Etruscan rule of the island is disputed. Capri is a large and sandstone rock; the sides of the island are perpendicular cliffs and the surface of the island is composed of more cliffs. The voters of the island elect representatives for the two municipalities on the island; the chosen representatives choose two mayors to govern with them. The island has been inhabited since early times. Evidence of human settlement was discovered during the Roman era; the emperor ordered these to be displayed in the garden of the Sea Palace. Modern excavations have shown that human presence on the island can be dated to the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Augustus developed Capri. In his Aeneid, Virgil states that the island had been populated by the Greek people of Teleboi, coming from the Ionian Islands. Strabo says that "in ancient times in Capri there were two towns reduced to one." Tacitus records. Ruins of one at Tragara could still be seen in the 19th century.
Augustus' successor Tiberius built a series of villas at Capri, the most famous of, the Villa Jovis, one of the best-preserved Roman villas in Italy. In 27 AD, Tiberius permanently moved to Capri, running the Empire from there until his death in 37 AD. In 182 AD, Emperor Commodus banished his sister Lucilla to Capri, she was executed shortly afterwards. After the end of the Western Roman Empire, Capri returned to the status of a dominion of Naples, suffered various attacks and ravages by pirates. In 866 Emperor Louis II gave the island to Amalfi. In 987 Pope John XV consecrated the first bishop of Capri, when Capri, Scala and Lettere were made dioceses to serve as suffragans of Amalfi, which thereby became a metropolitan see. Capri continued to be a residential diocese until 1818, when the island became part of the archdiocese of Sorrento. No longer a residential bishopric, Capreae in Latin, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. In 1496, Frederick IV of Naples established legal and administrative parity between the settlements of Capri and Anacapri.
The pirate raids reached their peak during the reign of Charles V: the famous Turkish admirals Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha and Turgut Reis captured the island for the Ottoman Empire, in 1535 and 1553 respectively. The first recorded tourist to visit the island was French antiques dealer Jean-Jacques Bouchard in the 17th century, his diary, found in 1850, is an important information source about Capri. French troops under Napoleon occupied Capri in January 1806; the British ousted the French in the following May, after which Capri was turned into a powerful naval base, but the building program caused heavy damage to the archaeological sites. The French reconquered Capri in 1808, remained there until the end of the Napoleonic era, when Capri was returned to the Bourbon ruling house of Naples; the natural scientist Ignazio Cerio catalogued Capri's fauna during the 19th century. His work was continued by his son and engineer Edwin Cerio, who wrote several books on life in Capri in the 20th century.
Prior to the First World War the island was popular with wealthy gay men. John Ellingham Brooks and Somerset Maugham shared a villa there. Norman Douglas, Friedrich Alfred Krupp, Jacques d'Adelswärd-Fersen, Christian Wilhelm Allers, Emil von Behring, Curzio Malaparte, Axel Munthe, Maxim Gorky are all reported to have owned a villa there, or to have stayed there for more than three months. Swedish Queen Victoria stayed there because Axel Munthe was her doctor. Rose O'Neill, the American illustrator and creator of the Kewpie, owned the Villa Narcissus owned by the famous Beaux-Arts painter Charles Caryl Coleman. Dame Gracie Fields had a villa and restaurant on the island and is buried there. Mariah Carey owns a villa on the island. In 1908, Lenin was hosted by Maxim Gorky, the Russian author, at his house near the Giardini Aug
For other businesses associated with Adolphe Clément – see Clement. Clément-Talbot Limited was a British motor vehicle manufacturer with its works in Ladbroke Grove, North Kensington, founded in 1902. Rootes renamed it Sunbeam-Talbot Limited in 1938; the new business's capital was arranged by the Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot, shareholders included automobile manufacturer, Adolphe Clément, along with Baron A. Lucas and Emile Lamberjack all of France; the shareholders sold it in late 1919 to the company. It kept its separate identity making cars designed specially for it or by its employees until 1934. After S T D's financial collapse it was bought by the Rootes brothers; the first Talbots, re-badged Clément-Bayards built in France, were sold by the British Automobile Commercial Syndicate Limited, manager Daniel M Weigel, from the Earl's premises at 97-98 Long Acre, which included Maison Talbot, importers of Michelin tyres. The earl's flourishing business was the importation, distribution through a large British network and retailing of many brands of European motor cars and associated products.
It brought about the close association with businessman Adolphe Clément. The earl closed this business in 1909, when its only advertised brand was Spyker, because it seemed to be foolish to compete with his own Talbot dealers. On 11 October 1902 Clément-Talbot was formally incorporated "to carry on business as manufacturers of and dealers in horseless carriages and motor-cars, air-ships and the component parts thereof". 5 acres lifted to 28 acres of land were purchased for a new factory in Ladbroke Grove, North Kensington, alongside the Great Western Railway line and between Wormwood Scrubs and the Kensal Green Cemetery. The housing estate now on the site has Shrewsbury Street as its main access-way. Weigel was appointed managing director and C R Garrard works manager of Clément-Talbot. Kensington assembly got under way in 1904 using imported components. In December 1904 speaking at their annual trade dinner in the presence of all directors the Earl described Clément-Talbot as "partly-controlled by French interests".
At that time production was British made except for the engines imported from France. The first wholly British designs were made in 1907. However, in 1908 the opportunity was taken to equip new cars with a successful new Clément-Bayard engine of L-head design with improved performance, its more compact combustion chamber allowed higher compression ratios. Talbots could now match beat Vauxhalls and Sunbeams in competition Cars made in France are marked with an asterisk Information assembled from The Autocar Buyer's Guide and published in Appendix V, Ian Nickols and Kent Karslake, Motoring Entente, London 1956 In autumn 1919 A Darracq and Company agreed terms for their purchase of all the shares in Clément-Talbot as of 31 July 1918. Auguste Oddenino, Regent Street restaurateur and businessman was, by a major shareholder in Clément-Talbot. Adolphe Clémente-Bayard's Levallois factory did not flourish after the Armistice of 11 November 1918, he lost interest in motor manufacturing. In 1921 he would sell his works at Levallois to André Citroën.
The Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot died in 1921. In 1920 London's Darracq added Sunbeam Motor Car Company to its enterprise and renamed itself S T D Motors. Shareholders and subsequent commentators were at loss to explain the commercial advantages given by the combination; each of the three companies continued to operate independently. S T D's products were made in Wolverhampton and Paris. Anthony Blight believes Coatalen was drawn back to full-time efforts at S T D by the possibility of racing cars under three brand names and of two nationalities, he had not long retired from his chief engineer post at Sunbeam and was now a design consultant in Paris in his native France. The process of dropping the Darracq name for the Paris products was begun in early 1919 when new cars were badged Talbot-Darracq. In 1920 Darracq was dropped altogether from Talbot-Darracq. Owen Clegg at Suresnes, would design new cars to be built in Suresnes and Kensington. Louis Coatalen who had remained a director of S T D joined S T D Motors as chief engineer and blocked Clegg's new designs.
Coatalen's principal interest was a new Sunbeam racing car and, of course, a whole new range of products for Wolverhampton and Paris. Kensington would have to build a small car for the utility market; the new utility Talbot would be designed in Paris by Coatalen's freshly assembled team. At first the Kensington factory kept its employees busy converting wartime ambulances to Talbot touring cars; when that ran out they had to revert to their prewar models, which were luxury cars and impossible to sell in the new slump of mid-1920. They were asked to build the two new 3-litre straight eight S T D Grand Prix cars and a 1½-litre variant – all to wear a Talbot radiator. 8-18 a Paris designa small fast chic "utility" car it sold only to country doctors and professional men. The lively 970 cc engine ran sweetly. Designed in Paris its lack of a differential burst tyres broke spring mountings and gave drivers humiliating battles at corners, it was fifty per cent too expensive for the "utility" class. A made-in-Barlby-Road Talbot it turned up from Acton with a different-shaped radiator as a locally assembled Suresnes Darracq.
10-23 a Roesch ameliorationa bored out 8-18 engine, 1074 cc, a differential, a longer and stronger wheelbase and chassis with the back springs properly tied on. 2 1/2 cwt heavier, 280 lb. It was a commercial success. 12-30 the first Talbot Six and another Paris designan 8-18 with two more cylinders, 1454 cc. Weight an
The Sunbeam 350HP is an aero-engined car built by the Sunbeam company in 1920, the first of several land speed record breaking cars with aircraft engines. The car was fitted with a purpose built 18.3-litre V12 engine based on a hybrid of the Sunbeam Manitou and Sunbeam Arab aero engines. This engine had four blocks of three cylinders arranged in two banks set at 60 degrees; each cylinder had two exhaust valves actuated by a single overhead camshaft. The two camshafts were driven by a complex set of 16 gears from the front of the crankshaft - a similar arrangement to that used on the Maori engine which had two OHC per bank of cylinders. A 4-speed transmission drove a back axle with differential with a shaft drive rather than the hazardous chains of other cars. Harry Hawker drove the car in 1920 at Brooklands but suffered a burst tyre, spinning off the circuit; the differential was replaced with a simple crown wheel and pinion so that the rear wheels were locked together and it was more successful in the hands of Kenelm Lee Guinness.
Brakes were crude, as was usual in the period, with a foot brake acting on the transmission and a hand brake on the rear drums. Suspension was typical, with half-elliptic springs all round damped by Andre Hartford friction shock absorbers; the 350HP was first raced at Brooklands in 1920 by Harry Hawker. In October Rene Thomas set a new record at the Gaillon hill climb. On 17 April Jean Chassagne lapping at 114 mph won the Brooklands Easter Meeting 13th Lighting Short handicap. In May 1922 Kenelm Lee Guinness set three records with it: the Brooklands lap record at 123.30 mph the land speed record over a mile at 129.17 mph and over a kilometre at 133.75 mph – this was the last land speed record to be set on the Brooklands track. Malcolm Campbell drove the borrowed car at the Saltburn Speed Trials on 17 June 1922 and broke his first speed record at 138.08 mph. However the manual stopwatch timing system was not accepted for an official record. Campbell persuaded Coatalen to sell the Sunbeam to him, painted it blue and renamed it'Blue Bird' the fourth Blue Bird.
23 June 1923 saw Campbell at Fanø, recording another record-breaking speed of 137.72 mph over the flying kilometre. This time the record was not accepted as the timing equipment was not of the approved type. Over the winter of 1923–1924 the car was sent to the aircraft maker Boulton Paul at Norwich, for wind tunnel tests, they streamlined the car with a narrow radiator cowl at a long tapered tail. The rear wheels were fitted with disk covers. Engine compression was raised by new pistons. Campbell returned to Fanø in the summer, but the beach was in poor condition and crowd control of the spectators was poor. On the first run both rear tyres narrowly missed the crowd. Campbell protested to the officials about safety standards and declined to take any responsibility for anything else. Sadly, this time a front tyre killed a boy in the crowd; the car was taken to Pendine Sands in South Wales and saw a more successful result with the first of Campbell's nine records. The record was achieved on 24 September 1924, with a speed of 146.16 mph and an sanctioned time.
After this he put the car up for sale for £1,500, but decided to keep it for a further attempt on hearing that Parry-Thomas was planning a record attempt with'Babs'. Blue Bird returned to Pendine in 1925, on 21 July it raised this record to 150.766 mph, the first time a car had exceeded 150 mph. The best run over the mile had reached 152.833 mph, a figure that appeared in contemporary motoring adverts for oil and sparkplugs. To commemorate this achievement Campbell had commemorative models of Blue Bird made. After Campbell, the Sunbeam appears to have returned to circuit racing with wider tyres and a return to the short tail with green paintwork; as late as 1936, bandleader Billy Cotton recorded 121.57 mph over a kilometre on the beach at Southport. The car may have stayed in Lancashire afterwards, turning up there during World War 2 and being sold to the Beaulieu collection in 1958, it is on show today at the National Motor Museum at Hampshire. The engine has undergone extensive restoration after suffering severe damage in the 1990s and was run for the first time in 20 years in January 2014.
During a test fire-up in 1993 to assess the car’s condition, disaster struck when a blocked oil way in the engine caused it to seize and ‘throw a rod’. For several years after that, the car was on display in the museum with a visible hole in its engine where the piston and connecting rod had exited. In January 2014, following a complete mechanical rebuild undertaken by the National Motor Museum’s workshop team over a period of many years, the Sunbeam was fired-up again, the first time it had been heard in public in over 50 years; the following month it was a star of the show at Retromobile and was run at the Goodwood Festival of Speed. In 2015 the National Motor Museum, Beaulieu launched an appeal to raise funds to build a new gearbox for Sir Malcolm Campbell’s historic 1920 Sunbeam 350hp Land Speed Record car; the museum’s manager and Chief Engineer, Doug Hill says: “During the Sunbeam’s long and chequered history, its Achilles heel has been a weak gearbox. At some time after WWll, the original gearbox was subsequently lost.
It was replaced with a gearbox, used in an Albion 35hp van, designed to take only one tenth of the power this engine produces and the way in which the braking system has been modified means that this installation compromises the braking of t
Grand Prix Sunbeams 1921, 1922 TT
The 1921 S. T. D. ‘Works’ Grand Prix chassis was built to the three-litre and minimum weight of 800 kilogrammes formula for that year's Indianapolis 500 and French Grand Prix de l’A. C. F.. These team cars were modified by the Works for the 1922 Isle of Man Tourist Trophy, won by one of the cars. A few months and with 1916 4.9-litre engines, two of the T. T. cars competed in the Coppa Florio and gained second and fourth position. The cars participated in local events including Brooklands and hillclimbs, they are notable for obtaining the first significant international motor-racing success for Britain after the Great War and having "the best run of success by any Brooklands’ car in such a period". Of the five constructed, four survive: one as a single seater, two as standard T. T. and one as a resurrected T. T. Sunbeam, the only British manufacturer committed to international racing emerged from the Great War well poised to amalgamate with two other firms of notable racing pedigree. Together with Talbot and Darracq they formed the S.
T. D. Combine. S. T. D. was to become a dominant player in Land Speed Records, Grand Prix and Voiturette racing both in Britain and abroad. S. T. D. Race cars using identical chassis and engines were to be designated variously as Sunbeam, Talbot or Talbot Darracq in response to the different events or countries they took part in; the evolved Experimental Departments in Wolverhampton and Suresnes cooperated on the meticulous development and construction of these fine wholly hand-crafted machines. These zero tolerance racing cars were milled, from solid billet. Racing program was extensive, tailor made alternative lightweight bodies, specific axle ratios and engines to suit each event were formed; the driving force behind the S. T. D. and its racing program was the ingenious Breton Louis Coatalen. Designer and racer Coatalen was inspired by the belief that ‘Racing improves the breed’. Whilst catapulting S. T. D. to the highest echelons of the sport with numerous successes still legendary today, the costly racing policy may have led to the demise of the once mighty S.
T. D. Combine, its subsequent merger with the Rootes Group was less than glorious. Conversely it may be that S. T. D.’s loss of direction and withdrawal from racing in the late Vintage period was the real source of their demise. Coatalen famously held. Coatalen's chassis behavior is near magical and this together with sophisticated technical support and the greatest racing talents had led the company to a golden age of racing successes, the likes of which were not to be seen in Britain for many decades. During its pre 1930s heyday S. T. D. was and committed to international racing at the highest level and was synonymous with British Racing. 1920 November 3, S. T. D. Experimental Department Order EXP.273 and EXP. 271. Project cost £50,000; these were the first new post Great War Grand Prix chassis to be constructed by S. T. D. Designed by the S. T. D. Experimental Department in both Wolverhampton and Sureness, the advanced 1921 straight eight engine is unmistakably influenced by Ernest Henry's pre-war work for Peugeot and his immediate post-war work for Ballot where the resemblance is noticeable.
The flexible chassis, was the latest in design and benefited from Louis Coatalen's profound understanding. Presaging the future of racing, these were the first British racing cars to be fitted with brakes on all four wheel, a feature which no doubt contributed to their successes; these 1921 Grand Prix chassis were amenable to changes of both body. Two engines were used in competitions. Body types included two-seaters and single-seater with pointed tails, slanted tails or exposed fuel tank. Bonnets were adjusted according to the type of engines used. In addition and badges of the three firms constituting S. T. D. were interchangeable. The Works selected the most appropriate combination of body and radiator for each speed event; the cockpit arrangement as well as car dimensions were arranged according to each pilot's specific requirements. The chassis in all these permutations is the same and can be called the 1921 G. P. chassis. Body type can be called G. P. type and T. T. type. Body: 1921 French G. P. Talbot - ‘British Racing Green’.
T. ‘Sunbeam Dreadnought Grey’ 1922 Coppa Florio ‘Sunbeam Dreadnought Grey’ Wheels: Black Upholstery: Sprung squab with fluted seat back in embossed veg-tan leather Frame is upswept over front and back axles to achieve lower centre of gravity. Underslung front and rear axles machined from solid billet. Front axle H-section. U- shape sub-frame carries the engine and gearbox and mounted on the chassis at three points. Alignment of front end of crankshaft is below the centre line of the rear axle. Chassis dimensions of surviving cars vary indicating specificity in body fitting. Wheelbase 8 ft 9 in, Track 4 ft 7in Weight: 1921 Grand Prix de l’A. C. F. - 19.5 cwt 1922 IoM T. T.: K Lee Guinness - 21 cwt 99 lb H. O. D. Segrave - 22 cwt 31 lb J. Chassagne - 22 cwt 10 lb Engine weight dry 520 lb. Two race engine types were us
William Forbes-Sempill, 19th Lord Sempill
William Francis Forbes-Sempill, 19th Lord Sempill AFC, AFRAeS, was a Scottish peer and record-breaking air pioneer, shown to have passed secret information to the Imperial Japanese military before the Second World War. Educated at Eton, he began his career as a pilot in the Royal Flying Corps and served in the Royal Naval Air Service and Royal Air Force during the First World War. In 1921, Sempill led an official military mission to Japan that showcased the latest British aircraft. In subsequent years he continued to aid the Imperial Japanese Navy in developing its Navy Air Service. In the 1920s, Sempill began giving military secrets to the Japanese. Although his activities were uncovered by British Intelligence, Sempill was not prosecuted for spying and allowed to continue in public life, he was forced to retire from the Royal Navy in 1941 after being discovered passing on secret material to Tokyo shortly before Japan declared war in the Pacific. Sempill was known as "Master of Sempill" before succeeding his father to the titles of Lord Sempill and Baronet of Craigevar in 1934.
Born at the family seat of Craigievar Castle in Aberdeenshire, Sempill was educated at Eton, apprenticed to Rolls-Royce in 1910. At the outbreak of World War I, Sempill joined Royal Flying Corps, being granted a probationary commission as a second lieutenant on 15 August 1914, confirmed less than four months later. In the meantime Sempill was appointed to flying duties; the following year, in February, Sempill took up a position as an "experimental officer" at the Central Flying School and he received a promotion to lieutenant in April. Less than four months he was appointed a flight commander with the temporary rank of captain. In August 1915, he was appointed to instructional duties. Sempill's time at the Central Flying School was not to last as he relinquished his Army commission at the end of the year on being accepted for temporary service in the Royal Naval Air Service. Sempill's rapid rise through the ranks continued in the Navy and at the close of 1916 he was promoted to squadron commander.
On 1 April 1918, with the amalgamation of both flying services into the Royal Air Force, Sempill was transferred and appointed one of several deputy directors in the RAF's personnel department with the temporary rank of colonel. He was awarded the Air Force Cross in the 1918 Birthday Honours. Sempill stayed at the Air Ministry until 8 October 1918 when he was seconded to the Ministry of Munitions. On the cessation of hostilities, he became a test pilot and he retired from military service in 1919. On 4 September 1930, he set a new record by flying a de Havilland DH.60 Moth seaplane 1,040 miles non-stop from Brent Reservoir in London to Stockholm, Sweden in 12 hours. On 26 March 1936 he made a record-breaking flight in a BAC Drone ultra-light aircraft 570 miles from Croydon Airport direct to Berlin Tempelhof Airport in 11 hours, he flew back a day or so in 9 hours though he interrupted the flight with a stop at Canterbury, Kent. In 1920 he led a civilian British deputation of former naval airmen to Japan – the Air Ministry and the Foreign Office saw the prospect for lucrative arms contracts with Japan – to help develop aircraft carriers, to assist the Japanese navy in setting up its new air base, after the Japanese had bought three Supermarine Channel flying boats.
Sempill was well respected within Japanese circles, received a personal letter from Prime Minister Tomosaburo Kato, thanking him for his work with the Imperial Japanese Navy, which he described as "almost epoch-making."With the termination of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in 1921, Sempill should have ended close military contact and discussions regarding naval aviation technology and tactics. But on his return to the United Kingdom in 1923, Sempill kept in contact with the Japanese Foreign Ministry through the Japanese Embassy in London. In 1925 Sempill accompanied a mission of foreign air officials to the Blackburn Aircraft factory at Brough, East Yorkshire; the Japanese had asked questions about aircraft being developed. Sempill asked the same questions, in his official position, about the secret Blackburn Iris; the Directorate of Military Intelligence had kept Sempill's communications with the Japanese intelligence officer/Naval attaché in London, Captain Teijirō Toyoda, under surveillance from 1922.
This led to the knowledge that Sempill was passing classified information to the Japanese, which Toyoda's communications indicated had been paid for. MI5 tapped Sempill's phone, noted that his servant was a Japanese naval rating. In March 1926, Sempill was proposed by the Aviation Ministry for an appointment as Greece's aeronautical adviser. At this point the Directorate of Military Intelligence advised the Foreign Office and the British Embassy in Athens that Britain could not be seen to endorse Sempill's appointment because of his past activities. Sempill was called into the Foreign Office for an interview; the questions directed to him were intended to assess his loyalty to the British Government, his attachments to the Japanese, the amount of information that he had passed to the Japanese. During the meeting, the investigating officer could not reveal that the British had broken Japanese codes and were monitoring the Japanese communications systems. On a trip to Brough, Sempill had talked about the Iris with the foreign air officials on the train trip from London.
This was witnessed by a British Air Ministry civil servant. Confronted with this information, Sempill admitted. A subsequent meeting, chaired by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Austen Chamberlain, decided it was not in the interests of the British gov