Louis d'or

The Louis d'or is any number of French coins first introduced by Louis XIII in 1640. The name derives from the depiction of the portrait of King Louis on one side of the coin; the coin was replaced by the French franc at the time of the revolution and the valued Napoleon. The actual value of the coins fluctuated according to monetary and fiscal policy, but in 1726 the value was stabilized; the 1640 issue of Louis d’or contained five denominations: a half Louis and a one, two and eight Louis. All subsequent issues through 1793 were only denominated in half and two Louis; the Louis d'or replaced the franc, in circulation since John II. In actual practice the principal gold coin circulating in France in the earlier 17th century had been Spanish: the 6.7-gram double escudo or "doubloon", of which the Louis d'or was an explicit copy. There existed a half-Louis coin and a two-Louis coin; the Louis d'or fixed several problems with previous French gold coinage. Louis XIII struck coins from 23 carat gold though Charles V had made 22 carats the de facto international standard for gold coinage a century earlier.

Royal edicts had set the official values of his gold coins so low that it was profitable to export them. Since they were still made by hand, cheaters could shave bits of gold from the edges of the coins before passing them on, an illegal process called clipping. To fix this, Jean Varin, a medalist from Liège, installed machinery in the Paris mint which made round coins so that clipping could not go undetected; the new demi Louis d'or maintained the weight of the old écu d’or, but decreasing its fineness to 22 carats, allowing it to circulate at a value of five livres. Its double, the Louis d'or had the weight and fineness of the Spanish pistole, or two escudo coins, an international trade currency. Smaller values were available through a number of silver coins – the écu available in ​1⁄2, ​1⁄4 and ​1⁄8 écu denominations – and copper coins; the Louis d'or under Louis XIII had a dimension of about 25 mm, a weight of 6.75 g. Recto: the king's head turned to the right with the motto "LVD XIII DG – FR ET NAV REX".

Verso: the royal monogram and the motto "CHRS REGN VINC IMP". Engraver: Jean Varin The double louis has a size of 28.5 mm and a weight of 13.47 g. The quatruple louis has a weight of 26.88 g. The 10 louis has a weight of 66.87 g. One of these was sold in 2012 for 210,000 euros, which makes it the most expensive French coin of any time; the half louis has a weight of 3.34 g. The Louis d'or under Louis XIV was similar in most respects to its predecessor and had a dimension of +/- 25 mm, a weight of 6.75 g. Recto: the king's head turned to the right with the motto "LVD XIIII DG – FR ET NAV REX". Verso: the royal monogram and the motto "CHRS REGN VINC IMP". Engraver: Jean Varin Under Louis XV, mintage of the Louis d’or was at first reduced while John Law introduced paper money. After Law’s system failed and Cardinal Fleury became Louis XV’s chief magistrate in 1726, France returned to a policy of sound money and the mintage of the Louis d’or returned to normal levels; the weight of the Louis d’or was now increased to 8.1580 g and gold content of 0.2405 troy oz, it was revalued at 20 livres, a commitment was made to maintain this valuation.

This promise was kept until 1740 when the louis d’or was revalued to 24 livres, thereby effecting a 20% devaluation of the livre. This was the last devaluation. Recto: Crowned young head. Notable changes were made to the portrait when the weight of the Louis d’or was stabilized in 1726 and when it was revalued in 1740. Verso: The early coinage of Louis XV has a variety of changing reverse types; when the value of the Louis d’or was stabilized in 1726, a reverse type with the coats of arms of France and Navarre in two ovals was adopted. This reverse earned the coin the nickname “Louis aux lunettes,” i.e. Louis with glasses. Engraver: Norbert Roettiers The Louis d'or under Louis XVI was minted between 1785 and 1792 and had a dimension of 23 mm, a weight of 7.6490 g, a fineness of 0.917, gold content of 0.2255 troy oz. The double louis has a size of 28.5 mm and a weight of 15.26 g. Recto: the king's head turned to the left with the motto "LVD XVI DG – FR ET NAV REX". Verso: Crowned arms of France and Navarre.

Engraver: B. Duvivier During the French Revolution there was a coin named the "Louis d'or constitutionnel", a coin of the First French Republic. Engraved on the coin is "24 livres". Contrary to what one might expect, the 20-franc gold coin under Louis XVIII was not a Louis d'or but a Napoleon gold coin; because of the new monetary law under Napoleon I, all the 20 francs gold coins from Napoleon I to the 20-franc "coq" are Napoleon gold coins. In July 1725, the ship Chameau left France for Quebec, carrying dozens of military and political VIPs and a fort

Gerhard Lang

Gerhard Lang was a German botanist with a research focus on vegetation ecology and vegetation history of the Quaternary. During his high school years in Ravensburg, Lang was one of the students of Karl Bertsch, he started his studies on botany and zoology with minors in chemistry and physics at the University of Freiburg in 1946 and changed to the University of Göttingen where he received the PhD degree in 1952 for his study on the late-glacial history of the vegetation and flora of southwestern Germany, supervised by Franz Firbas. Between 1952 and 1975 Lang worked at the Landessammlungen für Naturkunde in Karlsruhe as curator and as deputy director of the museum. In 1962 Lang became lecturer in Geobotany at the University of Karlsruhe and in 1966 he submitted his habilitation thesis on the macrophyte vegetation of Lake Constance. Karlsruhe University appointed him professor at the Botanical Institute in 1972. In 1975 he was appointed full professor and director of the Systematisch-Geobotanisches Institut and Bern Botanical Garden, University of Bern, succeeding Max Welten.

In 1989, after Lang’s retirement and becoming professor emeritus he moved back to southern Germany, the region where he grew up. Lang travelled as part of his research and botanical activities, including visits to the French Massif Central in 1956. During his time in Karlsruhe, Lang’s research focus lay on vegetation mapping at the scale of 1:25,000 based on classical plant sociological relevés of the Upper Rhine Plain, the Black Forest, the Lake Constance region as well as the study of lake and mire deposits with regard to the vegetation history of south-western Germany. During his time in Bern his research centred on the Alpine region with special reference to the study of dynamic vegetation processes and climate change in the past, as well as the development of multi-proxy approaches in palaeoecology, he introduced new equipment and methodologies with regard to subaquatic coring from a raft that allowed sediment sampling from the centre of lakes, which provided new insights into local and regional reconstructions of past environmental conditions.

His research on vegetation ecology and history made the transition to modern multi-proxy palaeoecology. After his retirement, Lang published a major text on European Quaternary vegetation history. Lang, G. Zur späteiszeitlichen Vegetations- und Florengeschichte Südwestdeutschlands. Flora 139: 243-294. Lang, G. und Trautmann, W. Zur spät- und nacheiszeitlichen Vegetationsgeschichte der Auvergne. Flora 150: 111-142 Lang, G. Die Vegetation der Brindabella Range bei Canberra. Eine pflanzensoziologische Studie aus dem südaustralischen Hartlaubgebiet. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz, Abh. Math- Naturwiss, Kl.1, 1-98. Lang, G. Florengeschichte und mediterran-mitteleuropäische Florenbeziehungen. Feddes Repertorium 81: 315-335. Lang, G. Die Vegetation des westlichen Bodenseegebietes. Pflanzensoziologie 17, 451. Lang, G. Die Vegetation des westlichen Bodenseegebietes. Fischer, Jena, 451 pp. Lang, G. Die Makrophytenvegetation des Bodensees als Zeiger für den Gütezustand - neuere Entwicklungen.

Daten und Dokumente zum Umweltschutz 14: 39-49. Lang, G. Palynologische, grossrestanalytische und paläolimnologische Untersuchungen im Schwarzwald – eine Arbeitsprogramm. Beitr. Naturk. Forsch. Südw.-Dtld, 34, 201-208. Lang, G. Die submersen Makrophyten des Bodensees - 1978 im Vergleich mit 1967. Bericht der internationalen Gewässerschutzkommission für den Bodensee 26: 1-64. Lang, G. Festschriften Max Welten. Dissertationes Botanicae 72: 1-525 Lang, G. Swiss lake and mire environments during the last 15 000 years. J. Cramer, Vaduz.428. Lang, G. und Schlüchter, C. Lake and River Environments during the last 15 000 years. Balkema, Rotterdam, 229 pp. Lang, G; some aspects of European late- and postglacial flor History. Acta Botannica Fennica 144: 1-17 Lang, G.. Quartäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas. G. Fischer, Jena. 462. Lang, G.. Seen und Moore des Schwarzwaldes. Andrias 16. 160. Collective document: Lotter, André. Gerhard Lang. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 25, pp. 521–523. Springer 10.1007/s00334-016-0588-5


Janaozen or Zhanaozen known as Novy Uzen, is a city in the Mangystau Region of Kazakhstan located south-east of the city of Aktau. The name of the town means "new river" in Kazakh. Zhanaozen is a city of regional significance, it is surrounded by the territory of Karakiya District, but administratively does not belong to the district. It had a population of 147,962 in 2018; the town of Zhanaozen was founded after the opening of an oil field in Uzen. On 21 October 1968 Novy Uzen took the status of a settlement of town type, since March 20, 1973 the status of a city of regional significance. June 1989 saw large disorders. Novy Uzen was renamed Zhanaozen in October 1993. In May 2011, workers from the Ozenmunaigas oil field went on strike over pay; the strike was declared illegal by local courts and the state oil company sacked nearly 1000 employees. Some of the sacked workers occupied the town square in protest. On 16 December 2011 police were accused of firing on them. Fifteen people were killed according to government officials, though opposition sources put the death toll in the dozens.

In disturbances that day local government offices, a hotel and an office of the state oil company were set on fire, according to General Prosecutor Askhat Daulbayev. Eighty-six people were injured in the clashes – according to the authorities – and due to shortage of hospital beds in Zhanaozen, many were taken to be treated in the regional capital Aktau, about 150 km away. A state of emergency was declared on December 17, roads into Zhanaozen were blocked, the local airport was closed for incoming flights. Mobile phone coverage was blocked. A trial of protesters began in Aktau in May 2012. Many defendants complained that they had been physically abused, some tortured, while in police custody and during interrogation; some witnesses claimed they had been threatened by police into giving false testimony. Two further trials of security officials are taking place. Popular Kazakh singer Bavyrjan released a song which criticised president Nazarbayev for not listening to the complaints of Zhanaozen's demonstrating workers.

The song was banned by the government. Zhanaozen is located in the desert on Mangyshlak Peninsula; the town costs in weak hill district. Zhanaozen has a cold desert climate with sharp continental influences. Strong winds are present on a big extent of year. Winters not long, but rather frosty. Average winter temperature -5 -7 degrees Celsius, can sometimes reach -15 -17 degrees Celsius. Snow cover low power. Strong winds cause long snowstorms. Summer always hot and long. Average summer temperature +34 +36 degrees Celsius, can sometimes reach +45 degrees Celsius; the rare rains have storm character. Average annual amount of precipitation of 120 mm. Rainfall is evenly distributed for all year the increase in rainfall is observed during the spring period. Population of the town with the adjacent villages of Kyzylsay and Rakhat for the end of the 2012 reporting period made 129,600 people or 22.2% of the total population of the Mangystau region. In comparison, of 2012 the population increased on 4,500 people due to birth rate growth.

National structure - Kazakhs, Russians and other nations. Futsal club of Munaishy acting in the championship of Kazakhstan on a futsal. Stadium of Amin Tuyakov. Physical culture-improvements complex of Rakhmet Utesinov. "Energetik" children-young mans sport school. Zhanaozen is a terminal station at the railway connecting it to Gorgan; the city transport is presented by passenger "GAZellees" and private taxi. The cost of passenger journey — 40 tenge's, a taxi — 150 — 300 tenge's. Altynay Sapargalieva Railway stations in Kazakhstan