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Louis I of Anjou

Louis I was the second son of John II of France and Bonne of Bohemia. Born at the Château de Vincennes, Louis was the first of the Angevin branch of the French royal house, his father appointed him Count of Anjou and Count of Maine in 1356, raised him to the title Duke of Anjou in 1360 and Duke of Touraine in 1370. In 1382, as the adopted son of Joanna I of Naples, he succeeded to the counties of Provence and Forcalquier, he inherited from her a claim to the kingdoms of Naples and Jerusalem. He was a veteran of the Hundred Years' War against the English when he led an army into Italy to claim his Neapolitan inheritance, he died on the march and his claims and titles fell to his son and namesake, Louis II, who succeeded in ruling Naples for a time. Louis was present at the Battle of Poitiers, in the battalion commanded by his brother Charles, the Dauphin, they hardly fought and the whole group escaped in the middle of the confrontation. Although humiliating, their flight allowed them to avoid capture by the English, who won the battle decisively.

King John II and Louis' younger brother Philip were not so fortunate and were captured by the English, commanded by Edward, the Black Prince. Their ransom and peace conditions between France and England were agreed in the Treaty of Brétigny, signed in 1360. Amongst the complicated items of the treaty was a clause that determined the surrender of 40 high-born hostages as guarantee for the payment of the king's ransom. Louis Duke of Anjou, was in this group and sailed to England in October 1360. However, France was not in good economic condition and further installments of the debt were delayed; as consequence, Louis was in English custody for much more than the expected six months. He tried to negotiate his freedom in a private negotiation with Edward III of England and, when this failed, decided to escape. On his return to France, he met his father's disapproval for his unknightly behavior. John II considered himself dishonored and this, combined with the fact that his ransom payments agreed to in the Treaty of Brétigny were in arrears, caused John to return to captivity in England to redeem his honor.

From 1380 to 1382 Louis served as regent for King Charles VI of France. In 1382 Louis left France in the latter year to claim the throne of Naples following the death of Queen Joanna I, she had adopted him to succeed her, as she was childless and did not wish to leave her inheritance to any of her close relatives, whom she considered enemies. He was able to succeed her as count of Provence and Forcalquier. Despite his coronation at Avignon as King of Naples by Antipope Clement VII, Louis was forced to remain in France and Joan's troops were defeated by Charles of Durazzo, her second cousin and previous heir. Joanna was killed in her prison in San Fele in 1382; the expedition, counting to some 40,000 troops, was however unsuccessful. Charles, who counted on the mercenary companies under John Hawkwood for a total of some 14,000 men, was able to divert the French from Naples to other regions of the kingdom and to harass them with guerrilla tactics. Amadeus fell ill and died in Molise on 1 March 1383 and his troops abandoned the field.

Louis asked for help from his king nephew in France. The latter was able to conquer Arezzo and invade the Kingdom of Naples, but midway was reached by the news that Louis had died at Bisceglie on 20 September 1384, he soon returned to France. On 9 July 1360, he married Marie of Blois, Lady of Guise, daughter of Charles, Duke of Brittany and Joanna of Dreux, they had the following children: Marie Louis II of Anjou Charles, Prince of Taranto, Count of Roucy, Étampes, Gien Keane, Marguerite. Material Culture and Queenship in 14th-century France: The Testament of Blanche of Navarre. Brill. Rohr, Zita Eva. Yolande of Aragon Family and Power: The Reverse of the Tapestry. Palgrave Macmillan


Waste-to-energy or energy-from-waste is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste, or the processing of waste into a fuel source. WtE is a form of energy recovery. Most WtE processes generate electricity and/or heat directly through combustion, or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, ethanol or synthetic fuels; the first incinerator or "Destructor" was built in Nottingham UK in 1874 by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd. to the design of Alfred Fryer. The first US incinerator was built in 1885 on Governors Island in New York; the first waste incinerator in Denmark was built in 1903 in Frederiksberg. The first facility in the Czech Republic was built in 1905 in Brno. Gasification and pyrolysis processes have been known and used for centuries and for coal as early as the 18th century.... Development technologies for processing has only become a focus of attention in recent years stimulated by the search for more efficient energy recovery.

Incineration, the combustion of organic material such as waste with energy recovery, is the most common WtE implementation. All new WtE plants in OECD countries incinerating waste must meet strict emission standards, including those on nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, heavy metals and dioxins. Hence, modern incineration plants are vastly different from old types, some of which neither recovered energy nor materials. Modern incinerators reduce the volume of the original waste by 95-96 percent, depending upon composition and degree of recovery of materials such as metals from the ash for recycling. Incinerators may emit fine particulate, heavy metals, trace dioxin and acid gas though these emissions are low from modern incinerators. Other concerns include proper management of residues: toxic fly ash, which must be handled in hazardous waste disposal installation as well as incinerator bottom ash, which must be reused properly. Critics argue that incinerators destroy valuable resources and they may reduce incentives for recycling.

The question, however, is an open one, as European countries which recycle the most incinerate to avoid landfilling. Incinerators have electric efficiencies of 14-28%. In order to avoid losing the rest of the energy, it can be used for e.g. district heating. The total efficiencies of cogeneration incinerators are higher than 80%; the method of incineration to convert municipal solid waste is a old method of WtE generation. Incineration entails burning waste to boil water which powers steam generators that generate electric energy and heat to be used in homes, businesses and industries. One problem associated is the potential for pollutants to enter the atmosphere with the flue gases from the boiler; these pollutants can be acidic and in the 1980s were reported to cause environmental degradation by turning rain into acid rain. Modern incinerators incorporate engineered primary and secondary burn chambers, controlled burners designed to burn with the lowest possible emissions, eliminating, in some cases, the need for lime scrubbers and electro-static precipitators on smokestacks.

By passing the smoke through the basic lime scrubbers, any acids that might be in the smoke are neutralized which prevents the acid from reaching the atmosphere and hurting the environment. Many other devices, such as fabric filters and catalysts destroy or capture other regulated pollutants. According to the New York Times, modern incineration plants are so clean that "many times more dioxin is now released from home fireplaces and backyard barbecues than from incineration. " According to the German Environmental Ministry, "because of stringent regulations, waste incineration plants are no longer significant in terms of emissions of dioxins and heavy metals". There are a number of other new and emerging technologies that are able to produce energy from waste and other fuels without direct combustion. Many of these technologies have the potential to produce more electric power from the same amount of fuel than would be possible by direct combustion; this is due to the separation of corrosive components from the converted fuel, thereby allowing higher combustion temperatures in e.g. boilers, gas turbines, internal combustion engines, fuel cells.

Some are able to efficiently convert the energy into liquid or gaseous fuels: Thermal technologies: Gasification: produces combustible gas, synthetic fuels Thermal depolymerization: produces synthetic crude oil, which can be further refined Pyrolysis: produces combustible tar/biooil and chars Plasma arc gasification or plasma gasification process: produces rich syngas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide usable for fuel cells or generating electricity to drive the plasma arch, usable vitrified silicate and metal ingots and sulphur Non-thermal technologies: Anaerobic digestion: Biogas rich in methane Fermentation production: examples are ethanol, lactic acid, hydrogen Mechanical biological treatment MBT + Anaerobic digestion MBT to Refuse derived fuel During the 2001–2007 period, the waste-to-energy capacity increased by about four million metric tons per year. Japan and China each built several plants based on direct smelting or on fluidized bed combustion of solid waste. In China there are about 434 waste-to-energy plants in early 2016.

Japan is the largest user in thermal treatment of municipal solid waste in the world, with 40 million tons. Some of the newest plants use stoker technology and others use the advanced oxygen enric

Jonas (novel)

Jonas is a novel by Norwegian author Jens Bjørneboe published in 1955 by Aschehoug. It is recognised as one of his most important works, as one of the most significant Norwegian literary works of the post-war era; the novel has a complex narrative taken from several different environments from the 1920s Weimar Republic and the Nazi era to the 1950s Norwegian society. The novel's title character, "Jonas," is a first grader in Norway, who early in the novel encounters a public school system that according to Bjørneboe is controlled by the "salamanders," a term used metaphorically for the bigoted enemies of culture which Bjørneboe sees in Norway at the time. Jonas is interpreted as a harsh critique of the Norwegian public school system and the social democratic society of the 1950s, has a warm portrayal of an alternative form of education, a thinly veiled reference to Waldorf education. At the time, Bjørneboe and his wife Lisel Bjørneboe both worked as Waldorf teachers in Oslo, the central character "Johannes Marx" is inspired by Lisel.

The novel however has a much broader focus than the education debate, Bjørneboe's intention was to portray the topic of humanity. To this end, he uses four main biographies, which are all linked, with a particular emphasis on the character of "Jonas." In this novel, Bjørneboe articulates his cited idea that Nazism, broadly construed to mean hostility to the idea of humanity, could manifest itself anywhere and any time, for example in Norway in the 1950s. Bjørneboe, a proponent of the conservative Riksmål language, uses the radical Samnorsk language as an expression of the lack of culture of the salamanders. Jens Bjørneboe, Aschehoug, 1955 Tore Rem: Sin egen herre

Kreuzspitze (Ammergau Alps)

The Kreuzspitze is the highest mountain in the Bavarian section of the Ammergau Alps and is the 21st highest mountain in Germany. The mountain is located southeast of the Ammer Saddle; the easiest route to the summit is along the normal path from the north through the Hochgrieß Cirque. A more scenic and varied route, however, is over the Kreuzspitzl to the south and along the scenic ridge to the main peak; the mountain offers a challenging ski tour through the Hochgrieß Cirque. The surrounding peaks of Frieder, Geierköpfe and Schellschlicht are popular tour destinations. Dieter Seibert: AVF Allgäuer Alpen und Ammergauer Alpen, Rother Verlag Munich, 2004, ISBN 3-7633-1126-2

The King of Fighters 2001

The King of Fighters 2001 is a fighting game produced by Eolith for the Neo Geo. It is the eighth game in The King of Fighters series, the third and final part of the "NESTS Chronicles" story arc, the first game produced following the closure of the original SNK; the game was produced by the South Korea-based company Eolith and developed by BrezzaSoft and Eolith, a company formed by former SNK employees. The game was ported to the Sega Dreamcast in Japan only and PlayStation 2; the stand-alone PlayStation 2 version was released in North America in a two-in-one bundle with the preceding game in the series, The King of Fighters 2000. Both the original Neo Geo version and the Sega Dreamcast version were included in The King of Fighters NESTS Hen compilation released for the PlayStation 2 in Japan. Like in the previous game, the battles are once again between teams of four. Instead of a strict "three fighters and one striker" format, this installment introduces the Tactical Order System, which allows the player to select which characters will they control in combat and which characters will serve as strikers.

Before each match, the player can form a team configuration of four fighters and no strikers, to one fighter and three strikers. The number of strikers in one's team will affect the length and number of stocks of the player's Power Gauge. Teams with no strikers will have a longer Power Gauge to fill and can carry only one stock, while a team with only one fighter and three strikers will fill their Power Gauge quicker and carry up to four stocks. One stock can be used to summon a striker, perform a guard or super cancel, a blow-away attack, or a Super Special Move. MAX-level Super Special Moves requires two stocks to perform. Players can now cancel an attack into a Striker Summon with use of a Cancel Striker, while some characters now have Wire Whip techniques which will send an opponent flying into the air and arrive at the other side of the fighting area. One year has passed. Another KOF tournament is being held and this time, it's hosted by the NESTS cartel, the group of antagonists behind the events of the previous two games.

K′ and Maxima return to put an end to NESTS once and for all. They are now joined by former Ikari Warriors Team member Whip and the assassin Lin from Benimaru's Team, both of whom are seeking the destruction of NESTS as well. NESTS sends their own team to compete in the tournament, composed of NESTS agents Kula Diamond, K9999, Angel. Kyo Kusanagi joins his former teammates of Benimaru Nikaido and Goro Daimon, reuniting the original Japan Team along with Shingo Yabuki, while Iori Yagami joins a team composed of agents Seth and Ramon. Yuri Sakazaki rejoins the Art of Fighting Team, while King and Mai Shiranui once again lead the Women Fighters Team along with the returning Li Xiangfei and Hinako Shijo. Heidern makes his KOF return, taking Whip's place in the Ikari Warriors Team, while Kim Kaphwan's young student May Lee takes over Jhun Hoon's place in the Korea Justice Team, the latter being unable to compete due to an injury; the King of Fighters 2001 includes 10 teams of 4 fighters, a sub-boss, a final boss, three strikers, totaling 45 combatants.

New characters to the franchise are listed below in bold. In 2000, SNK went bankrupt but Eolith contracted a license agreement in the same year to keep with the production of the series KOF. Eolith took interest into developing The King of Fighters due to the franchise's popularity in Korea and wanted to please the fans of the series worldwide. Brezza Soft helped Eolith in the making of the video game. Fearing disappointment from returning fans, Eolith decided to maintain the most of the common parts from The King of Fighters while adding new elements to it. One of the biggest changes is the optional use of Strikers where players can use between one and three characters assisting the playable one; the team aimed for a refinement of the original gameplay system from previous KOF games. While performing a popularity poll based on the characters, Eolith still aimed to make the least popular teams featured in the game; the high popularity of Kyo Kusanagi and Iori Yagami led to their immediate inclusion in the game.

Despite being created by Eolith, the Mexican company Evoga had a major influence in the game due to the franchise's popularity within Latin America. This to creating setting with Mexican traits and most notably Angel, a NESTS agent from the country. References to works from Evoga can be seen in the scenarios from the game. While working on it, the team played The King of Fighters'98 alongside the developers to see if they could include a character within the game. A member from Evoga won. In creating new characters, Eolith wanted an Athena-like Korean fighter; this led to the inclusion of May Lee, created by SNK. In preparing the boss characters, the original team was dissatisfied with Zero's portrayal in The King of Fighters 2000 which led to the inclusion of the real Zero retconning the former boss as a clone. Glaugan was going to be used in the prequel but was instead used as an assist character. SNK faced struggles with making Zero as they wanted to create a boss that surpassed Krizalid from The King of Fighters'99.

The final boss, was conceptualized as a sexually appealing character in order to generate a contrast with other members from the cast. The development team stated they felt Igniz fitted well in the game; the PS2 port of the game sold 39,022 units in Japan. GameSpot gave the NeoGeo port of the game an 8.7 out of 10, praising the balance with the cast and the Striker system but criticized the high difficulty of the boss Igniz. Official website The King of Fighters 2001 at Ga

Ethel Hassell

Ethel Hassell was a colonial author who lived near Albany, Western Australia. She wrote several texts on the colony and Nyungar peoples of Southwest Australia those she knew at the region around Broome Hill and toward Doubtful Islands Bay. Born in 1857 to Sophia Harriet and William Carmalt Clifton in Middlesex, her father's occupation as an agent of P&O had the family located to Mauritius in 1859 the Western Australian port of Albany in 1861. Ethel Clifton and her elder sisters were placed among an elite of P&O officials in Albany society, commercial rivals to the family of Albert Young Hassell, whom she married on June, 22 1878 at a church in Perth; the couple had three daughters and four sons, she died 30 October 1933. Hassell lived at a station at Jerramungup, remote from large towns and a great distance south of the state's capital Perth, she associated with the people of the area for an extended period in the late nineteenth century, recording their beliefs and creation stories on flora and the landscape in a diary, published as My Dusky Friends in 1975.

Her reverence for the subject matter is regarded as unusual for the period, as is her thoroughness and care in inclusion of material that included interviews with women of all ages. She corresponded with D. S. Davidson on a manuscript submitted to Macmillan Publishers toward the end of her life, research that he edited for publication as'Notes on the ethnology of the Wheelman Tribe of south-western Australia'; this followed her own work Myths and folktales of the Wheelman tribe of South-Western Australia on the Willman people. Her work as an amateur ethnographer is cited and unknown, although it contains an extensive and intimate record of the people and environment of Jarramungup, a remote part of a region lacking scientific research in the nineteenth century. In contrast to other women writing within the colonial settlements—Louisa Atkinson, Caroline Dexter, Eliza Dunlop—Hassell does not write of frontier history and conflict arising during colonisation, adopting a uncritical position that the historical events she studied and heard were inevitabilities of'progress'.

A researcher suggests the motive may have been a form of'tactical advocacy' at a time when the traditional culture of Australia's inhabitants was poorly known if not misrepresented as propaganda. Ethel wrote of her friends, ‘they looked so happy and contented that I wondered if, after all, theirs was not the happiest existence. No care beyond a sufficiency of food and water which they could get. — My Dusky Friends: Aboriginal Life and Legends and Glimpses of Station Life at Jarramungup in the 1880s, p. 18. The author's observations, aside from their ethnological value, included botanical notes and local history, comparisons of the changing landscape to early sketches of King George Sound.