An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Hippolyte Jean Giraudoux was a French novelist, essayist and playwright. He is considered among the most important French dramatists of the period between World War I and World War II, his work is noted for its stylistic poetic fantasy. Giraudoux's dominant theme is the relationship between man and woman—or in some cases, between man and some unattainable ideal. Giraudoux was born in Bellac, Haute-Vienne, where his father, Léger Giraudoux, worked for the Ministry of Transport. Giraudoux studied at the Lycée Lakanal in Sceaux and upon graduation traveled extensively in Europe. After his return to France in 1910, he accepted a position with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. With the outbreak of World War I, he served with distinction and in 1915 became the first writer to be awarded the wartime Legion of Honour, he married in the subsequent inter-war period produced the majority of his writing. He first achieved literary success through his novels, notably Siegfried et le Limousin and Eglantine. An ongoing collaboration with actor and theater director Louis Jouvet, beginning in 1928 with Jouvet's radical streamlining of Siegfried for the stage, stimulated his writing.
But it is his plays. He became well known in the English speaking world because of the award-winning adaptations of his plays by Christopher Fry and Maurice Valency. Giraudoux served as a juror with Florence Meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal, a grant given between 1919 and 1954 to painters, decorators, engravers and musicians, he is buried in the Cimetière de Passy in Paris. Giraudoux, Three Plays, Translated by Christopher Fry. New York: Oxford University Press. OCLC 21419365. Giraudoux, Three Plays, vol. 2, Translated by Phyllis La Farge and Peter H. Judd. New York: Hill and Wang. OCLC 751419. Giraudoux, Plays, vol. 2, Translated by Roger Gellert. London: Oxford University Press. OCLC 656767230. Giraudoux, Four Plays, Adapted by Maurice Valency. New York: Hill and Wang, Inc. OCLC 807008. Cohen, Giraudoux. Fletcher, Forces in Modern French Drama, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. New York, ISBN 0-8044-2199-4. Fowlie, Dionysus in Paris. Grossvogel, David I. 20th Century French Drama, Columbia University Press, New York.
Inskip, Jean Giraudoux, The Making of a Dramatist, Oxford University Press, New York. Knowles, French Drama of the Inter-War Years, 1918–39, Barnes & Noble, Inc. New York. LeSage, Jean Giraudoux. Quotations related to Jean Giraudoux at Wikiquote Media related to Jean Giraudoux at Wikimedia Commons French Wikisource has original text related to this article: Auteur:Jean Giraudoux Jean Giraudoux at the Internet Broadway Database Jean Giraudoux at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Jean Giraudoux on IMDb Jean Giraudoux at doollee online guide to theatre Jean Giraudoux at Find a Grave Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: Jean Giraudoux
Montmartre Cemetery is a cemetery in the 18th arrondissement of Paris, that dates to the early 19th century. Known as the Cimitière du Nord, it is the third largest necropolis in Paris, after the Père Lachaise cemetery and the Montparnasse cemetery. In the mid-18th century, overcrowding in the cemeteries of Paris had created numerous problems, from impossibly high funeral costs to unsanitary living conditions in the surrounding neighborhoods. In the 1780s, the Cimetière des Innocents was closed and citizens were banned from burying corpses within the city limits of Paris. During the early 19th century, new cemeteries were constructed outside the precincts of the capital: Montmartre in the north, Père Lachaise Cemetery in the east, Passy Cemetery in the west and Montparnasse Cemetery in the south; the Montmartre Cemetery was opened on January 1, 1825. It was known as la Cimetière des Grandes Carrières; the name referenced the cemetery's unique location, in an abandoned gypsum quarry. The quarry had been used during the French Revolution as a mass grave.
It was built below street level, in the hollow of an abandoned gypsum quarry located west of the Butte near the beginning of Rue Caulaincourt in Place de Clichy. As is still the case today, its sole entrance was constructed on Avenue Rachel under Rue Caulaincourt. A popular tourist destination, Montmartre Cemetery is the final resting place of many famous artists who lived and worked in the Montmartre area. See the full list of notable interments below. )Alan Ball the 3rd rests here Adolphe Adam, composer Charles-Valentin Alkan, composer André-Marie Ampère, physicist Édouard André, landscape architect Benjamin Ball, psychiatrist Michel Berger, singer Hector Berlioz, composer Léon Boëllmann and organist Alexandre Pierre François Boëly, composer and organist Mélanie "Mel" Bonis, composer François Claude Amour, marquis de Bouillé, royalist general named in the French National Anthem, La Marseillaise Lili Boulanger, composer Nadia Boulanger, composer Georges Hilaire Bousquet, legal scholar Marcel Boussac, entrepreneur Giuseppina Bozzacchi, ballerina Victor Brauner, painter Václav Brožík, Czech painter Alfred-Arthur Brunel de Neuville, painter Myles Byrne, Irish revolutionary soldier Moïse de Camondo, banker Nissim de Camondo, World War I pilot Marie-Antoine Carême, famed inventor of classical cuisine Louis-Eugène Cavaignac, politician Fanny Cerrito, Italian ballerina Jean-Martin Charcot, neurologist Jacques Charon, actor Théodore Chassériau, painter Henri-Georges Clouzot and screenwriter Véra Clouzot, actress Dalida, Italo-French Egyptian-born singer and actress, singing diva.
Louis Antoine Debrauz de Saldapenna, Austrian writer and diplomat Edgar Degas, Impressionist painter, sculptor Léo Delibes, composer of Romantic music Maria Deraismes, social reformer, feminist Narcisse Virgilio Díaz, painter William Didier-Pouget, artist painter Maxime Du Camp, author Alexandre Dumas, novelist, playwright Marie Duplessis, French courtesan, La Dame aux Camélias François Duprat, assassinated political radical Renée Jeanne Falconetti, notable for La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc. Georges Feydeau, playwright of La Belle Époque Léon Foucault, scientist Charles Fourier, utopian socialist Christopher Fratin, animalier sculptor Carole Fredericks, African-American singer France Gall, singer Theophile Gautier, novelist Jean-Léon Gérôme, painter Eugène Gigout and organist José Melchor Gomis, Spanish Romantic composer Edmond de Goncourt, author/publisher, brother of Jules Jules de Goncourt, author/publisher, brother of Edmond and buried in the same grave. Patron of the Prix Goncourt Amédée Gordini, Gordini sports car manufacturer La Goulue, Can-can dancer Jean-Baptiste Greuze, artist Béla Grünwald, Hungarian historian and politician Jules Guérin, nationalist political radical Lucien Guitry, actor Sacha Guitry, actor/director Charles Gumery, sculptor John Gunning, army surgeon at the Battle of Waterloo Fromental Halévy, composer Heinrich Heine, German poet Fanny Heldy, Belgian soprano Jacques Ignace Hittorff, architect François-André Isambert, lawyer and politician Daniel Iffla, Jewish philanthropist and financier Maurice Jaubert, conductor André Jolivet, composer Marcel Jouhandeau, author Louis Jouvet, actor Anna Judic, chanteuse Antoine-Henri Jomini, French General, Military Author Friedrich Kalkbrenner, composer Miecislas Kamieński, a Polish soldier, a volunteer in the French Army and was killed in the Battle of Magenta, mentioned because the statue by Jules Franceschi on his grave is well known Julian Klemczyński, (1807
The Cheat (1937 film)
The Cheat is a 1937 French drama film directed by Marcel L'Herbier and starring Victor Francen, Sessue Hayakawa and Louis Jouvet. It is a remake of the American silent film The Cheat by Cecil B. DeMille; the film's sets were designed by the art director Robert Gys. It was shot at the Billancourt Studios in Paris. Victor Francen as Pierre Moret Sessue Hayakawa as Prince Hu-Long Louis Jouvet as Valfar Lise Delamare as Denise Moret Lucas Gridoux as Tang-Si Ève Francis as Mrs. Curtis Lucien Nat as Maître Ribeyre Pierre Magnier as Le Président de la société Jean Brochard as Félicien Sylvia Bataille as Ming Kennedy-Karpat, Colleen. Rogues and Exoticism in French Cinema of the 1930s. Fairleigh Dickinson, 2013; the Cheat on IMDb
Jean Genet was a French novelist, poet and political activist. Early in his life he was a vagabond and petty criminal, but he took to writing, his major works include the novels The Thief's Journal and Our Lady of the Flowers, the plays The Balcony, The Maids and The Screens. Genet's mother was a prostitute who raised him for the first seven months of his life before putting him up for adoption. Thereafter Genet was raised in the provincial town of Alligny-en-Morvan, in the Nièvre department of central France, his foster family was headed by a carpenter and, according to Edmund White's biography, was loving and attentive. While he received excellent grades in school, his childhood involved a series of attempts at running away and incidents of petty theft. After the death of his foster mother, Genet was placed with an elderly couple but remained with them less than two years. According to the wife, "he was going out nights and seemed to be wearing makeup." On one occasion he squandered a considerable sum of money, which they had entrusted him for delivery elsewhere, on a visit to a local fair.
For this and other misdemeanors, including repeated acts of vagrancy, he was sent at the age of 15 to Mettray Penal Colony where he was detained between 2 September 1926 and 1 March 1929. In Miracle of the Rose, he gives an account of this period of detention, which ended at the age of 18 when he joined the Foreign Legion, he was given a dishonorable discharge on grounds of indecency and spent a period as a vagabond, petty thief and prostitute across Europe—experiences he recounts in The Thief's Journal. After returning to Paris, France in 1937, Genet was in and out of prison through a series of arrests for theft, use of false papers, lewd acts, other offenses. In prison, Genet wrote his first poem, "Le condamné à mort", which he had printed at his own cost, the novel Our Lady of the Flowers. In Paris, Genet sought out and introduced himself to Jean Cocteau, impressed by his writing. Cocteau used his contacts to get Genet's novel published, in 1949, when Genet was threatened with a life sentence after ten convictions and other prominent figures, including Jean-Paul Sartre and Pablo Picasso petitioned the French President to have the sentence set aside.
Genet would never return to prison. By 1949, Genet had completed five novels, three plays, numerous poems, many controversial for their explicit and deliberately provocative portrayal of homosexuality and criminality. Sartre wrote a long analysis of Genet's existential development, entitled Saint Genet, anonymously published as the first volume of Genet's complete works. Genet was affected by Sartre's analysis and did not write for the next five years. Between 1955 and 1961, Genet wrote three more plays as well as an essay called "What Remains of a Rembrandt Torn into Four Equal Pieces and Flushed Down the Toilet", on which hinged Jacques Derrida's analysis of Genet in his seminal work Glas. During this time, Genet became attached to Abdallah Bentaga, a tightrope walker. However, following a number of accidents and his suicide in 1964, Genet entered a period of depression, attempted suicide himself. From the late 1960s, starting with an homage to Daniel Cohn-Bendit after the events of May 1968, Genet became politically active.
He participated in demonstrations drawing attention to the living conditions of immigrants in France. Genet was censored in the United States in 1968 and expelled when they refused him a visa. In an interview with Edward de Grazia, professor of law and First Amendment lawyer, Genet discusses the time he went through Canada for the Chicago congress, he left with no issues. In 1970, the Black Panthers invited him to the United States, where he stayed for three months giving lectures, attended the trial of their leader, Huey Newton, published articles in their journals; the same year he spent six months in Palestinian refugee camps, secretly meeting Yasser Arafat near Amman. Profoundly moved by his experiences in the United States and Jordan, Genet wrote a final lengthy memoir about his experiences, Prisoner of Love, which would be published posthumously. Genet supported Angela Davis and George Jackson, as well as Michel Foucault and Daniel Defert's Prison Information Group, he worked with Foucault and Sartre to protest police brutality against Algerians in Paris, a problem persisting since the Algerian War of Independence, when beaten bodies were to be found floating in the Seine.
Genet expresses his solidarity with the Red Army Faction of Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof, in the article "Violence et brutalité", published in Le Monde, 1977. In September 1982, Genet was in Beirut when the massacres took place in the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Shatila. In response, Genet published "Quatre heures à Chatila", an account of his visit to Shatila after the event. In one of his rare public appearances during the period of his life, at the invitation of Austrian philosopher Hans Köchler, he read from his work during the inauguration of an exhibition on the massacre of Sabra and Shatila organized by the International Progress Organization in Vienna, Austria, on 19 December 1983. By proxy, Jean Genet managed to make an unlikely appearance in the pop charts when in 1972, David Bowie released his popular hit single "The Jean Genie". In his book Moonage Daydream, Bowie confirmed that the title "...was a clumsy pun upon Jean Genet". A promo video combines a version of the song with a fast edit of Genet's 1950 m
The Devil and the Good Lord
The Devil and the Good Lord is a 1951 play by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. The play concerns the moral choices of its characters, warlord Goetz, clergy Heinrich, communist leader Nasti and others during the German Peasants' War; the first act follows Goetz' transformation from vicious war criminal to a "good" person of noble deeds, as during a siege of the town of Worms, he decides not to massacre its citizens. The play was first performed at the Théâtre-Antoine in Paris, where it opened on 7 June 1951 and ran until March 1952; this production was directed by Louis Jouvet. Of all his dramatic writings, The Devil and the Good Lord was Sartre's favourite, he based the character of Goetz on his analysis of the psychology and morality of the writer Jean Genet, which he had developed more in his Saint Genet. White, Edmund. 1993. Genet. Corrected edition. London: Picador, 1994. ISBN 0-330-30622-7
A theatre director or stage director is an instructor in the theatre field who oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a theatre production by unifying various endeavours and aspects of production. The director's function is to ensure the quality and completeness of theatre production and to lead the members of the creative team into realizing their artistic vision for it; the director therefore collaborates with a team of creative individuals and other staff, coordinating research, costume design, lighting design, set design, stage combat, sound design for the production. If the production he or she is mounting is a new piece of writing or a translation of a play, the director may work with the playwright or translator. In contemporary theatre, after the playwright, the director is the primary visionary, making decisions on the artistic concept and interpretation of the play and its staging. Different directors occupy different places of authority and responsibility, depending on the structure and philosophy of individual theatre companies.
Directors use a wide variety of techniques and levels of collaboration. In ancient Greece, the birthplace of European drama, the writer bore principal responsibility for the staging of his plays. Actors were semi-professionals, the director oversaw the mounting of plays from the writing process all the way through to their performance acting in them too, as Aeschylus for example did; the author-director would train the chorus, sometimes compose the music, supervise every aspect of production. The fact that the director was called didaskalos, the Greek word for "teacher," indicates that the work of these early directors combined instructing their performers with staging their work. In medieval times, the complexity of vernacular religious drama, with its large scale mystery plays that included crowd scenes and elaborate effects, gave the role of director considerable importance. A miniature by Jean Fouquet from 1460 bears one of the earliest depictions of a director at work. Holding a prompt book, the central figure directs, with the aid of a long stick, the proceedings of the staging of a dramatization of the Martyrdom of Saint Apollonia.
According to Fouquet, the director's tasks included overseeing the erecting of a stage and scenery and directing the actors, addressing the audience at the beginning of each performance and after each intermission. From Renaissance times up until the 19th century, the role of director was carried by the actor-manager; this would be a senior actor in a troupe who took the responsibility for choosing the repertoire of work, staging it and managing the company. This was the case for instance with Commedia dell'Arte companies and English actor-managers like Colley Cibber and David Garrick; the modern theatre director can be said to have originated in the staging of elaborate spectacles of the Meininger Company under George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. The management of large numbers of extras and complex stagecraft matters necessitated an individual to take on the role of overall coordinator; this gave rise to the role of the director in modern theatre, Germany would provide a platform for a generation of emerging visionary theatre directors, such as Erwin Piscator and Max Reinhardt.
Constantin Stanislavski, principally an actor-manager, would set up the Moscow Art Theatre in Russia and emancipate the role of the director as artistic visionary. The French regisseur is sometimes used to mean a stage director, most in ballet. A more common term for theatre director in French is metteur en scène. Post World War II, the actor-manager started to disappear, directing become a fledged artistic activity within the theatre profession; the director originating artistic vision and concept, realizing the staging of a production, became the norm rather than the exception. Great forces in the emancipation of theatre directing as a profession were notable 20th-century theatre directors like Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, Vsevolod Meyerhold, Yevgeny Vakhtangov, Michael Chekhov, Yuri Lyubimov, Orson Welles, Peter Brook, Peter Hall, Bertolt Brecht, Giorgio Strehler and Franco Zeffirelli. A cautionary note was introduced by the famed director Sir Tyrone Guthrie who said "the only way to learn how to direct a play, is... to get a group of actors simple enough to allow you to let you direct them, direct".
A number of seminal works on directing and directors include Toby Cole and Helen Krich's 1972 Directors on Directing: A Sourcebook of the Modern Theatre, Edward Braun's 1982 book The Director and the Stage: From Naturalism to Growtowski and Will's The Director in a Changing Theatre. Because of the late emergence of theatre directing as a performing arts profession when compared with for instance acting or musicianship, a rise of professional vocational training programmes in directing can be seen in the second half of the 20th century. Most European countries nowadays know some form of professional directing training at drama schools or conservatoires, or at universities. In Britain, the tradition that theatre directors emerge from degree courses at the Oxbridge universities has meant that for a long time, professional vocational training did not take place at drama schools or performing arts colleges, although an increase in