Pic du Midi de Bigorre
The Pic du Midi de Bigorre or the Pic du Midi is a mountain in the French Pyrenees famous for its Pic du Midi Observatory. The Pic du Midi Observatory is an astronomical observatory located at 2877 meters on top of the Pic du Midi de Bigorre mountain in the French Pyrenees, it is part of the Midi-Pyrenees Observatory which has additional research stations in the southwestern French towns of Tarbes and Auch, as well as many partnerships in South America and Asia, due to the guardianship it receives from the French Research Institute for Development. Construction of the observatory began in 1878 under the auspices of the Société Ramond, but by 1882 the society decided that the spiralling costs were beyond its modest means, yielded the observatory to the French state, which took it into its possession by a law of 7 August 1882; the 8 metre dome was completed under the ambitious direction of Benjamin Baillaud. It housed a powerful mechanical equatorial reflector, used in 1909 to formally discredit the Martian canal theory.
In 1946 Mr. Gentilli funded a dome and a 0.60-meter telescope, in 1958, a spectrograph was installed. A 1.06-meter telescope was installed in 1963, funded by NASA and was used to take detailed photographs of the surface of the Moon in preparation for the Apollo missions. In 1965 the astronomers Pierre and Janine Connes were able to formulate a detailed analysis of the composition of the atmospheres on Mars and Venus, based on the infrared spectra gathered from these planets; the results showed atmospheres in chemical equilibrium. This served as a basis for James Lovelock, a scientist working for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, to predict that those planets had no life - a fact that would be proven and scientifically accepted years after. A 2-meter telescope, known as the Bernard Lyot Telescope was placed at the observatory in 1980 on top of a 28-meter column built off to the side to avoid wind turbulence affecting the seeing of the other telescopes, it is the largest telescope in France.
The observatory has a coronagraph, used to study the solar corona. A 0.60-meter telescope is located at the top of Pic du Midi. Since 1982 this T60 is dedicated to amateur astronomy and managed by a group of amateurs, called association T60. There are at the top: The 0.55-meter telescope. The observatory is located at 42°56′N 0°8′E, placing it close to the Greenwich meridian; the observatory was featured in the video game Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six: Vegas 2 under a different name. The observatory in-game is said to be located on the fictional Pic des Pyrenees. Saturn's moon Helene, was discovered by French astronomers Pierre Laques and Jean Lecacheux in 1980 from ground-based observations at this observatory, named Helene in 1988, it is a trojan moon of Dione. The main-belt asteroid 20488 Pic-du-Midi, discovered at Pises Observatory in 1999, was named for the observatory and the mountain its located on; the Minor Planet Center credits the discovery of the following minor planets directly to the observatory: Officially initiated in 2009, during the international year of astronomy, the Pic du Midi International Dark Sky Reserve was labeled in 2013 by the International Dark-Sky Association.
It's the first in Europe and the only one still today in France. The IDSR aims to limit the exponential propagation of light pollution, in order to preserve the quality of the night. Co-managed by the Syndicat mixte for the tourist promotion of the Pic du Midi, the Pyrénées National Park and the Departmental Energy Union 65, its priority actions are the public education on the impacts and consequences of these pollutions as well as the establishment of responsible lighting in the Haut-Pyrenean territory, it covers 65 % of the Hautes-Pyrénées. The IDSR includes 251 communes spread around the Pic du Midi de Bigorre and is distinguished in two zones: A core zone, devoid of any permanent lighting and witnessing an exceptional night quality. Dynamic on the territory, the IDSR is notably initiator of the program "Ciel Etoilé", program of reconversion of the 40 000 luminous points of its territory, the program "Gardiens des Etoiles", program of metrological monitoring of the light pollution evolution, but the program "Adap'Ter", project that will identify "trames sombres".
Pic du Midi de Bigorre has an rare mediterranean alpine climate with a polar temperature regime courtesy of its high elevation. Due to the Gulf Stream moderation of the surrounding lowlands, temperature swings are in general quite low; this results in temperatures exceeding 20 °C during lowland heat waves, temperatures beneath −25 °C being rare. The UV index is highe
Montmartre is a large hill in Paris's 18th arrondissement. It is 130 m high and gives its name to the surrounding district, part of the Right Bank in the northern section of the city; the historic district established by the City of Paris in 1995 is bordered by rue Caulaincourt and rue Custine on the north, rue de Clignancourt on the east, boulevard de Clichy and boulevard de Rochechouart to the south, containing 60 ha. Montmartre is known for its artistic history, the white-domed Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur on its summit, as a nightclub district; the other church on the hill, Saint Pierre de Montmartre, built in 1147, was the church of the prestigious Montmartre Abbey. On August 15, 1534, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, Saint Francis Xavier and five other companions bound themselves by vows in the Martyrium of Saint Denis, 11 rue Yvonne Le Tac, the first step in the creation of the Jesuits. Near the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the twentieth, during the Belle Époque, many artists lived in, had studios, or worked in or around Montmartre, including Amedeo Modigliani, Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Suzanne Valadon, Piet Mondrian, Pablo Picasso, Camille Pissarro, Vincent van Gogh.
Montmartre is the setting for several hit movies. This site is served by metro, with line 2 stations at Anvers and Blanche, line 12 stations at Pigalle, Lamarck – Caulaincourt, Jules Joffrin; the toponym Mons Martis, Latin for "Mount of Mars", survived into Merovingian times, gallicised as Montmartre. Archaeological excavations show that the heights of Montmartre were occupied from at least Gallo-Roman times. Texts from the 8th century cite the name of mons Mercori, a 9th-century text speaks of Mount Mars. Excavations in 1975 north of the Church of Saint-Pierre found coins from the 3rd century and the remains of a major wall. Earlier excavations in the 17th century at the Fontaine-du-But found vestiges of Roman baths from the 2nd century; the butte owes its particular religious importance to the text entitled Miracles of Saint-Denis, written before 885 by Hilduin, abbot of the monastery of Saint-Denis, which recounted how Saint Denis, a Christian bishop, was decapitated on the hilltop in 250 AD on orders of the Roman prefect Fescennius Sisinius for preaching the Christian faith to the Gallo-Roman inhabitants of Lutetia.
According to Hilduin, Denis collected his head and carried it as far as the fontaine Saint-Denis descended the north slope of the hill, where he died. Hilduin wrote that a church had been built "in the place called Mont de Mars, by a happy change,'Mont des Martyrs'."In 1134, king Louis VI purchased the Merovingian chapel and built on the site the church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, still standing. He founded The Royal Abbey of Montmartre, a monastery of the Benedictine order, whose buildings and fields occupied most of Montmartre, he built a small chapel, called the Martyrium, at the site where it was believed that Saint Denis had been decapitated. It became a popular pilgrimage site. In the 17th century, a priory called abbaye d'en bas was built at that site, in 1686 it was occupied by a community of nuns; the abbey was destroyed in 1790 during the French Revolution, the convent demolished to make place for gypsum mines. The church of Saint-Pierre was saved. At the place where the chapel of the Martyrs was located, an oratory was built in 1855.
It was renovated in 1994. By the 15th century, the north and northeast slopes of the hill were the site of a village surrounded by vineyards and orchards of peach and cherry trees; the first mills were built on the western slope in 1529, grinding wheat and rye. There were thirteen mills at one time, though by the late nineteenth century only two remained,During the 1590 Siege of Paris, in the last decade of the French Wars of Religion, Henry IV placed his artillery on top of the butte of Montmartre to fire down into the city; the siege failed when a large relief force approached and forced Henry to withdraw. In 1790, Montmartre was located just outside the limits of Paris; that year, under the revolutionary government of the National Constituent Assembly, it became the commune of Montmartre, with its town hall located on place du Tertre, site of the former abbey. The main businesses of the commune were wine making, stone quarries and gypsum mines.. The mining of gypsum had begun in the Gallo-Roman period, first in open air mines and underground, continued until 1860.
The gypsum was cut into blocks, baked ground and put into sacks. Sold as ` montmartarite, it was used for plaster, because of its resistance to water. Between the 7th and 9th centuries, most of the sarcophagi found in ancient sites were made of molded gypsum. In modern times, the mining was done with explosives, which riddled the ground under the butte with tunnels, making the ground unstable and difficult to build upon; the construction of the Basilica of Sacré-Cœur required making a special foundation that descended 40 metres under the ground to hold the structure in place. A fossil tooth found in one of these mines was identified by Georges Cuvier as an extinct equine, which he dubbed Palaeotherium, the "ancient animal", his sketch of the entire animal in 1825 was matched by a skeleton discovered later. Russian soldiers occupied Montmartre during the battle of Paris in 1814, they used the altitude of the hill for artillery bombardment of the city. Montmartre remained outside of the city limits of Paris until January 1, 1860, when it was annexed to the city along with other communities surr
Société des observateurs de l'homme
Société des observateurs de l'homme, rendered in English as Society of Observers of Man, was a French learned society founded in Paris in 1799. Long considered the birthplace of French anthropology, the society dissolved in 1804; the Société des observateurs de l'homme was founded on Christian principles by Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard, Louis-François Jauffret and Joseph de Maimieux. The brevity of its existence and relative dearth of records provide scant history, but they did leave traces of their involvement with feral child Victor of Aveyron, as well as the Baudin expedition to Australia; the Constitution of the Society was set at its inaugural meeting in the Rue de Seine, August 1799. There they brought together naturalists, philosophers, historians, linguists and archaeologists under the chairmanship of John de Maimieux. Louis-François Jauffret, at whose home they met, was named permanent secretary. In 1800, the Society offered a 600 franc prize for study of young children with an eye toward discovering the extent to which their physical and moral faculties are supported or opposed by the influences of the objects and people in the child's environment.
Déterminer par l'observation journalière de un ou plusieurs enfants au berceau l'ordre dans lequel les facultés physiques, intellectuelles et morales se développent et jusqu'à quel point ce développement est secondé ou contrarié par l'influence des objets et des personnes qui environnent l'enfant. The Society went silent in 1804, was forgotten until the time of the French Third Republic, when Paul Broca of the Society of Anthropology of Paris cited the existence of the Observateurs in his claim that French anthropological societies predated those of Great Britain, which were in ascendency. Pierre Bonnefous - Mathieu-Antoine Bouchaud - Louis Antoine de Bougainville - Antoine-Marie-Henri Boulard - Simon-Jérôme Bourlet de Vauxcelles - Pierre-Roland-François Butet de La Sarthe - Guillaume de Sainte-Croix - Adamance Coray - Frédéric Cuvier - Jean-Baptiste-Gaspard d'Ansse de Villoison - Joseph-Marie de Gérando - Joseph-Philippe-François Deleuze - Joseph de Maimieux - Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu - André Marie Constant Duméril - Antoine-François Fourcroy - Marie-Nicolas-Silvestre Guillon-Pastel - Jean Noël Hallé - Jean Itard - Gaspard-André Jauffret - Louis-François Jauffret - Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu - Bernard Germain de Lacépède - Pierre-Henri Larcher - Pierre Laromiguière - Auguste-Savinien Leblond - Théodoric-Nilammon Lerminier - Jean-Joseph Marcel - Aubin-Louis Millin de Grandmaison - Mathieu de Montmorency-Laval - Louis-Jacques Moreau de la Sarthe - Pierre-Henry Nysten - Ambroise Marie François Joseph Palisot de Beauvois - Jean-Pierre Papon - Eugène Louis Melchior Patrin - Philippe Pinel - Joseph Marie Portalis - Louis Ramond de Carbonnières - Dominique Ricard - Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard - Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy - Charles-Nicolas-Sigisbert Sonnini de Manoncourt - Charles Athanase Walckenaer Nicolas Baudin - Pierre-Justin Bernier - Frédéric de Bissy - Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus - Hyacinthe de Bougainville - Jean Cailleau - Pierre Faure - Jean-Emmanuel Gilibert - Jacques Félix Emmanuel Hamelin - Urbain-René-Thomas Le Bouvier-Desmortiers - François Levaillant - René Maugé de Cely - André Michaux - François Péron - Gottlieb Konrad Pfeffel - Anselme Riedle Jean Copans and Jean Jamin, Aux origines de l’anthropologie française, Paris, Le Sycomore, 1978.
Jean-Luc Chappey, The ‘Société des Observateurs de l’homme’ and the history of French anthropology How Napoléon Bonaparte ended the French Revolution online PDF Efram Sera-Shriar, The Making of British Anthropology, 1813-1871, London: Pickering & Chatto and Routledge, 2013, pp. 53-80. Institut de France
Puy-de-Dôme is a department in the centre of France named after the famous dormant volcano, the Puy de Dôme. Inhabitants were called Puydedomois until December 2005. With effect from Spring 2006, in response to a letter writing campaign, the name used for the inhabitants was changed by the Puy-de-Dôme General Council to Puydômois, this is the name that has since been used in all official documents and publications. Puy-de-Dôme is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from part of the former province of Auvergne. The department was to be called Mont-d'Or, but this was changed to Puy-de-Dôme following the intervention of Jean-François Gaultier de Biauzat, a local deputy, because of a concern that the name chosen risked attracting excessive unwelcome attention from the national taxation authorities. Puy-de-Dôme is part of the current region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and is surrounded by the departments of Loire, Haute-Loire, Corrèze, Creuse.
The department boasts more than 80 volcanic craters. It is three hours from Paris and an hour from Lyon by highways A71 and A89; the A75 links it to the Mediterranean Sea. Its main cities are Clermont-Ferrand, Riom, Issoire and Cournon-d'Auvergne. Parts of the department belong to the Parc naturel régional Livradois-Forez; the departmental seat, Clermont-Ferrand, is home to one of the country's best known manufacturing businesses and brands, Michelin. Thiers is the oldest industry place in Auvergne with its cutlery tradition from the 14th century; the countryside lends itself to tourism and Puy-de-Dôme is a popular weekend destination for city dwellers. The 1999 census found that 11.7% of the usable homes in the department were being kept as second homes. The department was the electoral constituency of Valery Giscard d'Estaing, who served as President of the Republic from 1974 to 1981. Cantons of the Puy-de-Dôme department Communes of the Puy-de-Dôme department Arrondissements of the Puy-de-Dôme department Maurice Persat Prefecture website Departmental Council website Puy-de-Dome at Curlie
The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, extends for about 491 km from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea. For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain and France, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between; the Principality of Catalonia alongside with the Kingdom of Aragon in the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre have extended on both sides of the mountain range, with smaller northern portions now in France and larger southern parts now in Spain. In Greek mythology, Pyrene is a princess; the Greek historian Herodotus says. According to Silius Italicus, she was the virgin daughter of Bebryx, a king in Mediterranean Gaul by whom the hero Hercules was given hospitality during his quest to steal the cattle of Geryon during his famous Labours.
Hercules, characteristically drunk and lustful, violates the sacred code of hospitality and rapes his host's daughter. Pyrene runs away to the woods, afraid that her father will be angry. Alone, she pours out her story to the trees, attracting the attention of wild beasts who tear her to pieces. After his victory over Geryon, Hercules passes through the kingdom of Bebryx again, finding the girl's lacerated remains; as is the case in stories of this hero, the sober Hercules responds with heartbroken grief and remorse at the actions of his darker self, lays Pyrene to rest tenderly, demanding that the surrounding geography join in mourning and preserve her name: "struck by Herculean voice, the mountaintops shudder at the ridges. … The mountains hold on to the wept-over name through the ages." Pliny the Elder connects the story of Hercules and Pyrene to Lusitania, but rejects it as fabulosa fictional. Other classical sources derived the name from the Greek word for fire, Ancient Greek: πῦρ. According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus "..in ancient times, we are told, certain herdsmen left a fire and the whole area of the mountains was consumed.
The Spanish Pyrenees are part of the following provinces, from east to west: Girona, Lleida, Huesca and Gipuzkoa. The French Pyrenees are part of the following départements, from east to west: Pyrénées-Orientales, Ariège, Haute-Garonne, Hautes-Pyrénées, Pyrénées-Atlantiques; the independent principality of Andorra is sandwiched in the eastern portion of the mountain range between the Spanish Pyrenees and French Pyrenees. Physiographically, the Pyrenees may be divided into three sections: the Atlantic, the Central, the Eastern Pyrenees. Together, they form a distinct physiographic province of the larger Alpine System division. In the Western Pyrenees, from the Basque mountains near the Bay of Biscay of the Atlantic Ocean, the average elevation increases from west to east; the Central Pyrenees extend eastward from the Somport pass to the Aran Valley, they include the highest summits of this range: Pico d'Aneto 3,404 metres in the Maladeta ridge, Pico Posets 3,375 metres, Monte Perdido 3,355 metres.
In the Eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the Pyrénées Ariègeoises in the Ariège area, the mean elevation is remarkably uniform until a sudden decline occurs in the easternmost portion of the chain known as the Albères. Most foothills of the Pyrenees are on the Spanish side, where there is a large and complex system of ranges stretching from Spanish Navarre, across northern Aragon and into Catalonia reaching the Mediterranean coast with summits reaching 2,600 m. At the eastern end on the southern side lies a distinct area known as the Sub-Pyrenees. On the French side the slopes of the main range descend abruptly and there are no foothills except in the Corbières Massif in the northeastern corner of the mountain system; the Pyrenees are older than the Alps: their sediments were first deposited in coastal basins during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. Between 100 and 150 million years ago, during the Lower Cretaceous Period, the Bay of Biscay fanned out, pushing present-day Spain against France and applying intense compressional pressure to large layers of sedimentary rock.
The intense pressure and uplifting of the Earth's crust first affected the eastern part and moved progressively to the entire chain, culminating in the Eocene Epoch. The eastern part of the Pyrenees consists of granite and gneissose rocks, while in the western part the granite peaks are flanked by layers of limestone; the massive and unworn character of the chain comes from its abundance of granite, resistant to erosion, as well as weak glacial development. The upper parts of the Pyrenees contain low-relief surfaces forming a peneplain; this peneplain originated no earlier than in Late Miocene times. It formed at height as extensive sedimentation raised the local base
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Sturm und Drang
Sturm und Drang was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and early 1780s. Within the movement, individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements; the period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play of the same name, first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777. The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller were notable proponents of the movement early in their life, although they ended their period of association with it by initiating what would become Weimar Classicism. French neoclassicism, a movement beginning in the early Baroque, with its emphasis on the rational, was the principal target of rebellion for adherents of the Sturm und Drang movement. For them, sentimentality and an objective view of life gave way to emotional turbulence and individuality, enlightenment ideals such as rationalism and universalism no longer captured the human condition.
The term Sturm und Drang first appeared as the title of a play by Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, written for Abel Seyler's Seylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft and published in 1776. The setting of the play is the unfolding American Revolution, in which the author gives violent expression to difficult emotions and extols individuality and subjectivity over the prevailing order of rationalism. Though it is argued that literature and music associated with Sturm und Drang predate this seminal work, it was from this point that German artists became distinctly self-conscious of a new aesthetic; this spontaneous movement became associated with a wide array of German authors and composers of the mid-to-late Classical period. Sturm und Drang came to be associated with literature or music aimed at shocking the audience or imbuing them with extremes of emotion; the movement soon gave way to Weimar Classicism and early Romanticism, whereupon a socio-political concern for greater human freedom from despotism was incorporated along with a religious treatment of all things natural.
There is much debate regarding whose work should or should not be included in the canon of Sturm und Drang. One point of view would limit the movement to Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, their direct German associates writing works of fiction and/or philosophy between 1770 and the early 1780s; the alternative perspective is that of a literary movement inextricably linked to simultaneous developments in prose and drama, extending its direct influence throughout the German-speaking lands until the end of the 18th century. The originators of the movement came to view it as a time of premature exuberance, abandoned in favor of conflicting artistic pursuits; the literary topos of the "Kraftmensch" existed as a precursor to Sturm und Drang among dramatists beginning with F. M. Klinger, the expression of, seen in the radical degree to which individuality need appeal to no outside authority save the self nor be tempered by rationalism; these ideals are identical to those of Sturm und Drang, it can be argued that the name exists to catalog a number of parallel, co-influential movements in German literature rather than express anything different from what German dramatists were achieving in the violent plays attributed to the Kraftmensch movement.
Major philosophical/theoretical influences on the literary Sturm und Drang movement were Johann Georg Hamann and Johann Gottfried Herder, both from Königsberg, both in contact with Immanuel Kant. Significant theoretical statements of Sturm und Drang aesthetics by the movement's central dramatists themselves include Lenz' Anmerkungen übers Theater and Goethe's Von deutscher Baukunst and Zum Schäkespears Tag; the most important contemporary document was the 1773 volume Von deutscher Art und Kunst. Einige fliegende Blätter, a collection of essays that included commentaries by Herder on Ossian and Shakespeare, along with contributions by Goethe, Paolo Frisi, Justus Möser; the protagonist in a typical Sturm und Drang stage work, poem, or novel is driven to action—often violent action—not by pursuit of noble means nor by true motives, but by revenge and greed. Goethe's unfinished Prometheus exemplifies this along with the common ambiguity provided by juxtaposing humanistic platitudes with outbursts of irrationality.
The literature of Sturm und Drang features an anti-aristocratic slant while seeking to elevate all things humble, natural, or intensely real. The story of hopeless love and eventual suicide presented in Goethe's sentimental novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers is an example of the author's tempered introspection regarding his love and torment. Friedrich Schiller's drama, Die Räuber, provided the groundwork for melodrama to become a recognized dramatic form; the plot portrays a conflict between two aristocratic brothers and Karl Moor. Franz is cast as a villain attempting to cheat Karl out of his inheritance, though the motives for his action are comp