Quadrophenia is the soundtrack album to the 1979 film Quadrophenia which refers to the 1973 rock opera Quadrophenia. It was released on Polydor Records in 1979 as a cassette and LP and was re-released as a compact disc in 1993 and 2001; the album was dedicated to Peter Meaden, a prominent Mod and first manager of The Who, who had died a year prior to the album's release. The album contains ten of the seventeen tracks from the original rock opera Quadrophenia; these are different mixes than those that appear on the 1973 album as they were remixed in 1979 by John Entwistle. The most notable difference is the track "The Real Me" which features a different bass track, more prominent vocals and a more definite ending. Most of the tracks are edited to be shorter; the soundtrack includes three tracks by The Who that did not appear on the 1973 album – "Four Faces", "Get Out and Stay Out" and "Joker James". The latter two songs marked Kenney Jones's first on-record appearance with the Who after taking over on drums for the late Keith Moon.
All songs performed by The. Side one"I Am the Sea" – 2:03 "The Real Me" – 3:28 "I'm One" – 2:40 "5.15" – 4:50 "Love Reign O'er Me" – 5:11Side two"Bell Boy" – 4:55 "I've Had Enough" – 6:11 "Helpless Dancer" – 0:22 "Doctor Jimmy" – 7:31Side three"Zoot Suit" – 2:00 "Hi-Heel Sneakers" – 2:46 "Get Out and Stay Out" – 2:26 "Four Faces" – 3:20 "Joker James" – 3:13 "The Punk and the Godfather" – 5:21Side four"Night Train" – 3:38 "Louie Louie" – 2:41 "Green Onions" – 2:46 "Rhythm of the Rain" – 2:28 "He's So Fine" – 1:52 "Be My Baby" – 2:30 "Da Doo Ron Ron" – 2:09 A version of the album was released on CD in 1993 featuring only the tracks performed by The High Numbers and The Who. The album keeps the Who tracks in the same order as the original double album and begins with the two High Numbers tracks. "I'm the Face" – 2:31 "Zoot Suit" – 2:00 "I Am the Sea" – 2:03 "The Real Me" – 3:30 "I'm One" – 2:40 "5:15" – 4:51 "Love Reign O'er Me" – 5:11 "Bell Boy" – 4:57 "I've Had Enough" – 6:12 "Helpless Dancer" – 0:23 "Doctor Jimmy" – 7:32 "Get Out and Stay Out" – 2:28 "Four Faces" – 3:21 "Joker James" – 3:14 "The Punk and the Godfather" – 5:28 A version of the album was released on CD in 2000 restoring the track listing to its original configuration, adding "I'm The Face" to the running order.
"I Am the Sea" – 2:03 "The Real Me" – 3:28 "I'm One" – 2:40 "5:15" – 4:50 "Love Reign O'er Me" – 5:11 "Bell Boy" – 4:55 "I've Had Enough" – 6:11 "Helpless Dancer" – 0:22 "Doctor Jimmy" – 7:31 "Zoot Suit" – 2:00 "Hi-Heel Sneakers" – 2:46 "Get Out and Stay Out" – 2:26 "Four Faces" – 3:20 "Joker James" – 3:13 "The Punk and the Godfather" – 5:21 "Night Train" – 3:38 "Louie Louie" – 2:41 "Green Onions" – 2:46 "Rhythm of the Rain" – 2:28 "He's So Fine" – 1:52 "Be My Baby" – 2:30 "Da Doo Ron Ron" – 2:09 "I'm the Face" – 2:29 Album Roger Daltrey – lead vocals Pete Townshend – guitar, keyboards and lead vocals John Entwistle – bass, brass overdubs, backing vocals Keith Moon – drums, lead vocals on "Bell Boy" Kenney Jones – drums on "Get Out and Stay Out" and "Joker James"ProductionJohn Entwistle – Musical Director Mike Shaw – Music Co-ordinator CyLangston – Recording and Remix Engineer Remastered by Jon AstleyDesignSleeve Design by Richard Evans Photography by Frank Connor Co-ordination by Chris Chappel
John Alec Entwistle was an English bass guitarist, singer and film and music producer. In a music career that spanned more than 40 years, Entwistle was best known as the original bass guitarist for the English rock band The Who, he was the only member of the band to have formal musical training. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Who in 1990. Entwistle's instrumental approach used pentatonic lead lines, a then-unusual treble-rich sound created by roundwound RotoSound steel bass strings, he was nicknamed "The Ox" and "Thunderfingers". In 2011, he was voted as the greatest bass guitarist of all time in a Rolling Stone magazine reader's poll, in its special "100 Greatest Bass Players" issue in 2017, Bass Player magazine named Entwistle at number seven. John Alec Entwistle was born on 9 October 1944 in a suburb of London, he was an only child. His father, played the trumpet and his mother, played the piano, his parents' marriage failed soon after he was born, he was raised by his mother at his grandparents' house in South Acton.
Divorce was uncommon in the 1940s, this contributed to Entwistle becoming reserved and socialising little. His musical career began aged seven, he did not enjoy the experience and after joining Acton County Grammar School aged 11, switched to the trumpet, moving to the French horn when he joined the Middlesex Schools Symphony Orchestra. He met Pete Townshend in the second year of school, the two formed a trad jazz band, the Confederates; the group only played one gig together, before they decided that rock'n' roll was a more attractive prospect. Entwistle, in particular, was having difficulty hearing his trumpet with rock bands, decided to switch to playing guitar, but due to his large fingers, his fondness for the low guitar tones of Duane Eddy, he decided to take up the bass guitar instead, he made his own instrument at home, soon attracted the attention of Roger Daltrey, the year above Entwistle at Acton County, but had since left to work in sheet metal. Daltrey was aware of Entwistle from school, asked him to join as a bass guitarist for his band, the Detours.
After joining the Detours, Entwistle played a major role in encouraging Pete Townshend's budding talent on the guitar, insisting that Townshend be admitted into the band as well. Roger Daltrey fired all the members of his band with the exception of Entwistle and the drummer, Doug Sandom, a semi-pro player, several years older than the others. Roger Daltrey relinquished the role of guitarist to Pete Townshend in 1963, instead becoming frontman and lead singer; the band considered several changes of name settling on the name The Who while Entwistle was still working as a tax clerk. When the band decided that the blond Roger Daltrey needed to stand out more from the others, Entwistle dyed his light brown hair black, it remained so until the early 1980s. Around 1963, Entwistle played in a London band called the Initials for a short while. In 1967, Entwistle married his childhood sweetheart Alison Wise and bought a large semi-detached home in Stanmore Middlesex filling it with all sorts of extraordinary artefacts, ranging from suits of armour to a tarantula spider.
His eccentricity and taste for the bizarre was to remain with him throughout his life, when he moved out of the city in 1978, to Stow-on-the-Wold in Gloucestershire, his 17-bedroom mansion, resembled a museum. It housed one of the largest guitar collections belonging to any rock musician. Entwistle picked up two nicknames during his career as a musician, he was nicknamed "The Ox" because of his strong constitution and seeming ability to "Eat, drink or do more than the rest of them." He was later nicknamed "Thunderfingers". Bill Wyman, bass guitarist for the Rolling Stones, described him as "the quietest man in private but the loudest man on stage". Entwistle was one of the first to make use of Marshall stacks in an attempt to hear himself over the noise of his band members, who famously leapt and moved about on the stage, with Pete Townshend and Keith Moon smashing their instruments on numerous occasions. Townshend remarked that Entwistle started using Marshall amplification to hear himself over drummer Keith Moon's rapid-fire drumming style, Townshend himself had to use them just to be heard over Entwistle.
They both continued expanding and experimenting with their rigs, until they were both using twin stacks with new experimental prototype 200 watt amps, at a time when most bands used 50–100 watt amplifiers with single cabinets. All of this gained the Who a reputation for being "the loudest band on the planet", a point well proven when they famously reached 126 decibels at a 1976 concert in London, listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the loudest rock concert in history; the band had a strong influence at the time on their contemporaries' choice of equipment, with Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience both following suit. Although they pioneered and directly contributed to the development of the "classic" Marshall sound, they only used Marshall equipment for a couple of years. Entwistle switched to using a Sound City rig, with Pete Townshend following suit as well. Townshend points out that Jimi
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
Live Aid was a dual-venue benefit concert held on Saturday 13 July 1985, an ongoing music-based fundraising initiative. The original event was organised by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise funds for relief of the ongoing Ethiopian famine. Billed as the "global jukebox", the event was held at Wembley Stadium in London, United Kingdom and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia, United States. On the same day, concerts inspired by the initiative happened in other countries, such as the Soviet Union, Japan, Austria and West Germany, it was one of the largest-scale satellite link-ups and television broadcasts of all time. The impact of Live Aid on famine relief has been debated for years. One aid relief worker stated that following the publicity generated by the concert, “humanitarian concern is now at the centre of foreign policy” for western governments. Geldof said Live Aid "created something permanent and self-sustaining", but asked why Africa is getting poorer; the organisers of Live Aid tried, without much success, to run aid efforts directly, so channelled millions to the NGOs in Ethiopia, much of which went to the Ethiopian government of Mengistu Haile Mariam – a brutal regime the UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher wanted to “destabilise” – and was spent on guns.
The 1985 Live Aid concert was conceived as a follow-on to the successful charity single "Do They Know It's Christmas?", the brainchild of Geldof and Ure. In October 1984, images of hundreds of thousands of people starving to death in Ethiopia were shown in the UK in Michael Buerk's BBC News reports on the 1984 famine; the BBC News crew were the first to document the famine, with Buerk's report on 23 October describing it as "a biblical famine in the 20th century" and "the closest thing to hell on Earth". The report shocked Britain, motivating its citizens to inundate relief agencies, such as Save the Children, with donations, to bring the world's attention to the crisis in Ethiopia. Bob Geldof saw the report, called Midge Ure from Ultravox, together they co-wrote the song, "Do They Know It's Christmas?" in the hope of raising money for famine relief. Geldof contacted colleagues in the music industry and persuaded them to record the single under the title'Band Aid' for free. On 25 November 1984, the song was recorded at Sarm West Studios in Notting Hill and was released four days later.
It stayed at number one for five weeks in the UK, was Christmas number one, became the fastest-selling single in Britain and raised £8 million, rather than the £70,000 Geldof and Ure had expected. Geldof set his sights on staging a huge concert to raise further funds; the idea to stage a charity concert to raise more funds for Ethiopia came from Boy George, the lead singer of Culture Club. George and Culture Club drummer Jon Moss had taken part in the recording of "Do They Know It's Christmas?" and in December 1984 Culture Club were undertaking a tour of the UK, which culminated in six nights at Wembley Arena. On the final night at Wembley, Saturday 22 December 1984, an impromptu gathering of some of the other artists from Band Aid joined Culture Club on stage at the end of the concert for an encore of "Do They Know It's Christmas?". George was so overcome by the occasion he told Geldof that they should consider organising a benefit concert. Speaking to the UK music magazine Melody Maker at the beginning of January 1985, Geldof revealed his enthusiasm for George's idea, saying, "If George is organising it, you can tell him he can call me at any time and I'll do it.
It's a logical progression from the record, but the point is you don't just talk about it, you go ahead and do it!"It was clear from the interview that Geldof had had the idea to hold a dual venue concert and how the concerts should be structured: The show should be as big as is humanly possible. There's no point just 5,000 fans turning up at Wembley, it would be great for Duran to play three or four numbers at Wembley and flick to Madison Square where Springsteen would be playing. While he's on, the Wembley stage could be made ready for the next British act like the Thompsons or whoever. In that way lots of acts could be featured and the television rights, tickets and so on could raise a phenomenal amount of money. It's not an impossible idea, one worth exploiting. Among those involved in organising Live Aid were Harvey Goldsmith, responsible for the Wembley Stadium concert, Bill Graham, who put together the American leg; the concert grew in scope. Tony Verna, inventor of instant replay, was able to secure John F. Kennedy Stadium through his friendship with Philadelphia Mayor Goode and was able to procure, through his connections with ABC's prime time chief, John Hamlin, a three-hour prime time slot on the ABC Network and, in addition, was able to supplement the lengthy program through meetings that resulted in the addition of an ad-hoc network within the US, which covered 85 percent of TVs there.
Verna designed the needed satellite schematic and became the Executive Director as well as the Co-Executive Producer along with Hal Uplinger. Uplinger came up with the idea to produce a four-hour video edit of Live Aid to distribute to those countries without the necessary satellite equipment to rebroadcast the live feed; the concert began at 12:00 British Summer Time at Wembley Stadium in the United Kingdom
Peter Dennis Blandford Townshend is an English musician and songwriter best known as the lead guitarist, second vocalist, principal songwriter for the rock band the Who. His career with the Who spans over 50 years, during which time the band grew to be one of the most important and influential rock bands of the 20th century. Pete Townshend is the main songwriter for the Who, having written well over 100 songs for the band's 11 studio albums, including concept albums and the rock operas Tommy and Quadrophenia, plus popular rock radio staples such as Who's Next, dozens more that appeared as non-album singles, bonus tracks on reissues, tracks on rarities compilations such as Odds & Sods, he has written more than 100 songs that have appeared on his solo albums, as well as radio jingles and television theme songs. Although known as a guitarist, he plays keyboards, accordion, ukulele, violin, bass guitar, drums, on his own solo albums, several Who albums and as a guest contributor to an array of other artists' recordings.
He is self-taught on all of the instruments he has never had any formal training. Townshend has contributed to and authored many newspaper and magazine articles, book reviews, essays and scripts, he has collaborated as a lyricist and composer for many other musical acts. Due to his aggressive playing style and innovative songwriting techniques, Townshend's works with the Who and in other projects have earned him critical acclaim, he was ranked No. 3 in Dave Marsh's list of Best Guitarists in The New Book of Rock Lists, No. 10 in Gibson.com's list of the top 50 guitarists, No. 10 again in Rolling Stone's updated 2011 list of the 100 greatest guitarists of all time. In 1983, Townshend received the Brit Award for Lifetime Achievement, he and Roger Daltrey received The George and Ira Gershwin Award for Lifetime Musical Achievement at UCLA on 21 May 2016. Townshend was born on 19 May 1945, at Middlesex, he came from a musical family: his father, Cliff Townshend, was a professional alto saxophonist in the Royal Air Force's dance band the Squadronaires and his mother, was a singer with the Sydney Torch and Les Douglass Orchestras.
The Townshends had a volatile marriage, as both drank and possessed fiery tempers. Cliff Townshend was away from his family touring with his band while Betty carried on affairs with other men; the two split when Townshend was a toddler and he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother Emma Dennis, whom Pete described as "clinically insane". The two-year separation ended when Cliff and Betty purchased a house together on Woodgrange Avenue in middle-class Acton, the young Pete was reunited with his parents. Townshend says he did not have many friends growing up, so he spent much of his boyhood reading adventure novels like Gulliver's Travels and Treasure Island, he enjoyed his family's frequent excursions to the Isle of Man. It was on one of these trips in the summer of 1956 that he watched the 1956 film Rock Around the Clock, sparking his fascination with American rock and roll. Not long thereafter, he went to see Bill Haley perform in Townshend's first concert. At the time, he did not see himself pursuing a career as a professional musician.
Upon passing the eleven-plus exam, Townshend was enrolled at Acton County Grammar School. At Acton County, he was bullied because he had a large nose, an experience that profoundly affected him, his grandmother Emma purchased his first guitar for Christmas in an inexpensive Spanish model. Though his father taught him a couple of chords, Townshend was self-taught on the instrument and never learned to read music. Townshend and school friend John Entwistle formed a short-lived trad jazz group, the Confederates, featuring Townshend on banjo and Entwistle on horns; the Confederates played gigs at the Congo Club, a youth club run by the Acton Congregational Church, covered Acker Bilk, Kenny Ball, Lonnie Donegan. However, both became influenced by the increasing popularity of rock'n' roll, with Townshend admiring Cliff Richard's debut single, "Move It". Townshend left the Confederates after getting into a fight with the group's drummer, Chris Sherwin, purchased a "reasonably good Czechoslovakian guitar" at his mother's antique shop.
Townshend's brothers Simon were born in 1957 and 1960, respectively. Lacking the requisite test scores to attend university, Pete was faced with the decision of art school, music school, or getting a job, he chose to study graphic design at Ealing Art College, enrolling in 1961. At Ealing, Townshend studied alongside future Rolling Stones guitarist Ronnie Wood. Notable artists and designers gave lectures at the college such as auto-destructive art pioneer Gustav Metzger. Townshend dropped out in 1964 to focus on music full-time. In late 1961, Entwistle joined a skiffle/rock and roll band, led by Roger Daltrey; the new bass player suggested Townshend to join as an additional guitarist. In the early days of the Detours, the band's repertoire consisted of instrumentals by the Shadows and the Ventures, as well as pop and trad jazz covers, their lineup coalesced around Roger Daltrey on lead guitar, Townshend on rhythm guitar, Entwistle on bass, Doug Sandom on drums and Colin Dawson as vocalist. Daltrey was considered the leader of the grou
A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, other sounds. They range in size from a small in-home project studio large enough to record a single singer-guitarist, to a large building with space for a full orchestra of 100 or more musicians. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties. Recording studios may be used to record singers, instrumental musicians, voice-over artists for advertisements or dialogue replacement in film, television, or animation, foley, or to record their accompanying musical soundtracks; the typical recording studio consists of a room called the "studio" or "live room" equipped with microphones and mic stands, where instrumentalists and vocalists perform. The engineers and producers listen to the live music and the recorded "tracks" on high-quality monitor speakers or headphones.
There will be smaller rooms called "isolation booths" to accommodate loud instruments such as drums or electric guitar amplifiers and speakers, to keep these sounds from being audible to the microphones that are capturing the sounds from other instruments or voices, or to provide "drier" rooms for recording vocals or quieter acoustic instruments such as an acoustic guitar a or fiddle. Major recording studios have a range of large and hard-to-transport instruments and music equipment in the studio, such as a grand piano, Hammond organ, electric piano. Recording studios consist of three or more rooms: The "live room" of the studio where the vocalists sing and instrumentalists play their instruments, with their singing and playing picked up by microphones and, for electric and electronic instruments, by connecting the instruments' outputs or DI unit outputs to the mixing board. Isolation booths are small sound-insulated rooms with doors, designed for instrumentalists. Vocal booths are designed rooms for singers.
In both types of rooms, there are windows so the performers can see other band members and the audio engineer/record producer, as singers and musicians give or receive visual cues. This equipment may make noise. Recording studios are designed around the principles of room acoustics to create a set of spaces with the acoustical properties required for recording sound with precision and accuracy; this will consist of both room treatment and soundproofing to prevent sound from leaving the property. A recording studio has to be soundproofed on its outer shell as well, to prevent noises from the surrounding streets and roads from being picked up by microphones. A recording studio may include additional rooms, such as a vocal booth—a small room designed for voice recording, as well as one or more extra isolation booths for loud guitar stacks and extra control rooms. Though sound isolation is a key goal, the musicians, audio engineers and record producers still need to be able to see each other, to see cue gestures and conducting by a bandleader.
As such, the "live room", isolation booths, vocal booths and control room have windows. Equipment found in a recording studio includes: A large professional-grade mixing console Additional small mixing consoles with 4, 8 or 16 channels, for adding more channels A large number of preamplifiers for microphones, such as the Neve 1272 and Neve 3104 Multitrack recorder Computers A wide selection of microphones. Studios have Neuman Tube mics, AKG tube mics, RCA ribbon mics, a number of Shure SM 57 and SM 58 mics. A large number of DI unit boxes Two or more record players Syncs A wide variety of microphone stands (boom stands, straigh