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Louis I, Duke of Orléans

Louis I of Orléans was Duke of Orléans from 1392 to his death. He was Duke of Touraine, Count of Valois Blois, Angoulême, Périgord and Soissons. Louis was the second son of King Charles V of France and Joanna of Bourbon and was the younger brother of Charles VI. In 1498, his heirs male inherited the French throne after the extinction of the Valois main line. In 1374, Louis was betrothed to heir presumptive to the throne of Hungary. Louis and Catherine were expected to reign either over Hungary or over Poland, as Catherine's father, Louis I of Hungary, had no sons. Catherine's father planned to leave them his claim to the Crown of Naples and the County of Provence, which were held by his ailing and childless cousin Joanna I. However, Catherine's death in 1378 ended the marriage negotiations. In 1384, Elizabeth of Bosnia started negotiating with Louis' father about the possibility of Louis marrying her daughter Mary, notwithstanding Mary's engagement to Sigismund of Luxembourg. If Elizabeth had made this proposal in 1378, after Catherine's death, the fact that the French king and the Hungarian king did not recognise the same pope would have presented a problem.

However, Elizabeth was desperate in 1384 and was not willing to let the schism stand in the way of the negotiations. Antipope Clement VII issued a dispensation which annulled Mary's betrothal to Sigismund and a proxy marriage between Louis and Mary was celebrated in April 1385. Nonetheless, the marriage was not recognised by the Hungarian noblemen who adhered to Pope Urban VI. Four months after the proxy marriage, Sigismund invaded Hungary and married Mary, which destroyed Louis' chances to reign as King of Hungary. Louis played an important political role during the Hundred Years' War. In 1392 his elder brother Charles the Mad experienced the first in a lifelong series of attacks of'insanity', it soon became clear. In 1393 a regency council presided over by Queen Isabeau was formed, Louis gained powerful influence. Louis disputed the regency and guardianship of the royal children with John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy; the enmity between the two was public and a source of political unrest in the troubled France.

Louis had the initial advantage, being the brother rather than the first cousin of the king, but his reputation as a womanizer and the rumour of an affair with the queen consort Isabeau of Bavaria made him unpopular. For the following years, the children of Charles VI were successively kidnapped and recovered by both parties, until the Duke of Burgundy managed to be appointed by royal decree to be the guardian of Louis, the Dauphin and regent of France. Louis did not give up and took every effort to sabotage John's rule, including squandering the money raised for the relief of Calais occupied by the English. After this episode and Louis broke into open threats and only the intervention of John of Valois, Duke of Berry and uncle of both men, avoided a civil war. Louis was responsible for the deaths of four dancers at a disastrous 1393 masquerade ball that became known as the Bal des Ardents; the four victims were burnt alive when a torch held by Louis came too close to their flammable costumes.

Two other dancers wearing the same costumes narrowly escaped a similar fate. On Sunday 20 November 1407, the contending Dukes exchanged solemn vows of reconciliation before the court of France, but only three days Louis was brutally assassinated in the streets of Paris, by the orders of the Duke of Burgundy John the Fearless. Louis was stabbed while mounting his horse by fifteen masked criminals led by Raoulet d'Anquetonville, a servant of the Duke of Burgundy. An attendant was wounded. John was supported by the population of the University, he could publicly admit the killing. Rather than deny it, John had the scholar Jean Petit of the Sorbonne deliver a peroration justifying the killing of tyrants. Louis' murder sparked a bloody feud and civil war between Burgundy and the French royal family which divided France for the next twenty-eight years, ending with the Treaty of Arras in 1435. In 1389, Louis married daughter of Gian Galeazzo, Duke of Milan; the union produced eight children: A son, buried in Paris église Saint-Paul.

Louis, buried Paris église des Célestins. John, buried Paris église des Célestins. Charles, Duke of Orléans, father of Louis XII, King of France. Philip, Count of Vertus. Left a natural son Philip Anthony, called the Bastard of Vertus who died about 1445. John, Count of Angoulême, Marie. Margaret, married Richard of Brittany, Count of Étampes, she received the County of Vertus as a dowry. Ancestors of the Dukes of Brittany and Lords of Chalon-Arlay and Prince of Orange. By Mariette d'Enghien, his mistress, Louis had an illegitimate son: John of Dunois, ancestor of the Dukes of Longueville Kingdom of France - Duchy of Orléans: 1st Grand Master and Knight of the Order of the Porcupine he founded at the occa

Singing Rooster

Singing Rooster Inc. is a certified 5013 non-profit corporation which works to alleviate rural poverty in Haiti with economic development through coffee agriculture. Singing Rooster was founded in 2009 in Wisconsin. In August 2012, Hurricane Isaac destroyed the roof of a processing center in Thiotte. In 2016, Singing Rooster began to import chocolate from Haiti. Singing Rooster partners with small scale, farmer-owned coffee cooperatives to provide farmers direct access to markets in a farmer-to-table model. Singing Rooseter provides farmers with low interest pre-harvest financing through a partnership with Root Capital and assistance with crop improvement, the farmers are paid higher than average prices for their harvest. Singing Rooster sells goods directly to end-consumers and retailers, with the result that farmers earn living wages and contribute to the economy of their villages. Singing Rooster provides training to cooperatives in small business management and income diversification. Coffee tree seedlings are provided for crop reforestation.

A coffee seedling nursery above Marigot is a joint project funded by Singing Rooster, Solidarité-Haïti, three local farmer cooperatives.:Singing Rooster partners with the Bank Inter-American of Development and the Haitian Ministry of Agriculture's DEFI's program to repair equipment, improved coffee quality and provide business training in Dondon, Haiti. The organization collaborates with the Catholic Relief Services in the Beaumont commune, the French organization, InterAide, in Artibonite, Oxfam in Les Cayes to facilitate coffee production and develop export opportunities. Singing Rooster exports, imports and warehouses green coffee, facilitates its transformation into roasted coffee and other value-added products Proceeds from coffee sales are returned to Haiti to support work in rural communities for business growth and development. Singing Rooster - official site

Three Men and a Cradle

Three Men and a Cradle is a 1985 French comedy film by Coline Serreau. The film was remade in Hollywood as Three Men and a Baby in 1987, subsequently remade into six Indian movies in five different languages. Three young men share an apartment in Paris, have many girlfriends and parties. Once, during a party, a friend of Jacques' tells him he has a quite compromising package to deliver, asks him if he can leave it discreetly at their place. Jacques agrees and, as he works as a steward, flies away for a one-month trip in Japan, telling Pierre and Michel about the package. One of Jacques' former girlfriends drops a baby before their door, making Pierre and Michel believing it is the package they are waiting for, their lives are completely changed. This movie follows the bachelors as they deal with angry gangsters, suspicious cops, the overwhelming responsibility of fatherhood. Roland Giraud as Pierre Michel Boujenah as Michel André Dussollier as Jacques Philippine Leroy-Beaulieu as Sylvia Dominique Lavanant as Madame Rapons Marthe Villalonga as Antoinette Annick Alane as The Pharmacist A second film by Coline Serreau, with the same characters, the same actors and called 18 ans après was released in 2003.

Academy Awards Nominated: Best Foreign Language Film César Awards Won: Best Actor – Supporting Role Won: Best Film Won: Best Writing Nominated: Best Actress – Supporting Role Nominated: Best Director Nominated: Most Promising Actress Golden Globe Awards Nominated: Best Foreign Language Film National Academy of Cinema Won: Academy Award Trois hommes et un couffin was remade in English as Three Men and a Baby in 1987, subsequently adapted as'Baalache Baap Brahmachaari in Marathi, Thoovalsparsham in Malayalam, remade in Telugu as Chinnari Muddula Papa, in Tamil as Thayamma, into Asathal in Tamil and as Heyy Babyy in Hindi. Three Men and a Baby, 1987 American remake Baalache Baap Brahmachaari, 1989 Indian remake in Marathi Language Thoovalsparsham, 1990 Indian remake in Malayalam Language Thayamma, 1991 Indian remake in Tamil Language Chinnari Muddula Papa, 1990 Indian remake in Telugu Language Asathal, 2001 Indian remake in Tamil Language Heyy Babyy, 2007 Indian remake in Hindi Language. List of submissions to the 58th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of French submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Trois hommes et un couffin Trois hommes et un couffin on IMDb Three Men and a Cradle at AllMovie Three Men and a Cradle at Rotten Tomatoes Three Men and a Cradle at Box Office Mojo 18 ans après 18 ans après on IMDb 18 ans après at AllMovie