Crossover is a term applied to musical works or performers who appeal to different types of audience, for example by appearing on two or more of the record charts which track differing musical styles or genres. If the second chart combines genres, such as a "Hot 100" list, the work is not a crossover. In some contexts the term "crossover" can have negative connotations associated with cultural appropriation, implying the dilution of a music's distinctive qualities to appeal to mass tastes. For example, in the early years of rock and roll, many songs recorded by African-American musicians were re-recorded by white artists such as Pat Boone in a more toned-down style with changed lyrics, that lacked the hard edge of the original versions; these covers were popular with a much broader audience. In practice crossover results from the appearance of the music in question in a film soundtrack. For instance, Sacred Harp music experienced a spurt of crossover popularity as a result of its appearance in the 2003 film Cold Mountain, bluegrass music experienced a revival due to the reception of 2000's O Brother, Where Art Thou?.
Classical crossover broadly encompasses both classical music that has become popularized and a wide variety of popular music forms performed in a classical manner or by classical artists. It can refer to collaborations between classical and popular performers, as well as music that blends elements of classical music with popular music. Pop vocalists and musicians, opera singers, classical instrumentalists, rock groups perform classical crossover. Although the phenomenon was long common in the music world, the name "classical crossover" was coined by record companies in the 1980s, it has acquired its own Billboard chart. Particular works of classical music have become popular among individuals who listen to popular music, sometimes appearing on non-classical charts; some classical works that achieved crossover status in the twentieth century include the Canon in D by Johann Pachelbel, the Symphony No. 3 by Henryk Górecki, the second movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 21, K. 467. Such popularity has been assisted by the use of classical music in advertising campaigns.
For example, the long-running British Airways advertisements familiarised a large viewing public with the song Aria by New Age artist Yanni a piece itself based on a duet from the opera Lakmé, by Léo Delibes. Another means of generating vast popularity for the classics has been through their use as inspirational anthems in sports settings; the aria "Nessun Dorma" from Puccini's Turandot Luciano Pavarotti's version, has become indissolubly linked with soccer. Within the classical recording industry, the term "crossover" is applied to classical artists' recordings of popular repertoire such as Broadway show tunes. Two examples of this are Lesley Garrett's excursions into musical comedy and José Carreras's recording West Side Story, as well as Teresa Stratas' recording Showboat. Soprano Eileen Farrell is considered to be one of the first classical singers to have a successful crossover recording with her 1960 album I've Got a Right to Sing the Blues. A popular pioneering figure in classical crossover was classically trained tenor and film star Mario Lanza, although the term "crossover" did not yet exist at the time of his greatest popularity in the 1950s.
Signed to RCA Victor as an artist on its premium Red Seal label, Lanza's albums appealed to more than just classical music audiences. His recording of "Be My Love" from his second film, The Toast of New Orleans, hit Number One on the Billboard pop singles chart in February 1951 and sold more than two million copies, a feat no classical artist before or since has achieved. Lanza recorded two other million-selling singles that made Billboard's top ten, "The Loveliest Night of the Year" and "Because You're Mine". Five of Lanza's albums hit Number One on Billboard's pop album chart between 1951 and 1955; the Great Caruso was the first and to date is the only recording composed of operatic arias to reach Number One on the U. S. pop album charts. The Student Prince, released in 1954, was Number One for 42 weeks. Arguably another early pioneer of crossover was the twentieth century composer Kurt Weill. A writer of avant garde serious music, his collaborations with playwright Bertolt Brecht on projects such as The Threepenny Opera gave an early indication of his interest in writing in an accessible, popular musical style.
This trend in his work came to full fruition in life in the United States, where he switched to writing the scores for Broadway musicals such as Knickerbocker Holiday and One Touch of Venus. Some of the hits from those shows, such as September Song and Speak Low, are better remembered than the musicals from which they came; the first Three Tenors concert in 1990 was a landmark in which Luciano Pavarotti, José Carreras and Plácido Domingo brought a combination of opera, Neapolitan folksong, musical theatre and pop to a vast television audience. This laid the foundations for the modern flourishing of classical crossover; the aspiration of classical singers to appeal to a wide pop audience is exemplified by the career of Rhydian. Classically trained, Rhydian appeared in the UK version of the pop talent show X Factor, his four albums and subsequent appearances have straddled pop, musical theatre and religious television fields. This applies to classically trained instrumentalists, such as Vanessa Mae, Escal
RPM was a Canadian music industry publication that featured song and album charts for Canada. The publication was founded by Walt Grealis in February 1964, supported through its existence by record label owner Stan Klees. RPM ceased publication in November 2000. RPM stood for "Records, Music"; the magazine was reported to have variations in its title over the years such as RPM Weekly and RPM Magazine. RPM maintained several format charts, including Top Singles, Adult Contemporary, Urban, Rock/Alternative and Country Tracks for country music. On 21 March 1966, RPM expanded its Top Singles chart from 40 positions to 100. On December 6, 1980 the main chart became a Top 50 chart and remained this way until August 4, 1984 whereupon it returned to being a Top 100 Singles chart. For the first several weeks of its existence, the magazine did not compile a national chart, but printed the current airplay lists of several major market Top 40 stations. A national chart was introduced beginning with the June 22, 1964 issue, with its first-ever national #1 single being "Chapel of Love" by The Dixie Cups.
Prior to the introduction of RPM's national chart, the CHUM Chart from Toronto radio station CHUM was considered the de facto national chart. The final #1 single in the magazine was "Music" by Madonna; the modern Juno Awards had their origins in an annual survey conducted by RPM since its founding year. Readers of the magazine were invited to mail in survey ballots to indicate their choices under various categories of people or companies; the RPM Awards poll was transformed into a formal awards ceremony, The Gold Leaf Awards in 1970. These became the Juno Awards in following years; the RPM Awards for 1964 were announced in the 28 December 1964 issue: Top male vocalist: Terry Black Top female singer: Shirley Matthews Most promising male vocalist: Jack London Most promising female vocalist: Linda Layne Top vocal instrumental group: The Esquires Top female vocal group: Girlfriends Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: The Courriers Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Pat Hervey Industry man of the year: Johnny Murphy of Cashbox Canada Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Ed Lawson, Quality Records Top album of the year: That Girl by Phyllis MarshallA column on page 6 of that issue noted that the actual vote winner for Top Canadian Content record company was disqualified due to a conflict of interest involving an employee of that company, working for RPM.
Therefore, runner-up Capitol Records was declared the category's winner. The Annual RPM Awards for 1965 were announced in the 17 January 1966 issue, with more country music categories than the previous year: Top male vocalist: Bobby Curtola Top female singer: Catherine McKinnon Most promising male vocalist: Barry Allen Most promising female vocalist: Debbie Lori Kaye Top vocal/instrumental group: The Guess Who Top female vocal group: Girlfriends Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: Malka and Joso Top folk singer: Gordon Lightfoot Best produced single: "My Girl Sloopy", Little Caesar and the Consuls Best produced album: Voice of an Angel by Catherine McKinnon Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Dianne Leigh Most promising country male singer: Angus Walker Most promising country female singer: Sharon Strong Top country instrumental vocal group: Rhythm Pals Top country instrumentalist: Roy Penney Top country radio personality: Al Fisher, CFGM Toronto Top Canadian disc jockey: Chuck Benson, CKYL Peace River Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Charlie Camilleri, Quality Records The winners were: Top male vocalist: Barry Allen Top female singer: Catherine McKinnon Most promising male vocalist: Jimmy Dybold Most promising female vocalist: Lynda Lane Top vocal/instrumental group: Staccatos Top female vocal group: Allan Sisters Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: 3's a Crowd Top folk singer: Gordon Lightfoot Best produced single: "Let's Run Away", Staccatos Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Dianne Leigh Most promising country male singer: Johnny Burke Most promising country female singer: Debbie Lori Kaye Top country instrumental vocal group: Mercey Brothers Top country instrumentalist: Roy Penney Top country radio personality: Ted Daigle Top country radio station: CFGM Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Red Leaf Records Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Al Nair Top Canadian music industry man of the year: Stan Klees List of number-one singles in Canada List of RPM number-one alternative rock singles List of RPM number-one country singles List of RPM number-one dance singles RPM archive charts RPM Library and Archives Canada: "The RPM Story" The Canadian Encyclopedia: RPM Charts archive from 1964 to 1999 on worldcharts.co.uk Megan Thow.
"Critical Miss". Ryerson Review of Journalism. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2007
Nancy Sandra Sinatra is an American singer and actress. She is the elder daughter of Frank Sinatra and Nancy Sinatra, is known for her 1966 signature hit "These Boots Are Made for Walkin'". Other defining recordings include "Sugar Town", the 1967 number one "Somethin' Stupid", the title song from the James Bond film You Only Live Twice, several collaborations with Lee Hazlewood such as "Jackson", "Summer Wine" and her cover of Cher's "Bang Bang". Nancy Sinatra began her career as a singer and actress in November 1957 with an appearance on her father's ABC-TV variety series, but achieved success only in Europe and Japan. In early 1966 she had a transatlantic number-one hit with "These Boots Are Made for Walkin'", she appeared on TV in high boots, with colorfully dressed go-go dancers, creating a popular and enduring image of the Swinging Sixties. The song was written by Lee Hazlewood, who wrote and produced most of her hits and sang with her on several duets, including "Some Velvet Morning". In 1966 and 1967, Sinatra charted with 13 titles, all of which featured Billy Strange as arranger and conductor.
Sinatra had a brief acting career in the mid-1960s, including a co-starring role with Elvis Presley in the movie Speedway, with Peter Fonda in The Wild Angels. In Marriage on the Rocks and Nancy Sinatra played a fictional father and daughter. Sinatra was born on June 1940, in Jersey City, New Jersey, she is the eldest daughter of the three children Frank Sinatra had by Nancy Barbato. When she was a toddler, the family moved to New Jersey, they moved again to Toluca Lake, for Frank Sinatra's Hollywood career. There, she spent many years in piano and dramatic performance lessons, as well as undergoing months of voice lessons, her father sang about her as "Nancy" in 1945. In the late 1950s, Sinatra began to study music and voice at the University of California, Los Angeles, she dropped out after a year, made her professional debut in 1960 on her father's television special, The Frank Sinatra Timex Show: Welcome Home Elvis, celebrating the return of Elvis Presley from Europe following his discharge from service in the U.
S. Army. Nancy was sent to the airport on behalf of her father to welcome Elvis. On the special and her father danced and sang a duet, "You Make Me Feel So Young/Old"; that same year she began a five-year marriage to Tommy Sands. Sinatra was signed to her father's label, Reprise Records, in 1961, her first single, "Cuff Links and a Tie Clip", went unnoticed. However, subsequent singles charted in Japan. Without a hit in the US by 1965, she was on the verge of being dropped, her singing career received a boost with the help of songwriter/producer/arranger Lee Hazlewood, making records for ten years, notably with Duane Eddy. Hazlewood became Sinatra's inspiration, he crafted songs for her. Bolstered by an image overhaul—including bleached-blonde hair, frosted lips, heavy eye make-up and Carnaby Street fashions—Sinatra made her mark on the American music scene in early 1966 with "These Boots Are Made for Walkin'", its title inspired by a line in Robert Aldrich's 1963 western comedy 4 for Texas starring her father and Dean Martin.
One of her many hits written by Hazlewood, it received three Grammy Award nominations, including two for Sinatra and one for arranger Billy Strange. It sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc, she appeared on TV in high boots, with colorfully dressed go-go dancers, a craze during the late'60s, created a popular and enduring image of the Swinging Sixties. A run of chart singles followed, including the two 1966 Top 10 hits "How Does That Grab You, Darlin'?" and "Sugar Town". "Sugar Town" became her second million-seller. The ballad "Somethin' Stupid"—a duet with her father—hit No. 1 in the U. S. and the U. K. in April spent nine weeks at the top of Billboard's easy listening chart. It earned a Grammy Award nomination for Record of the Year and remains the only father-daughter duet to hit No.1 in the U. S.. Other 45s showing her forthright delivery include "Friday’s Child", the 1967 hits "Love Eyes" and "Lightning’s Girl", she rounded out 1967 with the raunchy but low-charting "Tony Rome" —the title track from the detective film Tony Rome starring her father—while her first solo single in 1968 was the more wistful "100 Years".
In 1968 she recorded the Kenny Young song "The Highway Song" with Mickie Most producing for the U. K. and European markets. The song reached Top 20 in the U. K. and other European countries. Sinatra enjoyed a parallel recording career cutting duets with the husky-voiced, country-and-western-inspired Hazlewood, starting with "Summer Wine", their biggest hit was a cover of the country song, "Jackson". The single peaked at #14 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the summer of 1967, when Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash made the song their own. In December they released the "MOR"-psychedelic single "Some Velvet Morning", regarded as one of the more unusual singles in pop, the peak of Sinatra and Hazlewood’s vocal collaborations, it reached No. 26 in the US. The promo clip is, like the song, sui generis; the British broadsheet The Daily Telegraph placed "Some Velvet Morning" in pole position in its 2003 list of the Top 50 Best Duets Ever. In 1967, she recorded the theme song for the James Bond film. In the liner notes of the CD reissue of
MacHouston Baker, known as Mickey Baker and Mickey "Guitar" Baker, was an American guitarist. He is held to be a critical force in the bridging of rhythm and blues and rock and roll, along with Bo Diddley, Ike Turner, Chuck Berry. Baker was born in Kentucky, his mother was black, his father, who he never met, was believed to be white. In 1936, at the age of 11, Baker was put into an orphanage, he ran away and had to be retrieved by the staff from St. Louis, New York City and Pittsburgh; the orphanage quit looking for him, at the age of 16 he stayed in New York City. He found work as a laborer and a dishwasher, but after hanging out in the pool halls of 26th Street, he gave up work to become a full-time pool shark. At 19, Baker decided to make a change in his life, he went back to dishwashing, was determined to become a jazz musician. The trumpet was his first choice for an instrument, but with only $14 saved up, he could not find a pawnshop with anything but guitars for that price, he found the learning pace too slow.
He resolved to teach himself, but gave up shortly afterwards. Six months he met a street guitarist who inspired him to start playing again, he continued taking private lessons from different teachers over the next few years. His musical style was influenced by saxophonist Charlie Parker. By 1949, Baker had his own combo, a few paying jobs, he decided to move west, but found that audiences there were not receptive to progressive jazz music. Baker was stranded without work in California. Baker said of the encounter: "I asked Pee Wee,'You mean you can make money playing that stuff on guitar?' Here he had a huge bus for his band. So I started bending strings. I was starving to death, the blues was just a financial thing for me then." He found a few jobs in Richmond and made enough money to return to New York. After returning east, Baker began recording for Savoy and Atlantic Records, he did sessions with Doc Pomus, The Drifters, Ray Charles, Ivory Joe Hunter, Ruth Brown, Big Joe Turner, Louis Jordan, Coleman Hawkins, numerous other artists.
Inspired by the success of Les Paul & Mary Ford, he formed the pop duo Mickey & Sylvia in the mid-1950s. Together, they had a hit single with "Love Is Strange" in 1956; the duo split up in the late 1950s, but sporadically worked together on additional tracks until the mid-1960s. It was around this time that he moved to France, where he worked with Ronnie Bird and Chantal Goya and made a few solo records, he would remain in France for the rest of his life. Up until the end of his life, Baker was without work. Baker appeared at the 1975 version of the Roskilde Festival; because Baker revealed few details about his private life, reasons for his move to France were never made clear. Some media sources claimed that Baker had grown tired of the business aspects of the commercial music industry in the United States, while others stated that the bi-racial Baker was angered by the growing rate of hate crimes in the southern United States during the burgeoning civil rights movement. In 1999, Baker received a Pioneer Award from the Rhythm and Blues Foundation.
In 2003, he was listed at #53 on Rolling Stone's "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". His self-tuition method book series, the Complete Course in Jazz Guitar is a mainstay for introducing students of guitar to the world of jazz, they have remained in print for over 50 years. Baker guarded his personal life as much as possible, giving few interviews and only making sporadic public appearances. After moving to France, he left the country, made few trips to the United States. Baker was married six times. Among his wives were Barbara Castellano from the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s, Marie France-Drei, a singer with whom he stayed from the early 1980s until his death. Baker had two children: MacHouston, Jr. and a daughter, Bonita Lee. Baker died on November 27, 2012 near Toulouse, aged 87, his wife, said he died of heart and kidney failure. "Money Honey" - Clyde McPhatter with The Drifters, 1953 " He Treats Your Daughter Mean" - Ruth Brown 1953 "Shake and Roll" - Big Joe Turner, 1954 "Need Your Love So Bad" - Little Willie John, 1955 "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin On" - Big Maybelle, 1955 "Love Is Strange" - Mickey & Sylvia, 1956 "Caldonia", - Louis Jordan, 1956 "It's Gonna Work Out Fine" - Ike & Tina Turner, 1961 Wildest Guitar But Wild Mississippi Delta Dues Take a Look Inside The Legendary Mickey Baker With Ruth BrownRuth Brown Miss Rhythm With Al HibblerAfter the Lights Go Down Low 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time Everyguitarist.com Allmusic biographical notes Mickey Baker, NY Times Mickey Baker discography at Discogs
The Howard Theatre is a historic theater, located at 620 T Street, Washington, D. C. Opened in 1910, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. In its heyday, the theater was known for catering to an African-American clientele, had played host to many of the great Black musical artists of the early and mid-twentieth century; the Howard Theatre was billed as the "Theater of the People," and supported two theatrical organizations, the Lafayette Players and the Howard University Players. In September 2010 extensive renovations were started to restore the theater to its former glory; the theater reopened on April 9, 2012 to headline acts like Wanda Sykes, Blue Oyster Cult, Chaka Khan, all appearing in the first month since reopening. Constructed in 1910, the theater was founded and owned by the National Amusement Company, a white-owned group; when built, it had a capacity of more than 1,200. Designed by J. Edward Storck, the theater featured orchestra and balcony seats and eight proscenium boxes, with a lavishly decorated interior.
No less extravagant was the exterior, which combined elements of the Beaux-Arts, Italian Renaissance, neoclassical styles. The whole was surmounted by a larger than life statue of Apollo playing his lyre. Andrew Thomas served as the theater's manager during its early years. Beginning in 1922 it was leased and run by actor and entrepreneur Sherman Dudley, it was taken over in 1926 by Abe Lichtman, the white owner of a chain of movie theaters that were frequented by Blacks. With the onset of the Great Depression, the building became a church for a time under the direction of Elder Michaux. In 1931, as part of the venue's return to its original purpose, Duke Ellington appeared with his band at "the Howard," helping to cement the theater's reputation as an entertainment hotspot; this rebirth was helped along by the building's new manager. In the 1930s Allen introduced an amateur contest, used as a springboard to stardom by Billy Eckstine and Ella Fitzgerald; the Howard Theatre lost its original ornate facade in 1941 when it was redone in the then-fashionable Streamline style.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor would attend balls at the theater during World War II. These balls featured performers like Danny Kaye and Costello and Cesar Romero, among others. In the 1940s, Pearl Bailey made her debut at the Howard Theatre; the Howard Theatre turned into a house for rock'n' roll and rhythm and blues during the 1950s and 1960s, when many important acts from both genres played there. Among the acts to grace the stage were Sarah Vaughan, Dinah Washington, Sammy Davis, Jr. James Brown, Lena Horne, Lionel Hampton, The Supremes, Stevie Wonder, Dionne Warwick, Martha Reeves & The Vandellas, Marvin Gaye and Mary WellsThe 1968 riots, which followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. caused the venue a great deal of harm. The riots, coupled with desegregation, contributed to the theater's difficulty in attracting patrons, the theater closed in 1970. Three years in 1973, the Howard Theatre Foundation was organized to reopen the venue, it was this organization which succeeded, in gaining the building historic landmark status.
In April 1975, the New Howard Theatre Corporation presented an evening of entertainment to salute the reopening of the theater. Redd Foxx and Melba Moore were among the acts featured at the theater's reopening. In the decade, go-go bands played the venue, Chuck Brown and the Soul Searchers performed at the Howard Theatre in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1980, the theater closed again. At the time it was the oldest venue in the country. Under Mayor Marion Barry the theatre was purchased by the District government for $100,000. In 2002, the DC Preservation League listed the Howard Theatre as one of its Most Endangered Places in the District. In 2006, the Howard Theatre was returned to private ownership when Ellis Development was selected to renovate and restore the theatre; the District set aside $20 million in public funding for the renovation. Ellis Development, led by Chip Ellis and his son, Malik Ellis, formed Howard Theatre Development Group LLC. Through Howard Theatre Development Group, Ellis Development received nearly $12 million in District funds to redevelop and reopen the theatre.
To oversee management of the facility, Ellis Development created the nonprofit Howard Theatre Restoration Inc. In September 2010, groundbreaking for extensive renovations of the theater was held; the project's goals were to restore the Howard Theatre to 600 seats, complementing developments at the adjacent Progression Place. Martinez + Johnson Architecture and Michael Marshall Design were responsible for the restoration and design of the theater; the theater reopened for Community Day on April 9, 2012. The grand opening event was held on April 10. In 2015, it was revealed that the Howard Theatre Development Group was not paying possessory interest taxes, or property taxes applied on public land. Attorney General Karl Racine had launched an investigation into the organization's finances. Since its reopening, it has hosted a diverse lineup of well-known acts, including Vic Mensa, Anthony Hamilton, Raheem DeVaughn, Chrisette Michele, Dianne Reeves, Gregory Porter, Esperanza Spalding, José James, The Roots, Slick Rick, Chaka Khan, Aaron Neville, Kendrick Lamar, Sheila E..
The Doors featuring Scott Weiland Official theatre site Official site of the restoration project "Howard Theatre". Cinema Treasures
The Everly Brothers
The Everly Brothers were an American country-influenced rock and roll duo, known for steel-string acoustic guitar playing and close harmony singing. Isaac Donald "Don" Everly and Phillip Jason "Phil" Everly were inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986 and the Country Music Hall of Fame in 2001. Don was born in Brownie, Muhlenberg County, Kentucky, on February 1, 1937, Phil in Chicago, Illinois, on January 19, 1939, their parents were Isaac Milford "Ike" Everly, Jr. a guitar player, Margaret Embry Everly. Actor James Best from Muhlenberg County, was the son of Ike's sister. Margaret was 15 when she married Ike, 26. Ike worked in coal mines from age 14, but his father encouraged him to pursue his love of music and Ike and Margaret began singing together; the Everly brothers spent most of their childhood in Iowa. They attended Longfellow Elementary School in Waterloo, for a year, but moved to Shenandoah in 1944, where they remained through early high school. Ike Everly had a show on KMA and KFNF in Shenandoah in the mid-1940s, first with his wife and with their sons.
The brothers sang on the radio as "Little Donnie and Baby Boy Phil." The family sang as the Everly Family. Ike, with guitarists Merle Travis, Mose Rager, Kennedy Jones, was honored in 1992 by the construction of the Four Legends Fountain in Drakesboro, Kentucky; the family moved to Tennessee, in 1953, where the brothers attended West High School. In 1955, the family moved to Madison, while the brothers moved to Nashville, Tennessee. Don had graduated from high school in 1955, Phil attended Peabody Demonstration School in Nashville, from which he graduated in 1957. Both could now focus on recording. While in Knoxville, the brothers caught the attention of family friend Chet Atkins, manager of RCA Victor's studio in Nashville; the brothers moved to Nashville. Despite affiliation with RCA, Atkins arranged for the Everly Brothers to record for Columbia Records in early 1956, their "Keep a-Lovin' Me," which Don wrote and composed and they were dropped from the Columbia label. Atkins introduced the Everly Brothers to Wesley Rose, of Acuff-Rose music publishers.
Rose told them. They signed in late 1956, in 1957 Rose introduced them to Archie Bleyer, looking for artists for his Cadence Records; the Everlys signed and made a recording in February 1957. "Bye Bye Love" had been rejected by 30 other acts. Their record reached No. 2 on the pop charts, behind Elvis Presley's " Teddy Bear," and No. 1 on the country and No. 5 on the R&B charts. The song, by Felice and Boudleaux Bryant, became the Everly Brothers's first million-seller. Working with the Bryants, they had hits in the United States and the United Kingdom, the biggest being "Wake Up Little Susie," "All I Have to Do Is Dream," "Bird Dog," and "Problems." The Everlys, though they were interpretive artists succeeded as songwriters with Don's " I Kissed You," which hit No. 4 on the US pop charts. The brothers toured with Buddy Holly in 1957 and 1958. According to Holly's biographer Philip Norman, they were responsible for persuading Holly and the Crickets to change their outfits from Levi's and T-shirts to the Everlys' Ivy League suits.
Don said Holly composed "Wishing" for them. "We were all from the South," Phil observed of their commonalities. "We'd started in country music." Although some sources say Phil Everly was one of Holly's pallbearers in February 1959, Phil said in 1986 that he attended the funeral and sat with Holly's family, but was not a pallbearer. Don did not attend. I couldn't go anywhere. I just took to my bed." After three years on Cadence, the Everlys signed with Warner Bros. Records in 1960, where they recorded for 10 years, their first Warner Bros. hit, 1960's "Cathy's Clown," which they wrote and composed themselves, sold eight million copies and became the duo's biggest-selling record. "Cathy's Clown" was number WB1, the first selection Warner Bros. Records released in the United Kingdom. We're not Grand Ole Opry... we're not Perry Como... we're just pop music. But, you could call us an American skiffle group! Other successful Warner Bros. singles followed in the United States, such as "So Sad", "Walk Right Back", "Crying in the Rain", "That's Old Fashioned".
From 1960 to 1962, Cadence Records released Everly Brothers singles from the vaults, including "When Will I Be Loved", written and composed by Phil, "Like Strangers." In the UK, they had top 10 hits until 1965, including "Lucille"/"So Sad", "Walk Right Back"/"Ebony Eyes", "Temptation", "Cryin' in the Rain" and "The Price of Love". They had 18 singles into the UK top 40 with Warner Bros. in the 1960s. By 1962, the Everlys had earned $35 million from record sales. In 1961, the brothers fell out with Wesley Rose during the recording of "Temptation." Rose was upset that the Everlys were recording a song which he had not published and, for which he would not receive any publishing royalties, he made strenuous efforts to block the single's release. The Everlys held firm to their position, as a result, in the early 1960s, they were shut off from Acuff-Rose songwriters; these included Felice and Boudleaux Bryant, who had written and composed most of their hits, as well as Don and Phil Everly themselves, who were still contracted to Acuff-Rose as songwriters and had writ
Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s. The term was used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, drums, one or more saxophones, sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships and aspirations; the term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s, it was applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music.
In the 1960s, several British rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R&B bands. Their mix of rock and roll and R&B is now known as "British rhythm and blues". By the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "contemporary R&B", it combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop, electronic music. Popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Prince, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Chaka Khan, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey. In the 21st century, R&B has remained a popular genre becoming more pop orientated and alternatively influenced with successful artists including Usher, Bruno Mars, Chris Brown, Justin Timberlake, The Weeknd, Frank Ocean and Khalid. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term "rhythm and blues" as a musical term in the United States in 1948, the term was used in Billboard as early as 1943.
It replaced the term "race music", which came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. The term "rhythm and blues" was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its "Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles" chart was renamed as "Best Selling Soul Singles". Before the "Rhythm and Blues" name was instated, various record companies had begun replacing the term "race music" with "sepia series". Writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music, made by and for black Americans", he has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues. However, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R&B's stronger gospel influences. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that "rhythm and blues" was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts.
Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to categorize music made by black musicians, as distinct from styles of music made by other musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass and saxophone. Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow and hypnotic textures while calling attention to no individual sound. While singers are engaged with the lyrics intensely so, they remain cool, in control; the bands dressed in suits, uniforms, a practice associated with the modern popular music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Lyrics seemed fatalistic, the music followed predictable patterns of chords and structure; the migration of African Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for jazz and related genres of music.
These genres of music were performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit "Oh Red", as well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, T-Bone Walker. There was increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophone. In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name "Blues and Rhythm". In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s. Jordan's band, the Tympany Five, consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano and drums. Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues". Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat".
Jordan's music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, Wynonie Harris, is now referred to as jump blues. Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, others had had hits in the style now referred to as rhythm and blu