Peerage of France
The Peerage of France was a hereditary distinction within the French nobility which appeared in 1180 in the Middle Ages, and only a small number of noble individuals were peers. The prestigious title and position of Peer of France was held by the greatest, French peerage thus differed from British peerage, for the vast majority of French nobles, from baron to duke, were not peers. The title of Peer of France was an honour granted only to a small number of dukes, counts. It was analogous to the rank of Grandee of Spain in this respect, the French word pairie is equivalent to the English peerage. The individual title, pair in French and peer in English, derives from the Latin par and it signifies those noblemen and prelates considered to be equal to the monarch in honour, and it considers the monarch thus to be primus inter pares, or first among equals. The main uses of the word refer to two historical traditions in the French kingdom and after the First French Empire of Napoleon I, the word exists to describe an institution in the Crusader states.
Some etymologists posit that the French word baron, taken from the Latin baro, such a derivation would fit the early sense of baron, as used for the whole peerage and not simply as a noble rank below the comital rank. Medieval French kings conferred the dignity of a peerage on some of their pre-eminent vassals, some historians consider Louis VII to have created the French system of peers. A peerage was attached to a territorial jurisdiction, either an episcopal see for episcopal peerages or a fief for secular ones. Peerages attached to fiefs were transmissible or inheritable with the fief, the traditional number of peers is twelve. But since the first two were absorbed into the early in the recorded history of the peerage, the Duke of Burgundy has become the premier lay peer. In their heyday, the Duke of Normandy was undoubtedly the mightiest vassal of the French crown, the constitution of the peerage first became important in 1202, for the court that would try King John of England in his capacity as vassal of the French crown.
In 1216, Erard of Brienne claimed the County of Champagne through the right of his wife, again this required the peers of France, so the County of Champagne is a peerage. Six of the peers were identified in the charter - the archbishop of Reims, the bishops of Langres, Chalons and Noyon. The tenth peerage that could be identified in the documents is the County of Flanders, in that year John de Nesle entered a complaint against Joan of Flanders, the countess responded that she could only be cited by a peer. Thus, though there had been differences in the dates of the identification of the peers, they were probably instituted simultaneously. Parallels may be seen with the mythical Knights of the Round Table under King Arthur, in periods peers held up by poles a baldaquin or cloth of honour over the king during much of the ceremony. This paralleled the arch-offices attached to the electorates, the more prestigious and powerful first college in the Holy Roman Empire
Vincennes is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 6.7 km from the centre of Paris and it is one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe. The Marquis de Sade was imprisoned in Vincennes fortress in 1777, thereafter Vincennes fortress was closed and de Sade transferred to the Bastille. In 1821, the noted French poet, Alfred de Vigny, wrote his poem, La Prison, a test was conducted in 1849 on Claude-Étienne Miniés invention the Minié ball which would prove successful and years be adopted by the French army. In 1929, the commune of Vincennes lost about half of its territory when the city of Paris annexed the Bois de Vincennes, Vincennes was the site of some famous European colonial expositions in the 20th century in which fairs were held to showcase artifacts from former European colonies. The city is famous for its castle, the Château de Vincennes, and its park and it features a large military fort, now housing various army services.
This fort and a plain known as the Polygon has historically been an important proving ground for French armaments. The city is home to the Service Historique de la Défense. In 1933 Georges Saupique was commissioned to work on one of three dessus-de-porte to be placed above the doors of the new Vincennes town hall salle des fêtes. The Vincennes porcelain factory continued until 1756, when the production was transferred to new buildings at Sèvres, Vincennes is served by two stations on Paris Métro Line 1, Bérault and Château de Vincennes. Vincennes is served by Vincennes station on Paris RER line A, the public transport network includes 11 bus lines,46,56,112,114,115,118,124,210,215,318 and 325. Vincennes is twinned with, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany The commune has eight public preschools, six elementary schools. Enrollments peaked at 32,000 with more than 40% of students holding full-time jobs off the campus, alphonse Halimi, boxer Vélodrome de Vincennes Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Notes Vincennes town council website
Garsenda, Countess of Forcalquier
Garsenda was the Countess of Provence as the wife of Alfonso II from 1193 and the Countess of Forcalquier in her own right from 1209. She brought Forcalquier to the House of Barcelona and united it to Provence and she was a patron of Occitan literature, especially the troubadours, and herself wrote some lyric poetry and is counted among the trobairitz as Garsenda de Proensa or Proença. She was, in the words of her most recent editors, Garsenda was the daughter of Rainou, lord of Caylar and Ansouis of the Sabran family, and Garsenda, daughter of William IV of Forcalquier. She was named after her mother, who was the heiress of William IV, Garsenda therefore inherited Forcalquier from her grandfather. The marriage took place at Aix-en-Provence in July 1193 and they had at least two children, Raymond Berengar IV and Garsenda, who married Guillermo II de Montcada, and bore him two children, including Gaston VII, Viscount of Béarn. In 1209 both William IV and Alfonso died and Garsenda became the guardian of their son and heir.
Dissension broke out between the Catalans and the partisans of the countess, who accused Nuño of attempting to supplant his nephew in the county. The Provençal aristocracy originally took advantage of the situation for their own ends, but eventually they lined up behind Garsenda and removed Nuño. The regency was passed to Garsenda and a council was established consisting of the native nobles. It was probably during her tenure as regent that Garsenda became the focus of a circle of poets. There is a tenso between a bona dompna, identified in one chansonnier as la contessa de Proessa, and an anonymous troubadour, the two coblas of the exchange are found in two different orders in the two chansonniers, called F and T, that preserve them. It cannot be known therefore who spoke first, but the womans half begins Vos qem semblatz dels corals amadors, in the poem the countess declares her love for her interlocutor, who responds courteously but carefully. Under some interpretations the troubadour is Gui de Cavaillon, whose vida repeats the rumour that he was the countess lover, however, was at the Provençal court between 1200 and 1209, pushing the date of the exchange forward a bit.
Elias de Barjols apparently fell in love with her as a widow and wrote songs about her for the rest of his life, raimon Vidal praised her renowned patronage of troubadours. By 1217 or 1220 Garsenda had finally ceded Forcalquier to her son, Garsenda retired to the monastery of La Celle around 1225. In 1242, she went to visit her newly born great-granddaughter, Beatrice of England, as the father, Henry III of England, was engaged in a war in France at the time, she brought 60 knights to his service
James I, Count of La Marche
James I of Bourbon was the son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon and Mary of Avesnes. He was Count of Ponthieu from 1351 to 1360, and Count of La Marche from 1356 to his death and he took part in several campaigns of the Hundred Years War. In June 1347 he commanded an army on the Flemish border together with the Marshal Robert de Waurin and they marched to Béthune, the chief city of north-eastern Artois, which was still in French hands, though the countryside had been overrun by the Flemish. On 13 June they attacked the Flemish camp at night, however the Flemings managed to regroup and launch a counter-attack before slipping across the border. In 1349, he was created Captain-General of Languedoc, in early 1350 James was given command of an army mustering at Moissac on the borders of Agenais. There, he almost immediately entered into negotiations with Lancaster with two papal legates acting as mediators, the result was a truce, at first limited to Languedoc and the other provinces where James was Lieutenant, but in April it was extended to the rest of France.
In 1354 he was appointed Constable of France, in January and February 1355 as Constable, he took part in planning the resumption of the war with England. However the war became a matter of secondary importance as the French government became embroiled in the intrigues of Charles II of Navarre. In May 1355 it became apparent that war was about to begin between the King of France and a King of Navarre allied to England. James belonged to the party fronted by the queens and Blanche dÉvreux. In the end, John gave way and on 31 May agreed to pardon Charles, however, by the time John IIs letters reached Pamplona, the capital of Navarre and his army had already embarked with a course for the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy. When the news reached Paris on 4 June it therefore became necessary to prepare the defences of Normandy, the largest, of which the Constable was given command, was to be stationed at Caen. He was appointed one of three conciliators who were to meet with Charles of Navarre as soon as he landed and explain the new position.
Charles of Navarre arrived at Cherbourg 5 July and the negotiations opened soon after, the result was the Treaty of Valognes sealed on 10 September. Included among the provisions of the treaty was that seven of Charles walled towns, when the Prince of Wales struck in October it was further south than expected, in the County of Armagnac, rather than the Garonne valley. The three French commanders hurried south to Toulouse, where they prepared themselves for a siege, on 28 October the Prince crossed the Garonne and the Ariège, at places never before forded by horses, and marched north to within a few miles of Toulouse. Thinking the English might attempt to invest the city from both sides, the Constable left for Montauban to hold the crossings of the Tarn and the Garonne, the Prince continued eastward into lands previously untouched by the war and largely undefended. On 8 November he took Narbonne, but was now far away from home territory
Its name derives from its Catholic and Western European nature. The empire, whose name was Imperium Romaniae, claimed the direct heritage of the Eastern Roman Empire. This claim however was disputed by the Byzantine Greek successor states, the Empire of Nicaea, the Empire of Trebizond, out of these three, the Nicaeans succeeded in displacing the Latin emperors in 1261 and restored the Byzantine Empire. Baldwin II, in exile from Constantinople Philip I, his son Catherine I, his daughter, her husband Catherine II, their daughter, with. List of Roman emperors List of Byzantine emperors
Peter I, Duke of Bourbon
Peter I of Bourbon was the second Duke of Bourbon, from 1342 to his death. Peter was son of Louis I of Bourbon, whom he succeeded as Grand Chamberlain of France. Peter I took part in several of the campaigns of the Hundred Years War which broke out in 1337. In the summer of 1339 he took part in Jean de Marigny, in autumn 1341 he took part in the John, Duke of Normandys campaign in Brittany. He was present at the coronation of Pope Clement VI at Avignon 19 May 1342, summer 1342 he was together with the Raoul I of Brienne, Count of Eu given command of the covering force protecting France from attacks from the north while king Philip VI campaigned in Brittany. On 8 August 1345 Peter I was appointed by Philip VI as his lieutenant on the south-west march and his opponent was to be Henry, Earl of Derby who completed disembarking his army at Bordeaux the day after Peter Is appointment. Peter I arrived to take up his lieutenancy in Languedoc in September, Bourbon set up headquarters at Angoulême and begun an extensive recruitment campaign to raise a new army, command of which fell to the Duke of Normandy.
However on 21 October the Earl of Derby won another crushing victory outside Auberoche over parts of this force, the Duke of Normandy abandoned his campaign once he heard the news. In early November he disbanded his army and left for the north, the Earl of Derby exploited the absence of a French commander in the field to lay siege to the important fortress-city of La Réole. Bourbon proclaimed the arrière-ban in Languedoc and the provinces in an attempt to find troops to relieve the siege. However the results were poor as many of the recruits were still on their way home from the army just disbanded by John of Normandy. Attempts by John I, Count of Armagnac to raise troops from his domains in the Rouergue produced little, early January 1346 the garrison of La Réole marched away under truce. Winter 1346 Bourbon kept his winter quarters at the capital of Agen. Spring however opened with the so far greatest French effort in the south-west, in April Normandy laid siege to the town of Aiguillon which controlled the confluence between the Lot and the Garonne.
There they still remained in August when John of Normandy was urgently recalled to the north to help stop Edward III who had landed in Normandy, and so the French 1346 campaign in the south ended having accomplished nothing. In July 1347 he took part in negotiations with the English outside Calais in the days just before that citys capitulation. On 8 February 1354 he was together with the Guy, Cardinal of Boulogne appointed as King John IIs commissioners to King Charles II of Navarre, empowered to offer whatever Charles wanted. The treaty concluded 22 February granted to Charles of Navarre a considerable part of Lower Normandy which he was to hold with the rights as the Duke of Normandy
Robert, Count of Clermont
Robert of Clermont was created Count of Clermont in 1268. He was the son of King Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, in 1272, Robert married Beatrice of Burgundy, heiress of Bourbon and had the following issue, Louis I, le Boiteux, first Duke of Bourbon. Blanche of Clermont, married in 1303 in Paris Robert VII, Count of Auvergne and Boulogne, grandmother of Joan I, john of Clermont, Baron of Charolais, married c.1309 Jeanne dArgues, widow of Hugh, Count of Soissons, and had issue. During his first joust, in 1279, Robert suffered head injuries which rendered him an invalid for the remainder of his life, Robert is mentioned in the prologue of the Coutumes de Beauvaisis by Philippe de Beaumanoir. He was buried in the church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris. Robert is a character in Les Rois maudits, a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon. He was portrayed by Alexandre Rignault in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, Bourbon family tree French monarchs family tree
Louis VIII of France
Louis VIII the Lion was King of France from 1223 to 1226. He claimed the title King of England from 1216 to 1217, Louis VIII was born in Paris, the son of King Philip II of France and Isabelle of Hainaut, from whom he inherited the County of Artois. While Louis VIII only briefly reigned as king of France, he was a leader in his years as crown prince. During the First Barons War of 1215-17 against King John of England, after his victory at the Battle of Roche-au-Moine in 1214, he invaded southern England and was proclaimed King of England by rebellious barons in London on the 2 June 1216. He was never crowned and renounced his claim after being excommunicated and repelled, in 1217, Louis started the conquest of Guyenne, leaving only a small region around Bordeaux to Henry III of England. Louiss short reign was marked by an intervention using royal forces into the Albigensian Crusade in southern France that decisively moved the conflict towards a conclusion and he died in 1226 and was succeeded by his son Louis IX.
In summer 1195, a marriage between Louis and Eleanor of Brittany, niece of Richard I of England, was suggested for an alliance between Philip II and Richard, but it failed and this led to a sudden deterioration in relations between Richard and Philip. On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England, the marriage could only be concluded after prolonged negotiations between King Philip II of France and Blanches uncle John. In 1214, King John of England began his campaign to reclaim the Duchy of Normandy from Philip II. John was optimistic, as he had built up alliances with Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, Count Renaud of Boulogne. Johns plan was to split Philips forces by pushing north-east from Poitou towards Paris, while Otto and Ferdinand, supported by the Earl of Salisbury, marched south-west from Flanders. Whereas Philip II took personal command of the front against the emperor and his allies. The first part of the campaign went well for the English, with John outmanoeuvring the forces under the command of Prince Louis, John besieged the castle of Roche-au-Moine, a key stronghold, forcing Louis to give battle against Johns larger army.
The local Angevin nobles refused to advance with the king, left at something of a disadvantage, shortly afterwards, Philip won the hard-fought Battle of Bouvines in the north against Otto and Johns other allies, bringing an end to Johns hopes of retaking Normandy. In 1215, the English barons rebelled against the unpopular King John in the First Barons War, the barons offered the throne to Prince Louis, who landed unopposed on the Isle of Thanet in eastern Kent, England, at the head of an army on 21 May 1216. There was little resistance when the prince entered London, and Louis was proclaimed king at Old St Pauls Cathedral with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Even though he was not crowned, many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland on behalf of his English possessions, on 14 June 1216, Louis captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of the English kingdom. But just when it seemed that England was his, King Johns death in October 1216 caused many of the barons to desert Louis in favour of Johns nine-year-old son
Isabella of Valois, Duchess of Bourbon
Isabella of Valois, Duchess of Bourbon or Isabella of France, was a Petit Fille of France, and a daughter of Charles of Valois by his third wife Mahaut of Châtillon. She was the wife of Peter I, Duke of Bourbon, on 25 January 1336 Isabella married Peter I, Duke of Bourbon, son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon and Mary of Avesnes. Peter and Isabella had only one son and seven daughters and her husband died at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356, and Isabella never remarried. After her husbands death Isabellas son Louis became the Duke of Bourbon, in the same year 1356, Isabella arranged for her daughter Joanna to marry Charles V of France, as he was at the time the Dauphin of France, Joanna duly became Dauphine. Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, 1337-1410, became Duke of Bourbon in 1356 married Anne of Auvergne had issue, Joanna of Bourbon, 1338-1378, married King Charles V of France, had issue. Blanche of Bourbon, 1339-1361, married King Peter of Castile, bonne of Bourbon, 1341-1402, married Amadeus VI of Savoy, by whom she had issue.
Catherine of Bourbon, 1342-1427, married John VI of Harcourt Margaret of Bourbon, 1344-1416, married Arnaud Amanieu, Lord of Albret, by whom she had issue. Isabelle of Bourbon, 1345-1345, died young Marie of Bourbon, 1347-1401 and she was buried in Eglise des Frères Mineurs in Paris
Count of Holland
The Counts of Holland ruled over the County of Holland in the Low Countries between the 10th and the 16th century. The first count of Holland, Dirk I, was the son or foster-son of Gerolf and he received land around Egmond from Charles the Fat at a place called Bladella in 922. This is seen as the beginning of the county of Holland, until about 1100, the usual names for the county were West-Friesland, Frisia or Kennemerland, in spite of this the counts from Dirk I onwards are named of Holland. Note that the chronology of the first few counts is uncertain and this third Count Dirk is placed between Dirk I and II and numbered as Dirk I bis to avoid confusion with the already established numbering referring to the other counts of Holland named Dirk. John of Avesnes was a son of Adelaide of Holland, sister of William II of Holland, during the rule of Margaret, her son William V had the real power in the county. He became ruler in his own right as a result of the Hook and he was Duke of Bavaria-Straubing as William I.
This war was won by Philip of Burgundy in 1432. Philip was a nephew of William VI, who had married a daughter of Philip the Bold of Burgundy, in 1432 he forced Jacqueline to abdicate from Hainaut and Holland on his behalf. In 1581, the Estates General of the United Provinces declared themselves independent from the Spanish rule of Philip II. Until the Treaty of Münster in 1648, the kings of Spain still used the title Count of Holland, but they had lost the actual power over the county to the States of Holland. Philip IV, King Philip III of Spain Philip V, King Philip IV of Spain The County remained in existence as a constituent member state of the Dutch Republic until 1795. There were no more Counts however since the Estates of Holland, the Stadtholders, who were servants of the Estates were the de facto Chief-Executives during this period. Counts of Holland family tree A book of 32 plates of the counts of Holland published in Amsterdam in 1663, engraved by Adriaen Matham B. K. S. Dijkstra, Een stamboom in been, Amsterdam 1991