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Louis de Broglie

Louis Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie, 7th duc de Broglie was a French physicist who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory. In his 1924 PhD thesis, he postulated the wave nature of electrons and suggested that all matter has wave properties; this concept is known as the de Broglie hypothesis, an example of wave–particle duality, forms a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics. De Broglie won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929, after the wave-like behaviour of matter was first experimentally demonstrated in 1927; the 1925 pilot-wave model, the wave-like behaviour of particles discovered by de Broglie was used by Erwin Schrödinger in his formulation of wave mechanics. The pilot-wave model and interpretation was abandoned, in favor of the quantum formalism, until 1952 when it was rediscovered and enhanced by David Bohm. Louis de Broglie was the sixteenth member elected to occupy seat 1 of the Académie française in 1944, served as Perpetual Secretary of the French Academy of Sciences.

De Broglie became the first high-level scientist to call for establishment of a multi-national laboratory, a proposal that led to the establishment of the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Louis de Broglie was born to a noble family in Dieppe, Seine-Maritime, younger son of Victor, 5th duc de Broglie, he became the 7th duc de Broglie in 1960 upon the death without heir of his older brother, Maurice, 6th duc de Broglie a physicist. He never married; when he died in Louveciennes, he was succeeded as duke by a distant cousin, Victor-François, 8th duc de Broglie. De Broglie had intended a career in humanities, received his first degree in history. Afterwards he received a degree in physics. With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, he offered his services to the army in the development of radio communications, his 1924 thesis Recherches sur la théorie des quanta introduced his theory of electron waves. This included the wave–particle duality theory of matter, based on the work of Max Planck and Albert Einstein on light.

This research culminated in the de Broglie hypothesis stating that any moving particle or object had an associated wave. De Broglie thus created a new field in physics, the mécanique ondulatoire, or wave mechanics, uniting the physics of energy and matter. For this he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1929. In his career, de Broglie worked to develop a causal explanation of wave mechanics, in opposition to the wholly probabilistic models which dominate quantum mechanical theory; the theory has since been known as the De Broglie–Bohm theory. In addition to scientific work, de Broglie thought and wrote about the philosophy of science, including the value of modern scientific discoveries. De Broglie became a member of the Académie des sciences in 1933, was the academy's perpetual secretary from 1942, he was asked to join Le Conseil de l'Union Catholique des Scientifiques Francais, but declined because he was non-religious and an atheist. On 12 October 1944, he was elected to the Académie française.

Because of the deaths and imprisonments of Académie members during the occupation and other effects of the war, the Académie was unable to meet the quorum of twenty members for his election. In an event unique in the history of the Académie, he was received as a member by his own brother Maurice, elected in 1934. UNESCO awarded him the first Kalinga Prize in 1952 for his work in popularizing scientific knowledge, he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society on 23 April 1953. In 1961, he received the title of Knight of the Grand Cross in the Légion d'honneur. De Broglie was awarded a post as counselor to the French High Commission of Atomic Energy in 1945 for his efforts to bring industry and science closer together, he established a center for applied mechanics at the Henri Poincaré Institute, where research into optics and atomic energy were carried out. He inspired the formation of the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science and was an early member, his funeral was held 23 March 1987 at the Church of Saint-Pierre-de-Neuilly.

"The fundamental idea of was the following: The fact that, following Einstein's introduction of photons in light waves, one knew that light contains particles which are concentrations of energy incorporated into the wave, suggests that all particles, like the electron, must be transported by a wave into which it is incorporated... My essential idea was to extend to all particles the coexistence of waves and particles discovered by Einstein in 1905 in the case of light and photons." "With every particle of matter with mass m and velocity v a real wave must be'associated'", related to the momentum by the equation: λ = h p = h m v 1 − v 2 c 2 where λ is the wavelength, h is the Planck constant, p is the momentum, m is the rest mass, v is the velocity and c is the speed of light in a vacuum." This theory set the basis of wave mechanics. It was su

Zarah Razafimahatratra

Zarah Razafimahatratra is a retired Malagasy tennis player. Razafimahatratra was Madagascar's top female tennis player, she won five doubles titles on the ITF Women's Circuit. In 2013, she made her debut for the Madagascar Fed Cup team, she had her maiden appearance against Cyprus in Moldova on the 9th of May, helping the team to a win following a decade of absence. On the junior circuit, she achieved her career-high ranking of world number 22 on 29 January 2012. Razafimahatratra began her 2012 season with back-to-back Grade-1 junior tournaments in South America, losing in the first round of both, the first being in Costa Rica and the second in Venezuela. In March, she headed to South Africa to play three consecutive Grade-2 tournaments in Potchefstroom, she reached the quarterfinals of all three tournaments. After this, Razafimahatratra travelled to Europe for the big junior clay court season, playing four tournaments, both Grade-1 and Grade- A, with her best result being a quarterfinal, she lost in the second round of three consecutive junior tournaments.

As it turned out, these would be the last junior tournaments. In October, she began focusing on her professional career, played a 25k tournament in Lagos, under a wild-card entry. In the first round, she defeated Kyra Shroff before another win over Viktoriya Tomova in the second round. In the quarterfinals, she met the top seed from Russia, Nina Bratchikova, despite taking the first set, the eighteen-year-old was defeated. In doubles, she reached the quarterfinals alongside Valeria Patiuk; the following week, Razafimahatratra was forced to qualify. She did so, after defeating Maria Sakkari in the first round lost to Lu Jiajing in the second, she reached the quarterfinal of the doubles tournament with Patiuk. Zarah's final tournaments of the year were back-to-back 10k events in South Africa, she reached the semifinals of the first tournament before being blasted out by Chanel Simmonds, winning not a single game. In doubles, she reached the final alongside Lynn Kiro. In the second tournament in Potchefstroom, Zarah doubles champion.

Razafimahatratra's 2013 campaign began with four consecutive 10k tournaments in Sharm El Sheikh. In the first event, she lost a three-set match against eventual champion Adrijana Lekaj, but went on to win the doubles with Romanian Ilka Csöregi; the following week, she lost in the second round to the second seed, but once more lifted the doubles trophy with Csöregi. In the third tournament, she fared better in singles, reaching the semifinals without dropping a set, before being defeated by Darya Lebesheva. Zarah Razafimahatratra at the Women's Tennis Association Zarah Razafimahatratra at the International Tennis Federation Zarah Razafimahatratra at the Fed Cup Zarah Razafimahatratra at the International Olympic Committee

Capital East Midlands

Capital East Midlands was a regional radio station owned and operated by Global Radio as part of the Capital radio network, broadcasting to the East Midlands from studios in Nottingham. It launched on 3 January 2011 following the merger of Trent FM, Leicester Sound and Ram FM. In April 2019, the station was merged with a sister Capital station in Birmingham to form Capital Midlands; the regional station broadcast as three stations – Radio Trent began broadcasting to Nottinghamshire in July 1975 expanding its coverage area to central and southern Derbyshire in March 1987 with split local programming introduced for the area. The Derbyshire station was relaunched in 1994 as Ram FM. Leicester Sound was launched in Leicestershire in September 1984, just over 11 months after the county's first ILR station, Centre Radio, went into receivership. Both Trent FM and Leicester Sound were owned by Midlands Radio until a takeover by Capital Radio plc led to the stations being sold off to the GWR Group in 1993.

In 2005, the owners merged with Capital to form GCap Media, taken over by Global Radio. In June 2008, Global launched The Hit Music Network on Trent, Leicester Sound and Ram FM alongside Ten 17 in Essex, Hertfordshire's Mercury 96.6 and Mercury FM in Sussex and Surrey. Local programming was restricted to daily breakfast and weekday afternoon & drive time slots with networked output originating from Nottingham. Two other Hit Music stations – London's 95.8 Capital FM and Red Dragon FM in south east Wales retained local output. On 13 September 2010, Global Radio announced it would merge Trent FM, Leicester Sound and Ram FM to form a sole regional station as part of a merger between its Hit Music and Galaxy network stations to form the nine-station Capital radio network; the merger led to the closure of studios in advertising offices in Derby. On 26 February 2019, Global confirmed. From Monday 8 April 2019, regional output will consist of a three-hour Drivetime show from Birmingham on weekdays, alongside news bulletins, traffic updates and advertising.

Local breakfast and weekend shows were replaced with network programming from London. The last local programming from Capital East Midlands aired on Friday 5 April 2019. Local news and advertising for the region continues to air as opt-outs - the station retains offices in Nottingham. Capital East Midlands

We Will Rock You (musical)

We Will Rock You is a jukebox musical based on the songs of British rock band Queen with a book by Ben Elton. The musical tells the story of a group of Bohemians who struggle to restore the free exchange of thought and live music in a distant future where everyone dresses and acts the same. Musical instruments and composers are forbidden, rock music is all but unknown. Directed by Christopher Renshaw and choreographed by Arlene Phillips, the original West End production opened at the Dominion Theatre on 14 May 2002, with Tony Vincent, Hannah Jane Fox, Sharon D. Clarke and Kerry Ellis in principal roles. Although the musical was at first panned by critics, it has become an audience favourite, becoming the longest-running musical at the Dominion Theatre, celebrating its tenth anniversary on 14 May 2012; the eleventh longest-running musical in West End history, the London production closed on 31 May 2014 after a final performance in which Brian May and Roger Taylor both performed. A number of international productions have since followed the original, We Will Rock You has been seen in six of the world's continents.

Many productions are still active globally. According to Brian May, Queen's manager Jim Beach had spoken with the band about creating a jukebox musical with Queen's songs since the mid-1990s; the intent was to create a biographical story of Freddie Mercury. About this time, Robert De Niro's production company Tribeca expressed interest in a Queen musical, but it found the original idea difficult to work with. In 2000, Ben Elton was approached to start talks with Taylor on the project, he suggested taking the musical down a different path than imagined, creating an original story that would capture the spirit of much of their music. He worked with May and Taylor to incorporate Queen's songs into the story. Elton has stated that he was in part inspired by the computer-controlled dystopia of the science-fiction film The Matrix; the script was completed midway through 2001. London's critics uniformly panned the show, criticising the concept and direction; the Guardian wrote that the premise "really is as sixth form as it sounds", called the production "ruthlessly packaged and manufactured" and opined that the "sometimes funny" libretto exists to "devise more unlikely ways to wring out another Queen song."

The Daily Mirror wrote that "Ben Elton should be shot for this risible story." The Daily Telegraph described it as "guaranteed to bore you rigid" and "prolefeed at its worst." However, some individual performances received the production remains a popular success. The original production of We Will Rock You opened on 12 May 2002 at the Dominion Theatre, with previews beginning on 26 April. Tony Vincent played the lead role of Galileo, with Hannah Jane Fox as Scaramouche, Sharon D. Clarke as Killer Queen, Nigel Planer as Pop, Nigel Clauzel as Brit and Kerry Ellis as Meat. For her performance, Clarke was nominated for "Best Performance in a Supporting Role in a Musical or Entertainment" at the 2003 Olivier Awards. On 17 August 2005 We Will Rock You became the longest running musical at that venue, surpassing the previous record-holder Grease; this is a notable achievement because the Dominion Theatre is one of the largest theatrical venues in The West End, with a seating a capacity of 2,163 patrons.

At the 2011 Laurence Olivier Awards, the show won the Audience Award for Most Popular Show. Notable cast replacements include Mig Ayesa. Mazz Murray took over the role of Killer Queen after Sharon D. Clarke's departure in April 2004. Murray left the production in August 2011, which made her the longest running principal cast member, although she left the production in September 2010 for maternity leave. Brenda Edwards, an X-Factor semi-finalist in 2005 performed the role of Killer Queen. On 22 September 2008 I'd Do Anything semi-finalist, Rachel Tucker, began performing in the role of Meat, she left the production on 19 September 2009. The role was taken on by Irish born performer Louise Bowden, who had performed in several prolific musicals including Mamma Mia!, Guys and Dolls and Mary Poppins. Bowden unexpectedly quit the production in May 2010, it was left to Amanda Coutts to perform the role Meat. Coutts was Bowden's understudy; the West End production featured a nine piece live band under the musical direction of Stuart Morley.

A national UK tour was launched in 2009 at the Palace Manchester. The 2009 tour cast included, Alex Gaumond as Galileo, Sarah French-Ellis as Scaramouche, Brenda Edwards as Killer Queen, Georgina Hagen as Meat, Jonathan Wilkes as Khashoggi, Kevin Kennedy as Pop. Gaumond and French-Ellis returned to play their characters in the West End and were Galileo and Scaramouche. A second UK tour launched in December 2010 at the Palace Manchester. On 11 March 2014 it was announced the West End production would close on 31 May 2014, shortly after its 12th Anniversary, after 4600 performances at the Dominion Theatre; the show embarked on a further tour of the UK and Ireland in 2019, beginning at Bromley Churchill Theatre on 16 September 2019. The first international production premiered at the Regent Theatre in Melbourne, Australia on 7 August 2003; the cast included Michael Falzon as Galileo, Kate Hoolihan as Scaramouche and Annie Crummer as Killer Queen. Amanda Harrison, who originated Oz in this Melbourne production, had been in the ensemble of the original London production.

The production closed at this venue on 4 March 2004 to make way for Australian tour stops at Burswood Theatre, Quee

Hormonal contraception

Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system. All methods are composed of steroid hormones, although in India one selective estrogen receptor modulator is marketed as a contraceptive; the original hormonal method—the combined oral contraceptive pill—was first marketed as a contraceptive in 1960. In the ensuing decades many other delivery methods have been developed, although the oral and injectable methods are by far the most popular. Altogether, 18% of the world's contraceptive users rely on hormonal methods. Hormonal contraception is effective: when taken on the prescribed schedule, users of steroid hormone methods experience pregnancy rates of less than 1% per year. Perfect-use pregnancy rates for most hormonal contraceptives are around the 0.3% rate or less. Available methods can only be used by women. There are two main types of hormonal contraceptive formulations: combined methods which contain both an estrogen and a progestin, progestogen-only methods which contain only progesterone or one of its synthetic analogues.

Combined methods work by thickening cervical mucus. The incidence of certain side effects is different for the different formulations: for example, breakthrough bleeding is much more common with progestogen-only methods. Certain serious complications caused by estrogen-containing contraceptives are not believed to be caused by progestogen-only formulations: deep vein thrombosis is one example of this. Hormonal contraception is used for the prevention of pregnancy, but is prescribed for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, menstrual disorders such as dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia, hirsutism. Hormonal treatments, such as hormonal contraceptives, are successful at alleviating symptoms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Birth control pills are prescribed to reverse the effects of excessive androgen levels, decrease ovarian hormone production. Hormonal birth control methods such as birth control pills, the contraceptive patch, vaginal ring, contraceptive implant, hormonal IUD are used to treat cramping and pain associated with primary dysmenorrhea.

Oral contraceptives are prescribed in the treatment of menorrhagia to help regulate menstrual cycles and prevent prolonged menstrual bleeding. The hormonal IUD releases levonorgestrel which thins the uterine lining, preventing excessive bleeding and loss of iron. Birth control pills are the most prescribed hormonal treatment for hirsutism, as they prevent ovulation and decrease androgen production by the ovaries. Additionally, estrogen in the pills stimulates the liver to produce more of a protein that binds to androgens and reduces their activity. Modern contraceptives using steroid hormones have perfect-use or method failure rates of less than 1% per year; the lowest failure rates are seen at 0.05 % per year. According to Contraceptive Technology, none of these methods has a failure rate greater than 0.3% per year. The SERM ormeloxifene is less effective than the steroid hormone methods. Long-acting methods such as the implant and the IUS are user-independent methods. For user-independent methods, the typical or actual-use failure rates are the same as the method failure rates.

Methods that require regular action by the user—such as taking a pill every day—have typical failure rates higher than perfect-use failure rates. Contraceptive Technology reports a typical failure rate of 3% per year for the injection Depo-Provera, 8% per year for most other user-dependent hormonal methods. While no large studies have been done, it is hoped that newer methods which require less frequent action will result in higher user compliance and therefore lower typical failure rates. There is little evidence that there is an association between being overweight and the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives. While unpredictable breakthrough bleeding is a possible side effect for all hormonal contraceptives, it is more common with progestogen-only formulations. Most regimens of COCPs, NuvaRing, the contraceptive patch incorporate a placebo or break week that causes regular withdrawal bleeding. While women using combined injectable contraceptives may experience amenorrhea, they have predictable bleeding comparable to that of women using COCPs.

Although high-quality studies are lacking, it is believed that estrogen-containing contraceptives decrease the quantity of milk in breastfeeding women. Progestogen-only contraceptives are not believed to have this effect. In addition, while in general the progestogen-only pill is less effective than other hormonal contraceptives, the added contraceptive effect of breastfeeding makes it effective in breastfeeding women. While combined contraceptives increase the risk for deep vein thrombosis, progestogen-only contraceptives are not believed to affect DVT formation. There is a mixed effect of combined hormonal contraceptives on the rates of various cancers, with the International Agency for Research on Cancer stating: "It was concluded that, if the reported association was causal, the excess risk for breast cancer associated with typical patterns of current use of combined oral contraceptives was small." And saying that "there is conclusive evidence that these agents have a protective effect against cancers of the ovary and endometrium": The notes that "the weight of the evide


The family Thermodesulfobiaceae according to the LPSN is located within the order Thermoanaerobacterales and class Clostridia. However, according to the All-Species Living Tree Project it lies outside the clade Firmicutes and the genus Caldanaerovirga does not belong to the clade, i.e. Thermodesulfobiaceae is polyphyletic; this family included two genera. The most recent classification updates are reported by the National Center for Biotechnology Information though some taxonomy considering former versions of the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, or old releases of 16S rRNA-based tree from The All-Species Living Tree Project, may still include it