Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans
Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans, was the Duchess of Modena and Reggio by marriage. She was the third daughter of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, of his wife, Françoise-Marie de Bourbon, she was born a princesse. When a married woman, she had ten children. Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans was born at her parents' residence in Paris; as a young child, Charlotte Aglaé was known at court as Mademoiselle de Valois. Her second name comes from the youngest of the three Greek Charites. At a young age and Louise Adélaïde were placed in the Abbey of Chelles, which her sister would years later'rule' as abbess. Charlotte Aglaé was one of eight children. In 1714, she was sent by her parents to Val-de-Grâce Abbey. At that time, her marriage became the preoccupation of her family, her older sister, the Duchess of Berry suggested that she marry the young Louis Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, the son of François Louis, Prince of Conti and of his wife Marie Thérèse de Bourbon, but Louis XIV would not give his consent to the union.
In 1715, Charlotte Aglaé moved into the Palais-Royal with her family. The following year, her mother suggested her marriage to her first cousin, Louis Auguste de Bourbon, prince de Dombes, son of her uncle, Louis Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine, but Charlotte Aglaé refused. Shortly thereafter, Charlotte Aglaé went to live at the Château de Saint-Cloud with her paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, the Dowager Duchess of Orléans, known as Madame at court, her grandmother made a pen portrait of her granddaughter at this time: Mademoiselle de Valois is not, in my opinion and yet she does not look ugly. She has something like charms, for her colour and her skin are good, she has white teeth, a large, ill-looking nose, one prominent tooth, which when she laughs has a bad effect The Dowager Duchess of Orléans said of her granddaughter that: She has a good deal of the Mortemart family in her, is as much like the Duchess of Sforza, the sister of Montespan Her cousin, Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon, proposed to her on behalf of his younger brother, Charles de Bourbon, comte de Charolais.
Charlotte Aglaé is said to have considered the proposal but her parents refused outright. In 1718, Charlotte Aglaé began a romantic affair with Louis François Armand du Plessis, duc de Richelieu. In 1719, the duke was arrested and jailed in Hem in connection with his participation in the Cellamare Conspiracy. Charlotte Aglaé visited the duke several times in prison. Wishing to marry him, she urged the Regent, to pardon him, her older cousin, Louise Anne de Bourbon, was another of the promiscuous Richelieu's conquests. The cousins, who had never been close, became bitter enemies due to their simultaneous romantic involvement with the womanising duke; this enmity continued. The young Louise-Anne was considered the most attractive daughter of Louis III, Prince of Condé. Against Charlotte Aglaé's wishes, the Regent accepted an offer of marriage for his daughter, proffered by Rinaldo d'Este, Sovereign Duke of Modena for his son and heir, Prince Francesco d'Este. Earlier projects to marry Charlotte Aglaé to either an English prince or to Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia had failed.
Her grandmother is known to have written to Charlotte Aglaé's aunt, Anne Marie d'Orléans, Queen of Sicily, on the marriage proposal. As a pre-condition to the liberation of Richelieu, her lover, it was decided that she would marry the heir of Modena. According to her grandmother's writings, her future husband had fallen in love with the young Charlotte Aglaé upon, "the mere sight of her portrait". Few expected the marriage to succeed, her distant cousin, Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, wedded against her will to Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1661, had suffered through a disastrous marriage. Marguerite was forced to return to France in disgrace. People assumed that the same fate awaited Charlotte Aglaé; the Grand Duchess noticed the similarities between herself and her younger cousin and, unable to deal with the situation, refused to speak to Charlotte Aglaé about her impending nuptials: the Grand Duchess of Tuscany says that she will not see Mademoiselle de Valois nor speak to her, knowing well what Italy is, believing that Mademoiselle de Valois will not be able to reconcile herself to it.
She is afraid that if her niece should return to France they will say, "There is the second edition of the Grand Duchess". The original date for the marriage was 25 January 1720, but this date was postponed until the next month due to an oversight by the Bishop of Modena. Despite this, the marriage certificate was signed on 31 January. On 11 February 1720, a proxy marriage was performed at the Tuileries Palace, her brother, the Duke of Chartres stood in for his future brother-in-law, while her younger sister Louise Élisabeth held her train. After this, there was a banquet at the Palais Royal where the young king Louis XV attended and presented his gifts to the new Hereditary Princess of Modena. Charlotte Aglaé set off first for next Genoa. Arriving in Reggio on 20 June, she met her father-in-law and brother-in-law for the first time; the formal wedding ceremony took place on 21 June 1720 in Modena. Charlotte Aglaé received an enormous dowry of 1.8 million livres, half of, contributed in the name of the young king, Louis XV, on orders of the Regent.
From her adopted country, Charlote Aglaé received a trousseau consisting of diamonds and portraits of her future husband. As her husband's mother had died in 1710, the Hereditary Princess was the most senior princess in Modena. Although by ran
Henry IV of France
Henry IV known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on his mother's death. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, he led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry IV and his predecessor Henry III of France are both direct descendants of the Saint-King Louis IX. Henry III belonged to the House of Valois, descended from Philip III of France, elder son of Saint Louis; as Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was "first prince of the blood."
Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law. He kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith; as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby ending the Wars of Religion. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts. An unpopular king among his contemporaries, Henry gained more status after his death, he was admired for his conversion to Catholicism. The "Good King Henry" was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. An active ruler, he worked to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, eliminate corruption and encourage education.
During his reign, the French colonization of the Americas began with the foundation of the colony of Acadia and its capital Port-Royal. He was celebrated in Voltaire's Henriade. Henry de Bourbon was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn, his parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, King of Navarre. Although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre; as a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion. On 9 June 1572, upon his mother's death, the 19-year-old became King of Navarre. At Queen Joan's death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici; the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre began in Paris. Several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henry's wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed.
Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and his promise to convert to Catholicism. He was forced to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and rejoined the Protestant forces in the military conflict, he named Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years. Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574; because Henry of Navarre was the next senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognise him as the legitimate successor. Salic law barred the king's sisters and all others who could claim descent through only the female line from inheriting. Since Henry of Navarre was a Huguenot, the issue was not considered settled in many quarters of the country, France was plunged into a phase of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries.
Henry III and Henry of Navarre were two of these Henries. The third was Henry I, Duke of Guise, who pushed for complete suppression of the Huguenots and had much support among Catholic loyalists. Political disagreements among the parties set off a series of campaigns and counter-campaigns that culminated in the Battle of Coutras. In December 1588, Henry III had Henry I of Guise murdered, along with his brother, Cardinal de Guise. Henry III thought that the removal of the brothers would restore his authority. However, the populace rose against him. In several cities, the title of the king was no longer recognized, his power was limited to Blois and the surrounding districts. In the general chaos, Henry III relied on King Henry of his Huguenots; the two kings were united by a common interest—to win France from the Catholic League. Henry III acknowledged the King of Navarre as a true subject and Frenchman, not a fanatic Huguenot aiming for the destruction of
Louis, Duke of Orléans (1703–1752)
Louis, Duke of Orléans was a member of the royal family of France, the House of Bourbon, as such was a prince du sang. At his father's death, he became the First Prince of the Blood. Known as Louis le Pieux and as Louis le Génovéfain, Louis was a pious and cultured prince, who took little part in the politics of the time. Louis d'Orléans was born at the Palace of Versailles in 1703 to Philippe II, Duke of Orléans and his wife, Françoise Marie de Bourbon, the youngest legitimised daughter of Louis XIV and of his mistress Madame de Montespan, he was the only son of eight children, at his birth, he was given the courtesy title of Duke of Chartres as the heir to the Orléans fortune and titles. His maternal grandfather, the king, in addition gave him the pension reserved for the First Prince of the Blood, a rank he was not yet eligible to hold, he was brought up by his mother and his grandmother, Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, tutored by Nicolas-Hubert Mongault, the illegitimate son of Jean-Baptiste Colbert de Saint-Pouange, a cousin of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV's minister.
He was close to his mother, the two remaining close till her death in 1749. Louis was close to his younger sister Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, to become Queen of Spain for seven months in 1724, he was not, close to his older sister, Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans, the wife of Francesco d'Este, Duke of Modena. They were in frequent conflict during her many return visits to the French court from Modena. Upon the death of his maternal grandfather Louis XIV in 1715, his father was selected to be the regent of the country for the five-year-old new king, Louis XV; the court was moved to Paris so his father could govern the country with the young king close by his side. Louis XV was installed in the Palais du Louvre opposite the Palais-Royal, the Paris home of the Orléans family. During the regency, Louis was seen as the "third personage of the kingdom" after Louis XV and his own father, the Regent, he was formally admitted to the Conseil de Régence on 30 January 1718. Despite his father's wishes, Louis was never to play an overly public or political role in France.
The following year, he was made the governor of the Dauphiné. He was not forced, however, he resigned. In 1720, he became Grand Master of the Order of Jerusalem. In 1721, under his father's influence, he was named Colonel général de l'Infanterie and held that post until 1730. Upon the death of his father on 2 December 1723, the twenty-year-old Louis assumed the hereditary title of Duke of Orléans and became the head of the House of Orléans, he became the next in line to the throne of France until the birth of Louis XV's first-born son in 1729. This was because King Philip V of Spain, the second son of the Grand Dauphin and uncle of the young king, had renounced his rights to the French throne for himself, his descendants, upon his accession to the throne of Spain in 1700. Although the Regent had hoped that his son would assume as prominent a role in government as he had, the post of prime minister went to Louis' older cousin, Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon, when the Regent died. Trying to consolidate and maintain his power at court, the Duke of Bourbon was always suspicious of Louis' motivations and was opposed to him.
In 1723, Louis was conspicuous for his hostility to Cardinal Dubois. Louis worked with Claude le Blanc and Nicolas Prosper Bauyn d'Angervilliers in the post of Secretary of State for War. In 1721, the ambassador of France to Russia suggested a marriage between Louis and one of the two unmarried daughters of Peter I of Russia: the Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna or her younger sister, Grand Duchess Yelizaveta Petrovna, but the idea of a marriage with a Russian Grand Duchess had to be abandoned as there soon arose difficulties relative to religion and order of precedence. Louis was "only" a great-grandson of the king of France and as such was only entitled to the style of Serene Highness. A Russian grand duchess, however, as a daughter of the tsar, was entitled to the style of Imperial Highness. Anna Petrovna married a duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. Another possible bride, considered for him was his first cousin Élisabeth Alexandrine de Bourbon, she was the youngest daughter of Louise-Françoise de Bourbon.
Élisabeth Alexandrine was however, the younger sister of his main rival, the Duke of Bourbon. In 1723, a German princess was suggested, she was Johanna of Baden-Baden, the daughter of Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden and his wife Sibylle Auguste of Saxe-Lauenburg. The marriage was agreed upon by his mother, the bride's small dowry set at 80,000 livres; the marriage by proxy took place on 18 June 1724 at Rastatt, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany on 13 July in the town of Sarry, in France. It was at Sarry, they fell in love at first sight. At the French court, the new Duchess of Orléans was known as Jeanne de Bade; the ducal couple had two children. On 5 September 1725, the court celebrated the marriage of Louis XV to the Polish princess, Marie Leszczyńska at Fontainebleau. Earlier, Orléans had represented Louis XV at the proxy marriage ceremony, which had taken place the previous 15 August at Strasbourg; the young queen would have a lot of sympathy for the quiet and pious Duke. The following year, on 8 August 1726, the du
Philip V of Spain
Philip V was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 14 January 1724, from his reaccession of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746. Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a grandson of King Louis XIV, his father, Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain when it became vacant in 1700. However, since neither the Grand Dauphin nor Philip's older brother, Duke of Burgundy, could be displaced from their place in the succession to the French throne, the Grand Dauphin's maternal uncle King Charles II of Spain named Philip as his heir in his will, it was well known that the union of France and Spain under one monarch would upset the balance of power in Europe, such that other European powers would take steps to prevent it. Indeed, Philip's accession in Spain provoked the 13-year War of the Spanish Succession, which continued until the Treaty of Utrecht forbade any future possibility of unifying the French and Spanish thrones.
Philip was the first member of the French House of Bourbon to rule as king of Spain. The sum of his two reigns, 45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history. Philip was born at the Palace of Versailles in France the second son of Louis, Grand Dauphin, the heir apparent to the throne of France, his wife Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, Dauphine Victoire, he was Duke of Burgundy, the father of Louis XV of France. At birth, Philip was created Duke of Anjou, a traditional title for younger sons in the French royal family, he would be known by this name. Since Philip's older brother, the Duke of Burgundy, was second in line to the French throne after his father, there was little expectation that either he or his younger brother Charles, Duke of Berry, would rule over France. Philip lived his first years under the supervision of the royal governess Louise de Prie, was after, tutored with his brothers by François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai; the three were educated by Paul de Beauvilliers.
In 1700 King Charles II of Spain died childless. His will named as successor the 17-year-old Philip, grandson of Charles' half-sister Maria Theresa, the first wife of Louis XIV. Upon any possible refusal, the crown of Spain would be offered next to Philip's younger brother, the Duke of Berry to the Archduke Charles of Austria Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. Philip had the better genealogical claim to the Spanish throne, because his Spanish grandmother and great-grandmother were older than the ancestors of the Archduke Charles of Austria. However, the Austrians maintained that Philip's grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne for herself and her descendants as part of her marriage contract; the French claimed. After a long Royal Council meeting in France at which the Dauphin spoke up in favour of his son's rights, it was agreed that Philip would ascend the throne, but he would forever renounce his claim to the throne of France for himself and his descendants; the Royal Council decided to accept the provisions of the will of Charles II naming Philip king of Spain, the Spanish ambassador was called in and introduced to his new king.
The ambassador, along with his son, knelt before Philip and made a long speech in Spanish, which Philip did not understand. On 2 November 1701 the 18-year-old Philip married the 13-year-old Maria Luisa of Savoy, as chosen by his grandfather King Louis XIV, by an old man of 63, she was the daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, Philip's second cousin Anne Marie d'Orléans the parents of the Duchess of Burgundy, Philip's sister-in-law. There was a proxy ceremony at Turin, the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, another one at Versailles on 11 September. Maria Luisa proved popular as Queen of Spain, she served as regent for her husband on several occasions. Her most successful term was when Philip was away touring his Italian domains for nine months in 1702, when she was just 14 years old. On entering Naples that year he was presented with Bernini's Boy with a Dragon by Carlo Barberini. In 1714, Maria Luisa died at the age of 26 from tuberculosis, a devastating emotional blow to her husband; the actions of Louis XIV heightened the fears of the English, the Dutch and the Austrians, among others.
In February 1701, Louis XIV caused the Parlement of Paris to register a decree that if Philip's elder brother, the Petit Dauphin Louis, died without an heir Philip would surrender the throne of Spain for the succession to the throne of France, ensuring dynastic continuity in Europe's greatest land power. However, a second act of the French king "justified a hostile interpretation": pursuant to a treaty with Spain, Louis occupied several towns in the Spanish Netherlands; this was the spark that ignited the powder keg created by the unresolved issues of the War of the League of Augsburg and the acceptance of the Spanish inheritance by Louis XIV for his grandson. The War of the Spanish Succession began. Concern among other European powers that Spain and France united under a single Bourbon monarch would upset the balance of power pitted powerful France and weak Spain against the Grand Alliance of England, the Netherlands and Austria. Inside Spain, the Crown of Castile supported Philip of France.
On the other hand, the majority of the nobility of the Crown of Aragon supported Charles of
Jean Ranc was a French painter active in portraiture. He trained under his father Antoine Ranc and his father's former student Hyacinthe Rigaud and served in the courts of both Louis XV of France and Philip V of Spain. Ranc "the younger" was born in Montpellier, the son of the provincial portraitist Antoine Ranc "the elder". Antoine had a personal collection of paintings by the European masters, received many young artists into his studio, including Hyacinthe Rigaud from 1671. Jean Ranc moved to Paris in 1696, became the student of Rigaud, working in his studio. Ranc registered with the Académie on 30 December 1700, being received into it on 28 July 1703 as a portraitist for his portraits of Nicolas Van Plattenberg, known as "Platte-Montagne" and that of François Verdier. Despite aspirations to become a history painter, he was never received as such by the Académie. Jean Ranc became established as a portraitist to the Parisian bourgeoisie and produced a large number of paintings in the styles of Rigaud and Nattier.
On 13 June 1715 he married his god-daughter and the niece of his teacher, Marguerite Elisabeth Rigaud, daughter of the painter Gaspard. On the Bourbons' arrival in Spain with the coronation of Philip V, grandson of Louis XIV of France, none of the French painters sent to Spain seemed to be making any impact. Repeated excuses were made to the French court for the low quality of the portraits sent them by the Spanish Bourbons. Philip V wrote to Versailles in 1721 not only to obtain a beautiful portrait of the teenage Louis XV but to obtain a French painter worthy of this name amidst the famous triumvirate De Troy and Rigaud. Rigaud was most preferred by Philip, having painted him masterfully in 1701, but Rigaud guided him towards the young artists better suited to moving to a far-off country, such as Jean Raoux from Montpellier. Raoux refused the offer and next Rigaud thought of Jean Ranc, who had married Rigaud's niece in 1715. All these transactions were aided by cardinal Dubois first minister to Louis XV.
Thus began Ranc's main career. Hoping to have a high-flying career in a country where there was no French portraitist to equal or surpass him, Ranc left for Madrid, arriving in 1724 with his five children: Antoine Jean-Baptiste, Marguerite Elisabeth and Hyacinthe-Joseph. Two further children, Jean-Baptiste and Antonia, were born in Madrid. Ranc spent a year in Lisbon from 1729 to 1730 to sketch the faces of the Portuguese monarchy. Thanks to his fashion of allying the "melting touch of Rigaud with the Castilian vehemence of Vélasquez", he established a new iconography for the Spanish Bourbons; this met with the approval of Philip V, who found in Ranc's portrait of his son Charles III a good alternative to Spanish works by Carreno de Miranda. Suffering from criticism by Spaniards "who sought to do only harm to a foreigner", Ranc's stay in Spain was not at all restful. In vain he demanded the cross of the Order of Saint Michael or the post of Maestro de Obras Reales, left vacant by the death of Andréa Procaccini.
In Spain he had a long and serious dispute with his colleague Michel Ange Houasse due to their artistic jealousy and desire to excel at court. The Royal Alcazar of Madrid was destroyed in a fire at Christmas 1734; the fire had started in one of Ranc's rooms at the old Habsburg palace. Suffering from problems with his sight, Ranc became depressed, died in Madrid in 1735, aged 61. On Ranc's death, Rigaud was once again asked to choose an official painter to the Spanish court, as attested by Dezallier d'Argenville: Ranc had a close relationship with Rigaud. Ranc's style is thus indebted to Rigaud's and works by him have sometimes been misattributed to Rigaud or to others. For example, when sent to auction at the Hôtel Drouot in 1993, his portraits of Joseph Bonnier de la Mosson and his wife were wrongly attributed to Rigaud and said to represent the President of La Mésangère and his wife; the male portrait proved to be an exact replica of Ranc's portrait of Joseph Bonnier de la Mosson at the Musée Fabre in Montpellier, while the portrait of his wife followed the formula of Rigaud's portrait of Madame Le Gendre de Villedieu, illustrating the close relationship between their styles.
In his 1710 portrait of Joseph Delaselle, a merchant and arms-dealer from Nantes Ranc used Rigaud's vocabulary of drapery and a relaxed pose in a rural landscape. His 1719 portrait of the nine-year-old Louis XV in royal costume echoes Rigaud's portrait of the five-year-old Louis; the imitation is such that Ranc uses not only similar regalia, but the heavy drape animating the scene, the column and the ermine mantle. In his portraits of members of the Spanish court, Ranc would imitate Rigaud's style more but with less suppleness and vitality. Ranc made use of military posture and details drawn from Rigaud for a portrait of Daniel-François de Gélos de Voisins d’Ambres, comte de Lautrec: the baton decorated with the fleur-de-lys, the flowing drapery, the extended hand, the tree trunk, the battle scene; this work's attribution to Ranc has sometimes been questioned, another version and its female pendant have been attributed to Jean-Marc Nattier but this portrait shows Rigaud's influence, if not on Ranc
Frederick V of the Palatinate
Frederick V was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, reigned as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620. He was forced to abdicate both roles, the brevity of his reign in Bohemia earned him the derisive nickname of "the Winter King". Frederick was born at the Jagdschloss Deinschwang near Amberg in the Upper Palatinate, he was the son of Frederick IV and of Louise Juliana of Orange-Nassau, the daughter of William the Silent and Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpensier. An intellectual, a mystic, a Calvinist, he succeeded his father as Prince-Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate in 1610, he was responsible for the construction of the famous Hortus Palatinus gardens in Heidelberg. In 1618 the Protestant estates of Bohemia rebelled against their Catholic King Ferdinand, triggering the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War. Frederick was asked to assume the crown of Bohemia, he accepted the offer and was crowned on 4 November 1619, as Frederick I. The estates chose Frederick since he was the leader of the Protestant Union, a military alliance founded by his father, hoped for the support of Frederick's father-in-law, James VI of Scotland and I of England.
However, James opposed the takeover of Bohemia from the Habsburgs and Frederick's allies in the Protestant Union failed to support him militarily by signing the Treaty of Ulm. His brief reign as King of Bohemia ended with his defeat at the Battle of White Mountain on 8 November 1620 – a year and four days after his coronation. After the battle, the Imperial forces invaded Frederick's Palatine lands and he had to flee to his uncle Prince Maurice, Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic in 1622. An Imperial edict formally deprived him of the Palatinate in 1623, he lived the rest of his life in exile with his wife and family at The Hague, died in Mainz in 1632. His eldest surviving son Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, returned to power in 1648 with the end of the war. Another son was Prince Rupert of one of the most colourful figures of his time, his daughter Princess Sophia was named heiress presumptive to the British throne, is the founder of the Hanoverian line of kings. Frederick was born on 26 August 1596 at the Jagdschloss Deinschwang near Amberg in the Upper Palatinate.
His father, Frederick IV, was the ruler of Electoral Palatinate. Frederick was related to all of the ruling families of the Holy Roman Empire and a number of diplomats and dignitaries attended his baptism at Amberg on 6 October 1596; the Palatine Simmerns, a cadet branch of the House of Wittelsbach, were noted for their attachment to Calvinism. The capital of the Palatinate, was suffering from an outbreak of Bubonic plague at this time, so Frederick spent his first two years in the Upper Palatinate before being brought to Heidelberg in 1598. In 1604, at his mother's urging, he was sent to Sedan to live in the court of his uncle Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Duke of Bouillon. During his time at Sedan, Frederick was a frequent visitor to the court of Henry IV of France, his tutor was a professor of theology at the Academy of Sedan. During the Eighty Years' War and the French Wars of Religion, Tilenus called for the unity of Protestant princes, taught that it was their Christian duty to intervene if their brethren were being harassed.
These views are to have shaped Frederick's future policies. On 19 September 1610, Frederick's father, Frederick IV, died from "extravagant living". Under the terms of the Golden Bull of 1356, Frederick's closest male relative would serve as his guardian and as regent of the Palatinate until Frederick reached the age of majority. However, his nearest male relative, Wolfgang William, Count Palatine of Neuburg, was a Catholic, so, shortly before his death, Frederick IV had named another Wittelsbach, John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, as his son's guardian. Frederick V welcomed John to Heidelberg; this led to a heated dispute among the princes of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1613, Holy Roman Emperor intervened in the dispute, with the result being that Frederick V was able to begin his personal rule in the Palatinate though he was still underage; the dispute ended in 1614. However, much bad blood among the houses was caused by this dispute. Frederick IV's marriage policy had been designed to solidify the Palatinate's position within the Reformed camp in Europe.
Two of Frederick V's sisters were married to leading Protestant princes: his sister Luise Juliane to his one-time guardian John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, his sister Elizabeth Charlotte to George William, Elector of Brandenburg. Frederick IV had hoped that his daughter Katharina would marry the future Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, although this never came to pass. In keeping with his father's policy, Frederick V sought a marriage to Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England. James had considered marrying Elizabeth to Louis XIII of France, but these plans were rejected by his advisors. Frederick's advisors in the Palatinate were worried that if Elizabeth were married to a Catholic prince, this would upset the confessional balance of Europe, they were thus resolved th
The Luxembourg Palace is located at 15 Rue de Vaugirard in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. It was built to the designs of the French architect Salomon de Brosse to be the royal residence of the regent Marie de' Medici, mother of Louis XIII of France. After the Revolution it was refashioned by Jean Chalgrin into a legislative building and subsequently enlarged and remodeled by Alphonse de Gisors. Since 1958 it has been the seat of the Senate of the Fifth Republic. West of the palace on the Rue de Vaugirard is the Petit Luxembourg, now the residence of the Senate President. On the south side of the palace, the formal Luxembourg Garden presents a 25-hectare green parterre of gravel and lawn populated with statues and large basins of water where children sail model boats. After the death of Henry IV in 1610, his widow, Marie de' Medici, became regent to her son, Louis XIII. Having acceded to a much more powerful position, she decided to erect a new palace for herself, adjacent to an old hôtel particulier owned by François de Luxembourg, Duc de Piney, now called the Petit Luxembourg and is the residence of the president of the French Senate.
Marie de' Medici desired to make a building similar to her native Florence's Palazzo Pitti. She bought the Hôtel de Luxembourg and its extensive domain in 1612 and commissioned the new building, which she referred to as her Palais Médicis, in 1615, its construction and furnishing formed her major artistic project, though nothing remains today of the interiors as they were created for her, save some architectural fragments reassembled in the Salle du Livre d'Or. The suites of paintings she commissioned, in the subjects of which she expressed her requirements through her agents and advisers, are scattered among museums. De' Medici installed her household in 1625; the apartments in the right wing on the western side were reserved for the Queen and the matching suite to the east, for her son, Louis XIII, when he was visiting. The 24 Marie de' Medici cycle canvases, a series commissioned from Peter Paul Rubens, were installed in the Galerie de Rubens on the main floor of the western wing; these paintings were executed between 1622 and 1625 and depicts Marie's struggles and triumphs in life.
They are now visible in the Galerie Medicis of the Louvre, one of the treasures of the museum's Flemish paintings department. A series of paintings executed for her Cabinet doré was identified by Anthony Blunt in 1967; the gallery in the east wing had been intended for the display of paintings celebrating Henri IV and buildings housing stables and services were planned to either side of the pavilions flanking the entrance on the street, but these projects remained unfinished in 1631, when the Queen Mother was forced from court, following the "Day of the Dupes" in November. Louis XIII commissioned further decorations for the Palace from Nicolas Poussin and Philippe de Champaigne. In 1642, Marie de' Medici bequeathed the Luxembourg to her second and favourite son, duc d'Orléans, who called it the Orléans Palace but by popular will it was still known by its original name. Upon Gaston's death, the palace passed to his widow, Marguerite de Lorraine to his elder daughter by his first marriage, duchesse de Montpensier, La Grande Mademoiselle.
In 1660, Anne de Montpensier sold the Luxembourg to her younger half-sister, Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans, duchesse de Guise who, in turn, gave it to her cousin, King Louis XIV, in 1694. In 1715, the Luxembourg Palace became the residence of Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, Duchess of Berry; the widowed Duchess was notoriously promiscuous, having the reputation of a French Messalina, relentlessly driven by her unquenchable thirst for all pleasures of the flesh. The palace and its gardens thus became stages where the princess acted out her ambitions, enthroned like a queen surrounded by her court. In some of her more exclusive parties, Madame de Berry played the leading part in elaborate "tableaux-vivants" that represented mythological scenes and in which she displayed her person impersonating Venus or Diana. According to various satirical songs which scurrilously evoked her amours "the Lady of the Luxembourg" hid several pregnancies, shutting herself up from society when about to give birth.
Her taste for strong liquors and her sheer gluttony scandalized the court. On 21 May 1717, Madame de Berry received Peter the Great at the Luxembourg, she welcomed the visiting Tsar splendidly dressed in a magnificent sack-back gown which showcased her voluptuous bosom as well as her mischievous face but helped conceal her growing corpulence for she was in an "interesting condition". On 28 February 1718, the Duchess of Berry threw a magnificent party for her visiting aunt, the Duchess of Lorraine; the entire palace and its gardens were elaborately illuminated. The lavish banquet was followed by a masked ball. Madame de Berry made a dazzling appearance before her guests, she was in the full splendour of her youthful beauty and pride and acted as if she were the incarnation of the goddess of love, mirth and sensual pleasures. On 2 April 1719, after a grueling four-day labour, shut up in a small room of her palace, the young widow was delivered of a still-born baby girl fathered by her lieutenant of the guards, the Count of Riom.
Berry's delivery was troublesome and killed her. The Church refused her the Sac