Louis Sullivan

Louis Henry Sullivan was an American architect, has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School. Along with Wright and Henry Hobson Richardson, Sullivan is one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture"; the phrase "Form follows function" is attributed to him, although he credited the origin of the concept to an ancient architect whose origins were Italian. In 1944, Sullivan was the second architect to posthumously receive the AIA Gold Medal. Sullivan was born to a Swiss-born mother, née Andrienne List and an Irish-born father, Patrick Sullivan. Both had immigrated to the United States in the late 1840s, he learned that he could both graduate from high school a year early and bypass the first two years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by passing a series of examinations.

Entering MIT at the age of sixteen, Sullivan studied architecture there briefly. After one year of study, he took a job with architect Frank Furness; the Depression of 1873 dried up much of Furness's work, he was forced to let Sullivan go. Sullivan moved to Chicago in 1873 to take part in the building boom following the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, he worked for William LeBaron Jenney, the architect credited with erecting the first steel frame building. After less than a year with Jenney, Sullivan moved to Paris and studied at the École des Beaux-Arts for a year, he returned to Chicago and began work for the firm of Joseph S. Johnston & John Edelman as a draftsman. Johnston & Edleman were commissioned for the design of the Moody Tabernacle, had the interior decorative fresco secco stencils designed by Sullivan. In 1879 Dankmar Adler hired Sullivan. A year Sullivan became a partner in that firm; this marked the beginning of Sullivan's most productive years. Adler and Sullivan achieved fame as theater architects.

While most of their theaters were in Chicago, their fame won commissions as far west as Pueblo and Seattle, Washington. The culminating project of this phase of the firm's history was the 1889 Auditorium Building in Chicago, an extraordinary mixed-use building that included not only a 4,200-seat theater, but a hotel and an office building with a 17-story tower and commercial storefronts at the ground level of the building, fronting Congress and Wabash Avenues. After 1889 the firm became known for their office buildings the 1891 Wainwright Building in St. Louis and the Schiller Building and theater in Chicago. Other buildings noted include the Chicago Stock Exchange Building, the Guaranty Building of 1895–96 in Buffalo, New York, the 1899–1904 Carson Pirie Scott Department Store by Sullivan on State Street in Chicago. Prior to the late-nineteenth century, the weight of a multi-story building had to be supported principally by the strength of its walls; the taller the building, the more strain this placed on the lower sections of the building.

The development of cheap, versatile steel in the second half of the nineteenth century changed those rules. America was in the midst of rapid social and economic growth that made for great opportunities in architectural design. A much more urbanized society was forming and the society called out for new, larger buildings; the mass production of steel was the main driving force behind the ability to build skyscrapers during the mid-1880s. By assembling a framework of steel girders and builders could create tall, slender buildings with a strong and lightweight steel skeleton; the rest of the building elements—walls, floors and windows—were suspended from the skeleton, which carried the weight. This new way of constructing buildings, so-called "column-frame" construction, pushed them up rather than out; the steel weight-bearing frame allowed not just taller buildings, but permitted much larger windows, which meant more daylight reaching interior spaces. Interior walls became thinner. Chicago's Monadnock Building straddles this remarkable moment of transition: the northern half of the building, finished in 1891, is of load-bearing construction, while the southern half, finished only two years is of column-frame construction.

While experiments in this new technology were taking place in many cities, Chicago was the crucial laboratory. Industrial capital and civic pride drove a surge of new construction throughout the city's downtown in the wake of the 1871 fire; the technical limits of weight-bearing masonry had imposed formal as well as structural constraints. None of the historical precedents needed to be applied and this new freedom resulted in a technical and stylistic crisis of sorts. Sullivan addressed it by embracing the changes that came with the steel frame, creating a grammar of form for the high rise, simplifying the appearance of the building by breaking away from historical styles, using his own intricate floral designs, in vertical bands, to draw the eye upward and to empha

Jordanian Australians

Jordanian Australians refers to Australians of Jordanian descent or a Jordan-born person who resides in Australia. According to Australia's 2011 Census there were a total of 4,621 Jordan-born people in Australia, an increase of 24.2 per cent from the 2006 Census. The vast majority of Jordanian Australians reside in the state of New South Wales. Notably immigration from Jordan is one of the most recent in Australia; the current population of Jordan is increased in the last few decades but faster in the last few years to reach 7,825,208 as of Tuesday, February 7, 2017, based on the latest United Nations estimates. This is about 0.1% Country's Share of World Population putting Jordan on 101 position of the global rank. However, the yearly population growth rate has been reported to reduce from 12% in 1950 to 1.66% at present. The median age of the Jordan-born in 2011 was 36 years compared with 45 years for all overseas-born and 37 years for the total Australian population; the age distribution showed 12.9 per cent were aged 0-14 years, 12.1 per cent were 15-24 years, 39.8 per cent were 25-44 years, 29.4 per cent were 45-64 years and 5.8 per cent were 65 years and over.

Of the Jordan-born in Australia, there were 2060 females. The sex ratio was 124.2 males per 100 females. In the 2011 Census, the top ancestry responses* that Jordan-born people reported were Jordanian, Arab nfd and Palestinian. In the 2011 Census, Australians reported around 300 different ancestries. Of the total ancestry responses*, 4218 responses were towards Jordanian ancestry. At the 2011 Census up to two responses per person were allowed for the Ancestry question; the main languages spoken at home by Jordan-born people in Australia were Arabic and Armenian. Of the 4203 Jordan-born who spoke a language other than English at home, 89 per cent spoke English well or well, 10.1 per cent spoke English not well or not at all. At the 2011 Census the major religious affiliations amongst Jordan-born were Islam and Eastern Orthodox. Of the Jordan-born, 3.2 per cent stated'No Religion or Atheist', lower than that of the total Australian population, 2.4 per cent did not state a religion. Compared to 62 per cent of the total overseas-born population, 57.4 per cent of the Jordan-born people in Australia arrived in Australia prior to 2001.

Among the total Jordan-born in Australia at the 2011 Census, 19.1 per cent arrived between 2001 and 2006 and 19.3 per cent arrived between 2007 and 2011. At the time of the 2011 Census, the median individual weekly income for the Jordan-born in Australia aged 15 years and over was $384, compared with $538 for all overseas-born and $597 for all Australia-born; the total Australian population had a median individual weekly income of $577. At the 2011 Census, 60.4 per cent of the Jordan-born aged 15 years and over had some form of higher non-school qualifications compared to 55.9 per cent of the Australian population. Of the Jordan-born aged 15 years and over, 9.7 per cent were still attending an educational institution. The corresponding rate for the total Australian population was 8.6 per cent. Among Jordan-born people aged 15 years and over, the participation rate in the labour force was 56.6 per cent and the unemployment rate was 11.8 per cent. The corresponding rates in the total Australian population were 65 per cent and 5.6 per cent respectively.

Of the 1974 Jordan-born who were employed, 51.4 per cent were employed in either a skilled managerial, professional or trade occupation. The corresponding rate in the total Australian population was 48.4 per cent. 17 Cobbadah Street O’Malley, ACT 2606 AUSTRALIA 41 Kayed Al-Armoti Street Abdoun Al-Janoubi Amman Jordan Mailing Address: Australian Embassy P. O. Box 35201 Amman 11180 Jordan Telephone: +962 6 580 7000 Fax: +962 6 580 7001 Arab Australians Jordanian people Assyrian Australians

Eagle Island (Queensland)

Eagle Island is in a national park in Queensland, Australia, 692 km north-west of Brisbane. The island is part of the Lizard Island Group and is south of Lizard Island situated 270 km north of Cairns, Queensland; the only settlements on the island are the Research Station, the Lizard Island Resort operated by Voyages Hotels & Resorts and a basic camping area operated by the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. Lizard Island is a high granite island about seven square kilometres in size, with three smaller islands nearby. Together these islands form the Lizard Island Group and their well-developed fringing reef encircles the ten-metre deep Blue Lagoon; the Lizard Island Group is a mid-shelf reef, situated 30 kilometres from the Australian mainland. Most reef and island types characteristic of the Great Barrier Reef are accessible from the Research Station. All islands in the Lizard Island Group are part of the Lizard Island National Park, administered by the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service.

Lizard Island is situated in the waters of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, administered jointly by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and the Environmental Protection Agency. Permits are required for all manipulative research in the Lizard Island Group and the waters surrounding it. During his epic voyage of 1770, Captain James Cook climbed the peak on Lizard Island to chart a course out to sea through the maze of reefs which confronted him. Protected areas of Queensland