Gustav III of Sweden
Gustav III was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792. Gustav was an opponent of what he saw as the abuse of political privileges seized by the nobility since the death of King Charles XII. Nonetheless, his leadership in the Battle of Svensksund averted a complete military defeat. The much-praised Freedom of the Press Act of 1766 was severely curtailed, however, by amendments in 1774 and 1792, effectively extinguishing independent media. Gustavs immense powers were placed in the hands of a regency under his brother Prince Carl and Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm until his son, the Gustavian autocracy thus survived until 1809, when his son was ousted in another coup detat, which definitively established parliament as the dominant political power. A patron of the arts and benefactor of arts and literature, Gustav founded the Swedish Academy, in 1772 he founded the Royal Order of Vasa to acknowledge and reward those Swedes who had contributed to advances in the fields of agriculture and commerce.
In 1782, Gustav III was the first formally neutral head of state in the world to recognize the United States during its war for independence from Great Britain. Nonetheless, he perhaps owed most of what shaped him during his education to the poet. State interference with his education as a child caused significant political disruptions within the royal family. Even his most hostile teachers were amazed by his combination of natural gifts, on the whole, Gustav cannot be said to have been well educated, but he read widely, there was scarcely a French author of his day with whose works he was not intimately acquainted. His enthusiasm for the ideas of the French enlightenment was as sincere as that of his mother, if more critical. Gustav married Princess Sophia Magdalena, daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark, by proxy in Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen, on 1 October 1766 and in person in Stockholm on 4 November 1766. The match was not a one, owing partly to an incompatibility of temperament.
The marriage produced two children, Crown Prince Gustav Adolf, and Prince Carl Gustav, Duke of Småland, for the consummation of the marriage, the king and queen requested actual physical instruction by Count Adolf Munck, reportedly because of anatomical problems of both spouses. There were rumors that the queen was pregnant by Munck. Gustavs mother supported rumors that he was not the father of his first son and it was rumored at the time that Gustav was homosexual, a possibility asserted by some writers. The close personal relationships which he formed two of his courtiers, Count Axel von Fersen and Baron Gustav Armfelt, were alluded to in that regard. His sister-in-law Charlotte implied as much in her famous diary, professor Erik Lönnroth of the Swedish Academy, who described the assistance provided by Munck, has concluded that there is no factual basis for the assumption that Gustav III was homosexual
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch, dynamics, different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. The word derives from Greek μουσική, Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as the harmony of the spheres and it is music to my ears point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, for example, There is no noise, the creation, performance and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. There are many types of music, including music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between some early 1980s hard rock and heavy metal, within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art or as an auditory art.
People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, the word derives from Greek μουσική. According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the music is derived from mid-13c. Musike, from Old French musique and directly from Latin musica the art of music and this is derived from the. Greek mousike of the Muses, from fem. of mousikos pertaining to the Muses, from Mousa Muse. In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. With the advent of recording, records of popular songs. Some music lovers create mix tapes of their songs, which serve as a self-portrait. An environment consisting solely of what is most ardently loved, amateur musicians can compose or perform music for their own pleasure, and derive their income elsewhere. Professional musicians sometimes work as freelancers or session musicians, seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings, There are often many links between amateur and professional musicians.
Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians, in community settings, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles such as community concert bands and community orchestras. However, there are many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is recorded and distributed. Live concert recordings are popular in classical music and in popular music forms such as rock, where illegally taped live concerts are prized by music lovers
The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, song and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, the specific place of the performance is named by the word theatre as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι. Modern theatre, broadly defined, includes performances of plays and musical theatre, there are connections between theatre and the art forms of ballet and various other forms. The city-state of Athens is where western theatre originated, participation in the city-states many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member in particular—was an important part of citizenship. The Greeks developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and theatre architecture, Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama, tragedy and the satyr play, the origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle, the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus.
The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10, the stage consisted of a dancing floor, dressing room and scene-building area. Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics, the actors wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, and each might play several parts. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, no tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides, the origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE it was institution alised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysus. As contestants in the City Dionysias competition playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays, the performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as 534 BCE, official records begin from 501 BCE, when the satyr play was introduced.
More than 130 years later, the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics, Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, Old Comedy, Middle Comedy, and New Comedy. Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the surviving plays of Aristophanes. New Comedy is known primarily from the papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster. In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play eventually found its way to Athens in its most well-known form. Satyrs themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal companions, often engaging in drunken revelry
Christian VII of Denmark
Christian VII was a monarch of the House of Oldenburg who was King of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein from 1766 until his death. For his motto he chose, Gloria ex amore patriae, Christian VIIs reign was marked by mental illness and for most of his reign Christian was only nominally king. His half-brother Frederick was designated as regent of Denmark in 1772, from 1784 until Christian VIIs death in 1808, Christians son, Frederick VI, acted as unofficial regent. Christian was the son of King Frederick V and his first wife Louise of Great Britain and he was born in the Queens Bedchamber at Christiansborg Palace, the Royal residence in Copenhagen. He was baptized a few hours the same day and his godparents were King Frederick V, Queen Dowager Sophie Magdalene, Princess Louise and Princess Charlotte Amalie. A former heir to the throne, named Christian, had died in infancy in 1747, therefore and his mother Queen Louise died in 1751, two years after his birth. The following year his father married to Juliane Marie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, after a long period of infirmity, Frederick V died 14 January 1766, just 42 years old.
Later the same day, Christian was proclaimed king from the balcony of Christiansborg Palace, Christians reign was marked by mental illness which affected government decisions, and for most of his reign Christian was only nominally king. His court physicians were especially worried by his frequent masturbation and his royal advisers changed depending on who won power struggles around the throne. In the late 1760s, he came under the influence of his personal physician Johann Friedrich Struensee, from 1770 to 1772, Struensee was de facto regent of the country, and introduced progressive reforms signed into law by Christian VII. The dynastic marriage took place at Christiansborg Palace on 8 November 1766, after his marriage, he abandoned himself to the worst excesses, especially sexual promiscuity. In 1767, he entered into a relationship with the courtesan Støvlet-Cathrine and he publicly declared that he could not love Caroline Matilda, because it was unfashionable to love ones wife. He ultimately sank into a condition of mental stupor, symptoms during this time included paranoia, self-mutilation and hallucinations.
Struensee was a protégé of an Enlightenment circle of aristocrats that had been rejected by the court in Copenhagen and he was a skilled doctor, and having somewhat restored the kings health while visiting the Schleswig-Holstein area, he gained the kings affection. He was retained as travelling physician on 5 April 1768, and accompanied the entourage on the King’s foreign tour to Paris and he was given the title of State Councilor on 12 May 1768, barely a week after leaving Altona. The neglected and lonely Caroline Matilda entered into an affair with Struensee, in 1772, the kings marriage with Caroline Matilda was dissolved by divorce. Christians marriage with Caroline Matilda produced two children, the future King Frederick VI and Princess Louise Auguste, however, it is widely believed that Louise was the daughter of Struensee—portrait comparisons tend to support this hypothesis. Struensee, following a deluge of modernising and emancipating reforms, was arrested and executed the same year, Christian signed Struensees arrest and execution warrant under pressure from his stepmother, Queen Juliane Marie, who had led the movement to have the marriage ended
Princess Louisa of Great Britain
Princess Louisa of Great Britain was a grandchild of George II and sister of George III. Princess Louisa was born on 19 March 1749, at Leicester House, Westminster and her father was Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of George II and Caroline of Ansbach. Her mother was The Princess of Wales and her godparents were Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel and her paternal aunts The Queen of Denmark and The Princess of Orange, all of whom were represented by proxies. She was reportedly close to her sister Caroline Matilda, who was of roughly the age and was raised with her. Her health was delicate throughout her life, according to Walpole, she never appeared more than an unhealthy child of thirteen or fourteen. In 1764, negotiations were made between the British and Danish royal houses of a marriage between the Danish heir to the throne and a British princess. The marriage was considered suitable in status and welcomed by both houses, as there were few Royal Protestant houses to choose between at that point for either party, the marriage was announced in Great Britain 10 January 1765.
The same year,1764, she received a proposal from her brother-in-law, Adolf Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Princess Louisa died, at Carlton House, London, on 13 May 1768, and without issue, at the age of 19. 19 March 1749 –13 May 1768, Her Royal Highness The Princess Louisa List of British princesses Henry Churchyard Royal Genealogies, Part 10 Sam Sloan Big Combined Family Trees
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. In Brunei, the wife of the Sultan is known as a Raja Isteri with prefix Pengiran Anak, equivalent with queen consort in English, a queen consort usually shares her husbands social rank and status. She holds the equivalent of the kings monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the kings political. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, where some title other than that of king is held by the sovereign, his wife is referred to by the feminine equivalent, such as princess consort or empress consort. In monarchies where polygamy has been practiced in the past, or is practiced today. In Morocco, King Mohammed VI has broken with tradition and given his wife, Lalla Salma, prior to the reign of King Mohammed VI, the Moroccan monarchy had no such title. In Thailand, the king and queen must both be of royal descent, the kings other consorts are accorded royal titles that confer status. Other cultures maintain different traditions on queenly status, a Zulu chieftain designates one of his wives Great Wife, which would be the equivalent to queen consort.
Conversely, in Yorubaland, all of a chiefs princess consorts are essentially of equal rank, in general, the consorts of monarchs have no power per se, even when their position is constitutionally or statutorily recognized. In some cases, the queen consort has been the power behind her husbands throne, e. g. Maria Luisa of Parma. Past queens consort, Queen Jang, consort to Sukjong of Joseon
Christian VI of Denmark
Christian VI was King of Denmark and Norway from 1730-46. He was the first king of the Oldenburg dynasty to refrain from entering in any war and he was married to Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and was the father of Frederick V. His chosen motto was deo et populo, from 1706, Christian came to understand Danish but used German for everyday speaking and writing. He got an education and acquired more knowledge than his father and grandfather. As Crown Prince he was allowed by his father to find a wife by himself, Sophia Magdalene came from a minor margraviate of the Hohenzollern dynasty where able consciousness was inversely proportional to the funds, half of the land was mortgaged, and her father died young. She had 13 siblings and was considered a match for the Danish prince. In Christians letters, he describes his feelings for the princesss intense religiosity and they were married on 7 August 1721, while Christian was crown prince. The wedding was held at Pretzsch in Saxony, the king was shy and introverted by nature, and stayed away from the public.
For the first ten years of his government he consulted often with his cousin, the count took part in almost everything, from the dismissal of cooks in the Queens kitchen to determining alliance policy. He encouraged the king as long as possible to maintain the English alliance, around 1740, Count Christian Ernsts preference swung towards France and he ceased his influence. This coincided with the situation in Germany no longer allowing him, as a vassal German prince. In 1733, the couple travelled to Norway. A poem/speech by Peter Höyer was performed in his honor when he visited the city of Trondheim on 18 July, the act would be abolished in 1788. The Pietist views of King Christian influenced much of his ecclesiastical polity, on the surface the king was victorious, but both nobility and many common people secretly resisted the kings influence. This did not mean that it was without effect and it influenced much of the poetry of the age, among others, that of the great hymn writer Hans Adolph Brorson.
Another lasting result of the efforts was the introduction of mandatory confirmation in 1736. This resulted in a need for a school system, which was created by decree in 1739 and 1741. There were numerous building activities connected to Christian VI, and he was probably the greatest Danish builder of the 18th century and his queen made a notable effort
Roskilde Cathedral, in the city of Roskilde on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark, is a cathedral of the Lutheran Church of Denmark. The first Gothic cathedral to be built of brick, it encouraged the spread of the Brick Gothic style throughout Northern Europe, constructed during the 12th and 13th centuries, the cathedral incorporates both Gothic and Romanesque architectural features in its design. Until the 20th century, it was Zealands only cathedral and its twin spires dominate the skyline of the town. The cathedral has been the burial site for Danish monarchs since the 15th century. As such, it has significantly extended and altered over the centuries to accommodate a considerable number of burial chapels. Following the Danish Reformation in 1536, the residence was moved to Copenhagen while the title was changed to Bishop of Zealand. Coronations normally took place in Copenhagens Church of Our Lady or in the chapel of Frederiksborg Palace, the cathedral is a major tourist attraction, bringing in over 125,000 visitors annually.
Since 1995, it has listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. A working church, it hosts concerts throughout the year. Roskilde was named the new capital of Denmark by King Harald Bluetooth around the year 960, moving to Roskilde, Bluetooth built a royal farm and next to it, a small stave church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Little is known of the Trinity Church, let alone its architecture, in Adam of Bremens Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, there is an account of how the kings son, Sweyn Forkbeard, raised a rebellion against him, forcing him to flee to Jomsborg. When Bluetooth died in 985/986, the army that had raised against him brought his body to Roskilde. At Christmas in 1026, Ulf the Earl was murdered by one of Cnut the Greats housecarls, though the sources differ, this happened either inside the church or at the royal farm. Ulf had been married to Cnut the Greats sister Estrid, who was outraged by the murder, there is some doubt as to when Roskilde became the seat of the Bishop of Roskilde.
When Sweyn Forkbeard conquered England in 1013, he began sending English bishops to Denmark and this caused some conflict with the Archbishop of Hamburg, who regarded Scandinavia as belonging to the Archdiocese of Bremen. The earliest known bishop of Roskilde was Gerbrand, who had been a cleric with Cnut the Great, only after swearing allegiance to the archbishop was he allowed to continue his journey. The archbishop may have had reason to be suspicious, as documents of the time suggest that Cnut the Great may have planned to create an archdiocese in Roskilde. Funded by the weregild Estrid Svendsdatter had received, the old Trinity Church was torn down and this may have formed the base of the travertine cathedral, but it is difficult to tell, as two cathedrals have subsequently been built on the same site
Frederick V of Denmark
Frederick V was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from 1746 until his death. He was the son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, Frederick was born on 31 March 1723 at Copenhagen Castle. He was the grandson of King Frederick IV of Denmark and the son of Crown Prince Christian, on 12 October 1730, King Frederick IV died and Fredericks father ascended the throne as King Christian VI. Christian VI and Sophia Magdalene were deeply devoted to Pietism, although not unfamiliar with religious sentiments, Frederick grew into a hedonist who enjoyed the pleasures of life such as wine and women. His mother ironically referred to him as Der Dänische Prinz because he occasionally spoke Danish, Fredericks propensity for debauchery accelerated his marriage negotiations. He was married at Altona, Holstein, on 11 December 1743 to Princess Louise of Great Britain, daughter of King George II and they were the parents of six children, but one was stillborn.
Meanwhile, Frederick continued to enjoy liaisons with others. During the years 1746-51, the king had a favorite named Madam Hansen who bore him five children, the Norwegian Masonic historian Karl Ludvig Tørrisen Bugge claims that Frederik V as crown prince was included in the Copenhagen Masonic Lodge St. Martin. This was probably third June 1744, and inspired by the Prussian king Frederick the Great who was included in a masonic lodge in his youth. They both had fathers who were opposed to the Masons, but unlike the Prussian king. As an active Freemason, he set up on 24 June 1749 the first Masonic lodge in Norway, on 6 August 1746 – the day before his parentss silver marriage festivities– his father died at Hirschholm Palace, the royal familys summer retreat. Christian VI was interred in Roskilde Cathedral and Louise immediately ascended Denmark-Norways throne, being anointed in Frederiksborg Palaces Chapel the following year. The personal influence of Frederick was limited, making him one of absolute rulers who least made for the states strength and these men marked his reign by the progress of commerce and the emerging industry of gunpowder plant and cannon foundry in Frederiksværk, built by Johan Frederik Classen.
They avoided involving Denmark in the European wars of his time, in the same period the Royal Frederiks Hospital and the Royal Orphanage was created, a school intended for poor boys that still exists today, opened in Christianshavn on 1 October 1753. On 29 June 1753 Frederick V created Denmarks first lottery, called the Royal Copenhagen Lottery - a lottery that exists to this day as Klasselotteriet, one of his main tasks was to take care that his dissolute Majesty didnt damage the Royal households reputation with his constant orgies. Frederick purchased what would become known as the Danish West Indies from the Danish West India Company in 1754. Louise died suddenly on 19 December 1751 at Christiansborg Palace, predeceasing her husband by fourteen years and causing great impact on the family and the courts life. She was buried with great pomp at Roskilde Cathedral, at the time of her death, she was pregnant with her sixth child, who died
Princess Amelia of Great Britain
Princess Amelia of Great Britain was the second daughter of George II of Great Britain. Princess Amelia was born at Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover and her father was The Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the son of the Elector of Hanover. Her mother was Caroline of Ansbach, daughter of Johann Friedrich, at her birth she was styled HSH Princess Amelia of Hanover. She was known to her family as Emily, under the Act of Settlement 1701, Princess Amelias grandfather became King of Great Britain on 1 August 1714 following the death of Queen Anne. Amelias father became Duke of Cornwall, and was created Prince of Wales on 27 September 1714 and she moved to Great Britain with her family and resided at St Jamess Palace in London. Though comparatively healthy as an adult, Amelia was a child and her mother employed Johann Georg Steigerthal. On 11 June 1727, George I died and her father succeeded him as George II, Amelia was now styled HRH The Princess Amelia. She lived with her father until his death in 1760, Amelia may have been the mother of composer Samuel Arnold through an affair with a commoner of the name Thomas Arnold.
Amelia greatly enjoyed riding and hunting, in 1751, Princess Amelia became ranger of Richmond Park after the death of Robert Walpole. Immediately afterwards, the Princess caused major public uproar by closing the park to the public, only allowing few close friends and this continued until 1758, when a local brewer, John Lewis, took the gatekeeper, who stopped him from entering the park, to court. The court ruled in favour of Lewis, citing the fact that, Princess Amelia was forced to lift the restrictions. The Princess was generous in her gifts to charitable organisations, in 1760 she donated £100 to the society for educating poor orphans of clergymen to help pay for a school for 21 orphan daughters of clergymen of the Church of England. In 1783 she agreed to become a subscriber of £25 to the new County Infirmary in Northampton. She owned a property in Cavendish Square, London, a miniature of Prince Frederick of Prussia was found on her body. She was buried in the Henry VII Lady Chapel in Westminster Abbey, Amelia Island in Florida, United States, is named for her, as is Amelia County in Virginia, United States.
On 31 January 1719, as a grandchild of the sovereign, Amelia was granted use of the arms of the realm, on 30 August 1727, as a child of the sovereign, Amelias difference changed to a label argent of three points ermine. Panton, Kenneth J. Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy, van der Kiste, John George II and Queen Caroline