Bus manufacturing, a sector of the automotive industry, manufactures buses and coaches. Bus manufacturing had its earliest origins in carriage building. Other bus manufacturers had their origins in truck manufacturing. Chassis designs were shared between trucks and buses, but in years specific bus chassis have been developed, the midibus introduced a lighter weight bus chassis than normal trucks. Bus manufacture developed as chassis and body builds. Large bus operators or authorities would maintain separate stocks of bus bodies, would refurbish buses in a central works, refurbished chassis might receive a different body. One of the first integral type bus designs combining the chassis was the AEC Routemaster. In the 1980s, many minibuses were built by applying bus bodies to van chassis, so called'van derived' buses. Many of these have been replaced by purpose built designs, although for smaller minibuses this is still an option. In several parts of the world, the bus is still front-engined bonneted vehicle.
In the 1990s, bus manufacture underwent major change with the push toward low-floor designs, for improved accessibility. Some smaller designs achieved this by moving the door behind the front wheels. On most larger buses, it was achieved with various independent front suspension arrangements, kneeling technology, to allow an unobstructed path into the door and between the front wheel arches. Accordingly, these'extreme front entrance' designs cannot feature a front-mounted-engined or mid-engined layout, all use a rear-engined arrangement; some designs incorporate extendable ramps for wheelchair access. Further accessibility is being achieved for high-floor coaches, whereby new designs are featuring built-in wheelchair lifts. While the overwhelming majority of bus designs have been geared to internal combustion engine propulsion, accommodation has been made for a variety of alternative drivelines and fuels, as in electric, fuel cell and hybrid bus technologies; some bus designs have incorporated guidance technology.
There are three basic types of bus manufacturer: Chassis manufacturer - builds the underframe for body-on-frame construction Body manufacturer - builds the coachwork for body-on-frame construction Integral manufacturer - builds entire buses using no underframe at allManufacturers may be a combination of the above, offering chassis only or integral buses, or offering bodywork only as used on integral buses. The splitting of body and chassis construction allows companies to specialise in two different fields, it allows differing offerings of product to customers, who might prefer different chassis/body combinations. For the manufacturers, it lessens the exposure if the other goes out of business. Larger operators may split orders between different body/chassis combinations for shorter delivery schedules. Sometimes, a chassis and body builder will offer an exclusive combination of one body on one chassis, as a'semi-integral'; this combines the expertise of the two companies, saves the cost of making their chassis/body usable on different products.
Builders, such as Duple Metsec will assemble products into kits, for export and local assembly at a partner site. Large users of transit buses, such as public transport authorities, may order special features; this practice was notable in the Transport for London bus specification, predecessors. The Association of German Transport Companies was defining a VöV-Standard-Bus concept, followed between 1968 and 2000; the chassis combines: A structural underframe Engine and radiator Gearbox and transmission Wheels and suspension Dashboard, steering wheel, driver's seatChassis will be built as complete units, up to the point of being drive-able around the factory, or on the public highway to a nearby bodybuilder. The chassis can be mid-engined, or rear-engined. Most chassis will mount the radiator at the front, irrespective of engine position, for more efficient cooling. Chassis products will be available in different standard lengths produced in articulated variants, be used for both bus and coach bodywork, such as the Volvo B10M.
The same chassis may be used for single- or double-decker bus bodywork. Chassis builders may offer different options for gearbox and engine suppliers. Chassis may be built in multiple axle configuration; the bus body builder will build the body onto the chassis. This will involve major consideration of: Usage Seating capacity Staircase position/design Number and position of doorsBodywork is built for three general uses: Bus Dual Purpose CoachBus bodywork is geared to short trips, with many transit bus features. Coach bodywork is with luggage racks and under-floor lockers. Other facilities may include televisions. A dual purpose design is a bus body with upgraded coach style seating, for longer distance travel; some exclusive coach body designs can be available to a basic dual purpose fitment. In past double-deck designs, buses were built to a low bridge design, due to overall height restrictions. Bus manufacturers have to have consideration for some general issues common to body, chassis or integral builders.
Maximum weight Stability - a tilt test pass is required Maximum dimensions - length and width restrictions may apply Fuel consumption Emissions standards AccessibilityIn the 1990s onwards, some bus manufacturers have moved towards making transit bus interiors more comparable to private cars, to encourage public transpo
Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an RR, or Rear-engine, Rear-wheel-drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the RMR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor bus, this layout has become rare in passenger cars. Most of the traits of the RR configuration are shared with the mid-engine rear-wheel-drive, or MR. Placing the engine near the driven rear wheels allows for a physically smaller, less complex, more efficient drivetrain, since there is no need for a driveshaft, the differential can be integrated with the transmission referred to as a transaxle; the front-engine front-wheel-drive layout has this advantage. Since the engine is the heaviest component of the car, putting it near the rear axle results in more weight over the rear axle than the front referred to as a rear weight bias; the farther back the greater the bias.
Typical weight bias for an FR, is 55/45 front/rear. A static rear weight requires less forward brake bias, as load is more evenly distributed among all four wheels under braking. A rear weight bias means that the driven wheels have increased traction when accelerating, allowing them to put more power on the ground and accelerate faster; the disadvantage to a rear weight bias is that the car can become unstable and tend to oversteer when decelerating. When this happens, rotational inertia dictates that the added weight away from the axis of rotation will be more to maintain the spin under braking; this is an inherent instability in the design, making it easier to induce and more difficult to recover from a slide than in a less rear-weight-biased vehicle. Under hard acceleration, the decreased weight over the front wheels means less traction, sometimes producing a tendency for rear-engined cars to understeer out of a corner. In these respects, an RR can be considered to be an exaggeration of MR - harder braking and earlier acceleration, increased oversteer.
In off road and low-traction situations, the RR layout has some advantages compared to other 2WD layouts. The weight is biased towards the driven wheels- as with FF vehicles; this both reduces the tendency for the undriven wheels to dig in. In addition, the driving and steering requirements are split between front and rear- as with FR vehicles- making it less for either to lose traction. Many dune buggies use a Volkswagen beetle as the donor car for this reason; the relative simplicity and light weight compared to 4WD can therefore sometimes outweigh the disadvantage of only having two driven wheels. Where RR differs from MR is in that the engine is located outside the wheelbase; the major advantage of MR - low moment of inertia - is negated somewhat, there is more room for passengers and cargo. Furthermore, because both axles are on the same side of the engine, it is technically more straightforward to drive all four wheels, than in a mid-engined configuration. A rear-mounted engine has empty air behind it when moving, allowing more efficient cooling for air-cooled vehicles.
For liquid-cooled vehicles, this layout presents a disadvantage, since it requires either increased coolant piping from a front-mounted radiator, or relocating the radiator to the sides or rear, adding air ducting to compensate for the lower airflow at the rear of the car. Due to the handling difficulty, the need for more space efficiency, the near ubiquitous use of liquid-cooled engines in modern cars, most manufacturers have abandoned the RR layout; the major exception is Porsche, who has developed the 911 for over 40 years and has taken advantage of the benefits of RR while mitigating its drawbacks to acceptable levels with the help of electronic aids. One of first RR cars was Tatra 77 of 1934, the first serial-produced aerodynamic car, designed by Hans Ledwinka. Tatra used this layout until end of production of T700 in 1999. In case of T613 and T700 Tatra used layout with engine above rear axle, which reduced some disadvantages of RR layout. Mercedes-Benz produced several models of RR cars in this period, starting with the 130H.
The radical 1930s Tatra format was an influence on Ferdinand Porsche's'People's Car' for Adolf Hitler. As well as being the most produced car it set a trend for RR small cars that lasted well into the 1960s; the final form of the RR Volkswagen was the Type 3 of 1961, which flattened the engine, allowing for luggage spaces front and rear. A similar format has been revived with the 2014 Renault Twingo III and second-generation Smart Forfour. Porsche has continued to develop its 911 model as a rear-engined vehicle, although they have introduced multiple all-wheel-drive models. Most notably, the 911 Turbo has been sold as AWD-only since the release of the 993 model. Race-oriented models such as the GT3 and twin-turbocharged GT2 remain RR, however. Another manufacturer to implement the RR configuration was the
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
A curb, or kerb, is the edge where a raised sidewalk or road median/central reservation meets a street or other roadway. Although curbs have been used throughout modern history, indeed were present in ancient Pompeii, their widespread construction and use only began in the 18th century, as a part of the various movements towards city beautification that were attempted in the period. A series of Paving Acts in the 18th century the 1766 Paving and Lighting Act, authorized the City of London Corporation to create footways along the streets of London, pave them with Purbeck stone and raise them above street level with curbs forming the separation. Small wooden bollards had been put up to demarcate the area of the street reserved for pedestrian use; the Corporation was made responsible for the regular upkeep of the roads, including their cleaning and repair, for which they charged a tax from 1766. By the late 18th century, this method of separating pedestrians from carriageways had been supplanted by the use of curbs.
With the introduction of macadam roads in the early 19th-century, curbs became ubiquitous in the streets of London. Curbs present an obstacle for accessibility in public spaces. In 1945, Jack Fisher of Kalamazoo, celebrated the installation of one of the nation's first curb cuts to facilitate mobility in the center of the city. In the United States and passage of federal legislation on accessibility requirements such as the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 have facilitated travel for wheelchair users and other people. Curbs may fulfill any or several of a number of functions. By delineating the edge of the pavement, they separate the road from the roadside and discourage drivers from parking or driving on sidewalks and lawns, they provide structural support to the pavement edge. Curbs melted snow and ice into storm drains. There is an aesthetic aspect, in that curbs look formal and "finished". Since curbs add to the cost of a road, they are limited to urban and suburban areas, are found in rural areas except where certain drainage conditions make them necessary.
Curbs are not universally used, however in urban settings. In low-speed environments, curbs are effective at channeling motor vehicle traffic and can provide some redirective capacity for low-speed impacts. On higher speed roads, the main function of curbs is to provide drainage and are used in areas of a bridge approach or other locations with erosion risk. A high-speed vehicle that hits a curb may turn towards the sidewalk, rather than be directed away from it. A vehicle that strikes a curb can be vaulted into the air; the vehicle could be vaulted over a traffic barrier into the object the barrier is intended to shield. This is a reason why they are used on rural or high speed roads. Where curb is used with a traffic barrier, the barrier should either be close to or well behind the curb, to reduce the chances of a vehicle going over the barrier. Depending on the area and the distance between the travel lane and the edge of pavement, an edge line can be used to indicate the outside edge of the road.
Retroreflective road marking material can be applied to the curb itself to make it more conspicuous. Curbs are meant to inform pedestrians to stop or slow down as they prepare to cross roadways. For example, cultural context and behavioral norms of a society may affect safety in that people are more to cross on a red light while standing alone than waiting with others at the curb. There are a number of types of curb, categorized by shape, material and whether the curb is combined with a gutter. Most curb is constructed separately from the pavement, the gutter is formed at the joint between the roadway and the curb. Combined curb and gutter has a concrete gutter cast together in one piece. "Integral curb" is curbing constructed integrally as a part of a concrete pavement. Curbs have a vertical or nearly-vertical face called "barrier", "non-mountable", or "insurmountable curb". Vertical-faced curb is used to discourage motor vehicle drivers from leaving the roadway; the square or close-to-square type is still always used in towns and cities, as it is a straight step down and thus less to be tripped-over by pedestrians.
By contrast, a slope-faced curb allows motor vehicles to cross it at low speed. Slope-faced curb is most used on major suburban thoroughfares. In certain locales, such as California, there is an effort to standardize the design to achieve efficiencies in construction and lower costs. Trends include using a 24-inch gutter that balances the increased initial price with lower maintenance costs. At crosswalks and other pedestrian crossings, narrow dropped curb cuts are used to allow small wheeled vehicles such as wheelchairs, children's tricycles and strollers to cross; this makes it easier to traverse for some pedestrians, for those in wheelchairs. Wider curb cuts are used to allow motor vehicles to cross sidewalks at low speed for driveways. In Great Britain, "high containment kerbs" are used at locations with pedestrians, fuel station pumps, other areas that need greater protection from vehicle traffic; these are 14 inches high - much higher than standard curb, with a sloped lower portion and a concave face.
These are als
Ashok Leyland is an Indian automobile company headquartered in Chennai, India. It is owned by the Hinduja Group. Founded in 1948, it is the second largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in India, fourth largest manufacturer of buses in the world and 10th largest manufacturer of trucks globally. Operating nine plants, Ashok Leyland makes spare parts and engines for industrial and marine applications, it sold 140,000 vehicles in FY 2016. It is the second largest commercial vehicle company in India in the medium and heavy commercial vehicle segment, with a market share of 32.1%. With passenger transportation options ranging from 10 seaters to 74 seaters, Ashok Leyland is a market leader in the bus segment. In the trucks segment Ashok Leyland concentrates on the 16 to 25-ton range. However, Ashok Leyland has a presence in the entire truck range, from 7.5 to 49 tons. Ashok Motors was founded in 1948 by Raghunandan Saran, he is an Indian freedom fighter from Punjab. After Independence, he was persuaded by India's first Prime Minister Nehru to invest in a modern industrial venture.
Ashok Motors was incorporated in 1948 as a company to assemble and manufacture Austin cars from England, the company was named after the founder's only son, Ashok Saran. The company had its headquarters in Rajaji Saalai, Chennai with the plant in Ennore, a small fishing hamlet in the North of Chennai; the company was engaged in the distribution of Austin A40 passenger cars in India. Raghunandan Saran died in an air crash, he had been negotiating with Leyland Motors of England for assembly of commercial vehicles as he envisioned commercial vehicle were more in need at that time than were passenger cars. The company under Madras State Government and other shareholders finalised for an investment and technology partner, thus Leyland Motors joined in 1954 with equity participation, changing the name of the company to Ashok Leyland. Ashok Leyland started manufacturing commercial vehicles. Under Leyland's management with British expatriate and Indian executives the company grew in strength to become one of India's foremost commercial vehicle manufacturers.
The collaboration ended sometime in 1975 but the holding of British Leyland, now a major British Auto Conglomerate as a result of several mergers, agreed to assist in technology, which continued until the 1980s. After 1975, changes in management structures saw the company launch various vehicles in the Indian market, with many of these models continuing to this day with numerous upgrades over the years. In 1987, the overseas holding by Land Rover Leyland International Holdings Limited was taken over by a joint venture between the Hinduja Group, the Non-Resident Indian transnational group and Iveco, part of the Fiat Group. In 2007, the Hinduja Group bought out Iveco's indirect stake in Ashok Leyland; the promoter shareholding now stands at 51%. Today the company is the flagship of the Hinduja Group, a British-based and Indian originated trans-national conglomerate after Hindujas bought Iveco's remaining ownership stakes. During the early 1980s Ashok Leyland entered into a collaboration with Japanese company Hino Motors from whom technology for the H-series engines was sourced.
Many indigenous versions of the H-series engine were developed with 4 and 6 cylinders, conforming to BS2, BS3 & BS4 emission standards in India. These engines proved to be popular with the customers for their excellent fuel efficiency. Most current models of Ashok Leyland come with H-series engines. Ashok Leyland and Hino Motors. Japan entered into a Mutual Cooperation Agreement on 27 November 2017 renewing their cooperative agreement that had started in 1986. According to the agreement Ashok Leyland will use Hino's engine technology for its Euro 6 development and will support in the development of Hino's engine parts purchasing in India for global operation. Ashok Leyland Defence Systems, Russia's Rosoboronexport and ELCOM Group have signed a cooperation agreement in defence business to provide tracked vehicles to Indian Armed Forces; the agreement was signed on the side lines of the International Military Technical Forum Army – 2017 held at Kubinka, near Moscow, on 25 August 2017. Ashok Leyland and Indian Institute of Technology Madras signed a memorandum of understanding, on 19 August 2017, for Ashok Leyland to sponsor the Centre of Battery Engineering at IIT Madras.
As part of the agreement Ashok Leyland has partnered with IIT Madras to carry out research and development activities for strengthening battery engineering and related sub-parts for electric vehicles. On 18 July 2017 Ashok Leyland announced the formation of an alliance with SUN Mobility, The global partnership aims to develop electric vehicles. In the late 1980s Iveco investment and partnership resulted in Ashok Leyland launching the'Cargo' range of trucks based on European Ford Cargo trucks; the Cargo entered production at Ashok Leyland's new plant in Hosur, southeast of Bengaluru. These vehicles for the first time had factory-fitted cabs. Though the Cargo trucks are no longer in production and the use of Iveco engine was discontinued, the cab continues to be used on the Ecomet range of trucks as well as for several of Ashok Leyland's military vehicles; the Cargo was introduced in 7 and 9 long tons versions. Current range 12M 12M FESLF Viking Cheetah Eagle Electric Bus Freedom Hawk Hybus JanBusJanBus is the world's first single step front engine bus introduced by Ashok Leyland.
Lynx MitrAshok Leyland MiTR is a Minibus manufactured by
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit; this differs from a tram or streetcar, which uses the track as the return path, needing only one wire and one pole. They are distinct from other kinds of electric buses, which rely on batteries. Power is most supplied as 600-volt direct current, but there are exceptions. Around 300 trolleybus systems are in operation, in cities and towns in 43 countries. Altogether, more than 800 trolleybus not more than about 400 concurrently; the trolleybus dates back to 29 April 1882, when Dr. Ernst Werner Siemens demonstrated his "Elektromote" in a Berlin suburb; this experiment continued until 13 June 1882, after which there were few developments in Europe, although separate experiments were conducted in the U. S. In 1899, another vehicle which could run either on or off rails was demonstrated in Berlin; the next development was when Lombard Gerin operated an experimental line at the Paris Exhibition of 1900 after four years of trials, with a circular route around Lake Daumesnil that carried passengers.
Routes followed in 6 places including Fontainebleau. Max Schiemann on 10 July 1901 opened the world's fourth passenger-carrying trolleybus system, which operated at Bielatal, in Germany. Schiemann built and operated the Bielatal system, is credited with developing the under-running trolley current collection system, with two horizontally parallel overhead wires and rigid trolleypoles spring-loaded to hold them up to the wires. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days there were many other methods of current collection; the Cédès-Stoll system was first operated near Dresden between 1902 and 1904, 18 systems followed. The Lloyd-Köhler or Bremen system was tried out in Bremen with 5 further installations, the Cantono Frigerio system was used in Italy. Throughout the period, trackless freight systems and electric canal boats were built. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
Though it was opened on 20 June, the public was not admitted to the Bradford route until the 24th. Bradford was the last to operate trolleybuses in the UK, the system closing on 26 March 1972; the last rear-entrance trolleybus in Britain was in Bradford and is now owned by the Bradford Trolleybus Association. Birmingham was the first to replace a tram route with trolleybuses, while Wolverhampton, under the direction of Charles Owen Silvers, became world-famous for its trolleybus designs. There were 50 trolleybus systems in the UK. By the time trolleybuses arrived in Britain in 1911, the Schiemann system was well established and was the most common, although the Cédès-Stoll system was tried in West Ham and in Keighley. Smaller trackless trolley systems were built in the US early as well; the first non-experimental system was a seasonal municipal line installed near Nantasket Beach in 1904. The trackless trolley was seen as an interim step, leading to streetcars. In the U. S. A. some systems subscribed to the all-four concept of using buses, trolleybuses and rapid transit subway and/or elevated lines, as appropriate, for routes ranging from the used to the heaviest trunk line.
Buses and trolleybuses in particular were seen as entry systems that could be upgraded to rail as appropriate. In a similar fashion, many cities in Britain viewed trolleybus routes as extensions to tram routes where the cost of constructing or restoring track could not be justified at the time, though this attitude changed markedly in the years after 1918. Trackless trolleys were the dominant form of new post-war electric traction, with extensive systems in among others, Los Angeles, Rhode Island, Atlanta; some trolleybus lines in the United States came into existence when a trolley or tram route did not have sufficient ridership to warrant track maintenance or reconstruction. In a similar manner, a proposed tram scheme in Leeds, United Kingdom, was changed to a trolleybus scheme to cut costs. Trolleybuses are uncommon today in North America, but they remain common in many European countries as well as Russia and China occupying a position in usage between street railways and diesel buses. Worldwide, around 300 cities or metropolitan areas are served by trolleybuses today.
Trolleybuses are used extensively in large European cities, such as Athens, Bratislava, Budapest, Kiev, Milan, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Tallinn, Varna and Zurich, as well as smaller ones such as Arnhem, Coimbra, Kaunas, Limoges, Modena, Piatra Neamț, Plzeň, Prešov, Solingen, Szeged, Târgu Jiu and Yalta. See Trolleybus usage by country. Transit authorities in some cities have reduced or discontinued their use of trolleybuses in recent years, while othe
Dallas Area Rapid Transit
Dallas Area Rapid Transit is a transit agency serving the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area of Texas. It operates buses, light rail, commuter rail, high-occupancy vehicle lanes in Dallas and twelve of its suburbs. DART was created in 1983 to replace a municipal bus system and funded expansion of the region's transit network through a sales tax levied in member cities. DART's light rail system is the longest in the United States, at over 93 miles, began operation in 1996. DART operates the Trinity Railway Express between Dallas and Fort Worth, through an interlocal agreement with Trinity Metro; the agency operates the Dallas Streetcar and provides funding for the non-profit McKinney Avenue Streetcar. Average daily ridership for DART has been in the vicinity of 200,000 riders per day over the last couple decades. In the 1st quarter of 1998, DART's weekday ridership averaged 211,000 riders per day system-wide. Ridership has fallen since then. However, after a year-long study in 2012 that counted passenger counts through both the existing manual method and a new automated counting system, DART concluded it has been underreporting rail ridership by more than 15 percent each year.
In the 4th quarter of 2012, DART reported an average weekday ridership of 252,900. In the fourth quarter of 2014, DART reported. DART reported the following ridership numbers in the 4th quarter of 2012: Bus: 136,500 average weekday riders Light rail: 103,100 average weekday riders Trinity Railway Express: 7,300 average weekday riders On-Call: 2,000 average weekday riders Vanpool: 4,000 average weekday riders4th quarter of 2014 ridership numbers: Bus: 126,300 average weekday riders DART Light Rail: 101,800 average weekday riders DART TRE: 8,200 average weekday riders On-Call: 2,600 average weekday riders Vanpool: 3,200 average weekday riders The Dallas Transit System was a public transit service operated by the city of Dallas, from 1964 to 1983. DTS was formed by the consolidation of various owned transit companies and streetcar lines. Prior to DTS, the company was known as the Dallas Railway and Terminal Company when Dallas had an extensive streetcar system that spanned from Oak Cliff to North Dallas.
The name was changed shortly after the last streetcar ran in January 1956. DART formally took over operations of the DTS in 1988. In 2000, DART employees restored a 1966 DTS bus to its original state. DART was created on August 13, 1983 as a regional replacement for the DTS. Citizens of 15 area cities had voted to levy a 1% sales tax to join the system by the time it began transit services in 1984. In 1985, member cities Carrollton and Farmers Branch held elections to pull out of DART, though the measures failed, but shifting suburban politics and a loss of confidence in DART management after voters declined to support DART's measure to incur long term debt in 1988 led to seven more pullout votes, two of which were successful. Just one suburb joined DART — the tiny community of Buckingham, annexed by DART member city Richardson. In December 2007, DART revealed it was facing a $1 billion shortfall in funds earmarked for the Blue Line rail service to Rowlett and Orange Line service to Irving, DFW Airport.
In January 2008, DART announced. When Dallas officials protested, DART president and executive director Gary Thomas—who had known about the shortfall for at least eight months—announced the agency would borrow more money. In late January 2008, DART Board chair Lynn Flint Shaw, treasurer of Dallas Mayor Tom Leppert's "Friends of Tom Leppert" fund-raising committee, resigned from her DART post. In February, she surrendered to the police on charges of forgery. On March 10, Shaw and her husband, political analyst Rufus Shaw, were found dead in their home in what turned out to be a murder suicide. On July 7, 2016, one DART officer was among several people shot in a mass shooting targeting police officers providing security at a Black Lives Matter protest. One of the officers, identified as seven-year veteran Brent Thompson, died from his injuries and became the first DART officer to be killed in the line of duty since the department's inception; the DART light rail system comprises 93 miles between its four lines — the Red Line, the Blue Line, the Orange Line and the Green Line.
According to NCTCOG transit statistics, DART's light rail system had a daily ridership of 109,511 average trips per weekday in October 2012. The system uses light rail trains manufactured by Kinki Sharyo, with all trains being converted to "Super" LRVs which feature level boarding and higher passenger capacity. All 163 of DART's light rail vehicles are now SLRVs. Before the 1983 election, DART had a plan for 160 miles of rail. After the election, the plan was pared down to 147 miles when Duncanville, Grand Prairie and Mesquite, which would have had rail lines, opt to not join the agency. DART chose light rail transit as its primary mode of rail transportati