Bede known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, Bede the Venerable, was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles. Born on lands belonging to the Monkwearmouth monastery in present-day Sunderland, Bede was sent there at the age of seven and joined Abbot Ceolfrith at the Jarrow monastery, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there. While he spent most of his life in the monastery, Bede travelled to several abbeys and monasteries across the British Isles visiting the archbishop of York and King Ceolwulf of Northumbria, he is well known as an author and scholar, his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, gained him the title "The Father of English History". His ecumenical writings were extensive and included a number of Biblical commentaries and other theological works of exegetical erudition. Another important area of study for Bede was the academic discipline of computus, otherwise known to his contemporaries as the science of calculating calendar dates.
One of the more important dates Bede tried to compute was Easter, an effort, mired with controversy. He helped establish the practice of dating forward from the birth of Christ, a practice which became commonplace in medieval Europe. Bede was one of the greatest teachers and writers of the Early Middle Ages and is considered by many historians to be the single most important scholar of antiquity for the period between the death of Pope Gregory I in 604 and the coronation of Charlemagne in 800. In 1899, Pope Leo XIII declared him a Doctor of the Church, he is the only native of Great Britain to achieve this designation. Bede was moreover a skilled linguist and translator, his work made the Latin and Greek writings of the early Church Fathers much more accessible to his fellow Anglo-Saxons, which contributed to English Christianity. Bede's monastery had access to an impressive library which included works by Eusebius and many others. Everything, known of Bede's life is contained in the last chapter of his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, a history of the church in England.
It was completed in about 731, Bede implies that he was in his fifty-ninth year, which would give a birth date in 672 or 673. A minor source of information is the letter by his disciple Cuthbert. Bede, in the Historia, gives his birthplace as "on the lands of this monastery", he is referring to the twinned monasteries of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, in modern-day Wearside and Tyneside respectively. Bede says nothing of his origins, but his connections with men of noble ancestry suggest that his own family was well-to-do. Bede's first abbot was Benedict Biscop, the names "Biscop" and "Beda" both appear in a king list of the kings of Lindsey from around 800, further suggesting that Bede came from a noble family. Bede's name reflects West Saxon Bīeda, it is an Anglo-Saxon short name formed on the root of bēodan "to bid, command". The name occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 501, as Bieda, one of the sons of the Saxon founder of Portsmouth. The Liber Vitae of Durham Cathedral names two priests with this name, one of whom is Bede himself.
Some manuscripts of the Life of Cuthbert, one of Bede's works, mention that Cuthbert's own priest was named Bede. At the age of seven, Bede was sent, as a puer oblatus, to the monastery of Monkwearmouth by his family to be educated by Benedict Biscop and by Ceolfrith. Bede does not say whether it was intended at that point that he would be a monk, it was common in Ireland at this time for young boys those of noble birth, to be fostered out as an oblate. Monkwearmouth's sister monastery at Jarrow was founded by Ceolfrith in 682, Bede transferred to Jarrow with Ceolfrith that year; the dedication stone for the church has survived to the present day. In 686, plague broke out at Jarrow; the Life of Ceolfrith, written in about 710, records that only two surviving monks were capable of singing the full offices. The two managed to do the entire service of the liturgy; the young boy was certainly Bede, who would have been about 14. When Bede was about 17 years old, Adomnán, the abbot of Iona Abbey, visited Monkwearmouth and Jarrow.
Bede would have met the abbot during this visit, it may be that Adomnan sparked Bede's interest in the Easter dating controversy. In about 692, in Bede's nineteenth year, Bede was ordained a deacon by his diocesan bishop, bishop of Hexham; the canonical age for the ordination of a deacon was 25.
"Christian Church" is an ecclesiological term used by Protestants to refer to the whole group of people belonging to Christianity throughout the history of Christianity. In this understanding, "Christian Church" does not refer to a particular Christian denomination but to the "body" of all "believers", both defined in various ways. Other Christian traditions, believe that the term "Christian Church" or "Church" applies only to a specific concrete historic Christian institution, e.g. the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, or the Assyrian Church of the East). The Four Marks of the Church first expressed in the Nicene Creed are that the Church is One, Holy and Apostolic. Thus, the majority of Christians globally consider the Christian Church as a visible and institutional "societas perfecta" enlivened with supernatural grace, while Protestants understand the Church to be an invisible reality not identifiable with any specific earthly institution, denomination, or network of affiliated churches.
Others equate the Church with particular groups that share certain essential elements of doctrine and practice, though divided on other points of doctrine and government. Most English translations of the New Testament use the word "church" as a translation of the Ancient Greek: ἐκκλησία, translit. Ecclesia, found in the original Greek texts, which meant an "assembly"; this term appears in two verses of the Gospel of Matthew, 24 verses of the Acts of the Apostles, 58 verses of the Pauline epistles, two verses of the Letter to the Hebrews, one verse of the Epistle of James, three verses of the Third Epistle of John, 19 verses of the Book of Revelation. In total, ἐκκλησία appears in the New Testament text 114 times, although not every instance is a technical reference to the church. In the New Testament, the term ἐκκλησία is used for local communities as well as in a universal sense to mean all believers. Traditionally, only orthodox believers are considered part of the true church, but convictions of what is orthodox have long varied, as many churches consider themselves to be orthodox and other Christians to be heterodox.
The Greek word ekklēsia "called out" or "called forth" and used to indicate a group of individuals called to gather for some function, in particular an assembly of the citizens of a city, as in Acts 19:32-41, is the New Testament term referring to the Christian Church. In the Septuagint, the Greek word "ἐκκλησία" is used to translate the Hebrew "קהל". Most Romance and Celtic languages use derivations of this word, either inherited or borrowed from the Latin form ecclesia; the English language word "church" is from the Old English word cirice, derived from West Germanic *kirika, which in turn comes from the Greek κυριακή kuriakē, meaning "of the Lord". Kuriakē in the sense of "church" is most a shortening of κυριακὴ οἰκία kuriakē oikia or ἐκκλησία κυριακή ekklēsia kuriakē. Christian churches were sometimes called κυριακόν kuriakon in Greek starting in the 4th century, but ekklēsia and βασιλική basilikē were more common; the word is one of many direct Greek-to-Germanic loans via the Goths. The Slavic terms for "church" are via the Old High German cognate chirihha.
The Christian Church originated in Roman Judea in the first century AD, founded on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, who first gathered disciples. Those disciples became known as "Christians". For most Christians, the holiday of Pentecost represents the birthday of the Church, signified by the descent of the Holy Spirit on gathered disciples; the leadership of the Christian Church began with the apostles. Springing out of Second Temple Judaism, from Christianity's earliest days, Christians accepted non-Jews without requiring them to adopt Jewish customs; the parallels in the Jewish faith are the Proselytes and Noahide Law, see Biblical law in Christianity. Some think that conflict with Jewish religious authorities led to the expulsion of the Christians from the synagogues in Jerusalem; the Church spread throughout the Roman Empire and beyond, gaining major establishments in cities such as Jerusalem and Edessa. It became a persecuted religion, it was condemned by the Jewish authorities as a heresy.
The Roman authorities persecuted it because, like Judaism, its monotheistic teachings were fundamentally foreign to the polytheistic traditions of the ancient world and a challenge to the imperial cult. The Church grew until legalized and promoted by Emperors Constantine and Theodosius I in the 4th century as the state church of the Roman Empire. In the
Anglican Consultative Council
The Anglican Consultative Council or ACC is one of the four "Instruments of Communion" of the Anglican Communion. It was created by a resolution of the 1968 Lambeth Conference; the council, which includes Anglican bishops and laity, meets every two or three years in different parts of the world. The Anglican Consultative Council has a permanent secretariat, based at Saint Andrew's House, responsible for organizing meetings of the "Instruments of Communion"; the Archbishop of Canterbury is ex officio the President of the Council. The current chair of the ACC is Paul Kwong. Members of the council include the Archbishop of Canterbury and a certain number of representatives of each of the Anglican provinces, depending on the size of the province; the largest provinces are entitled to appoint three representatives, consisting of one bishop, one priest, one layperson. Intermediate sized provinces may appoint two persons: one ordained; the smallest provinces appoint only one person, preferably from among the laity.
Additionally, the Council may co-opt up to six additional members of whom two shall be women and two persons not over 28 years of age at the time of appointment. If the chairperson or the vice-chair of the council should be elected to this position for a term which exceeds the term of his or her appointment to the council, his or her council membership is extended until the expiration of the term as chair, while the province to which he or she belongs is entitled to make an additional appointment. For the purposes of apportioning the membership on the Anglican Consultative Council, the large provinces are considered to be: Anglican Church of Australia Anglican Church of Canada Church of England Church of Nigeria Church of the Province of Rwanda Church of the Province of Southern Africa Church of South India Anglican Church of Tanzania Church of the Province of Uganda The Episcopal Church Intermediate-sized provinces are: Anglican Church of Aotearoa, New Zealand, Polynesia Church of the Province of Central Africa Province of the Anglican Church of Congo Church of Ireland Anglican Church of Kenya Church of North India Church of Pakistan Episcopal Church of the Sudan Church in Wales Church in the Province of the West IndiesThe smallest provinces include: Church of Bangladesh Episcopal Anglican Church of Brasil Church of the Province of Burundi Anglican Church of the Central America Region Church of Ceylon Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui Church of the Province of the Indian Ocean Nippon Sei Ko Kai Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East Anglican Church in Korea Church of the Province of Melanesia Anglican Church of Mexico Church of the Province of Myanmar Anglican Church of Papua New Guinea Episcopal Church in the Philippines Anglican Church of South America Scottish Episcopal Church Church of the Province of Southeast Asia Church of the Province of West Africa According to the 1968 resolution, the council has eight functions: To share information about developments in one or more provinces with the other parts of the Communion and to serve as needed as an instrument of common action.
To advise on inter-Anglican and diocesan relationships, including the division of provinces, the formation of new provinces and of regional councils, the problems of extraprovincial dioceses. To develop as far as possible agreed Anglican policies in the world mission of the Church and to encourage national and regional Churches to engage together in developing and implementing such policies by sharing their resources of manpower and experience to the best advantage of all. To keep before national and regional Churches the importance of the fullest possible Anglican collaboration with other Christian Churches. To encourage and guide Anglican participation in the ecumenical movement and the ecumenical organisations. To advise on matters arising out of national or regional Church union negotiations or conversations and on subsequent relations with united Churches. To advise on problems on inter-Anglican communication and to help in the dissemination of Anglican and ecumenical information. To keep in review the needs that may arise for further study and, where necessary, to promote inquiry and research.
The 13th meeting of the ACC was concerned with the controversy surrounding the policies about homosexuality the consecration of homosexual bishops. A resolution to expel the American and Canadian provinces from all church bodies was rejected. An alternative resolution was passed by a vote of 30 to 28, it stated support in the Anglican Communion to reaffirmed “the standard of Christian teaching on matters of human sexuality expressed in the 1998 Lambeth Resolution 1.10, It repeated the position stated at the 2005 Primates' Meeting, that the Episcopal Church and the Anglican Church of Canada needed to "voluntarily withdraw their members" from the ACC—including its "Standing Committee and the Inter-Anglican Finance and Administration Committee" until the next Lambeth Conference in 2008. The 2016 meeting of the ACC made its Resolutions against a background of contentious debates and divided votes regarding homosexuality in the 1998 Lambeth Conference and the boycott by 230 bishops including six Prelates of the 2008 Lambeth Conference over the same issue.
It seemed after these two conferences that the homosexuality issue might break up the Anglican Communion. Against this background, continued unity of the Lambeth Communion was
Anglican eucharistic theology
Anglican eucharistic theology is diverse in practice, reflecting the comprehensiveness of Anglicanism. Its sources include prayer book rubrics, writings on sacramental theology by Anglican divines, the regulations and orientations of ecclesiastical provinces; the principal source material is the Book of Common Prayer its eucharistic prayers and Article XXVIII of the Thirty-Nine Articles. Article XXVIII comprises the foundational Anglican doctrinal statement about the Eucharist, although its interpretation varies among churches of the Anglican Communion and in different traditions of churchmanship such as Anglo-Catholicism and Evangelical Anglicanism. Anglican eucharistic theologies universally affirm the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, though Evangelical Anglicans believe that this is a pneumatic presence, while those of an Anglo-Catholic churchmanship believe this is a corporeal presence. In the former interpretation, those who receive the form or sign of the body and blood in faith, receive the spiritual body and blood of Christ.
Those who receive the form or sign without faith, or for those who are wicked, Christ is not present spiritually and they consume only the physical signs of this holy presence, which further adds to their wickedness – in accordance with Article XXIX. In the latter interpretation, there exists the corporeal presence of Christ in the Eucharist, although the precise manner of how that presence is made manifest is a mystery of faith. To explain the manner of Christ's presence, some high-church Anglicans, teach the philosophical explanation of consubstantiation, associated with the English Lollards and erroneously with Martin Luther, though Luther and the Lutheran churches explicitly rejected the doctrine of consubstatiation and promulgated their dogma of the sacramental union. A major leader in the Anglo-Catholic Oxford Movement, Edward Pusey, championed the view of consubstantiation. With the Eucharist, as with other aspects of theology, Anglicans are directed by the principle of lex orandi, lex credendi which means "the law of prayer is the law of belief".
In other words, sacramental theology as it pertains to the Eucharist is sufficiently and articulated by the Book of Common Prayer of a given jurisdiction. As defined by the 16th-century Anglican theologian Richard Hooker, the sacraments are said to be "visible signs of invisible grace", it thus has the effect of conveying sanctification in the individual participating in the sacrament. According to this, in the Eucharist the outward and visible sign is "bread and wine" and the "thing signified", the "body and blood of Christ", which are taken and received by the faithful in the Lord's supper. Sacraments have both matter. Form is the physical liturgical action, while the matter refers to material objects used. In an Anglican Eucharist the form is contained in the rite and its rubrics, as articulated in the authorised prayer books of the ecclesiastical province. Central to the rite is the eucharistic prayer or "Great Thanksgiving". For the vast majority of Anglicans, the Eucharist, is the central act of gathered worship, the appointed means by which Christ can become present to his church.
For the majority of Anglicans this event constitutes the renewal of the Body of Christ as the Church through the reception of the Body of Christ as the Blessed Sacrament, his spiritual body and blood. In this sacrament, Christ is both incorporated; as such, the eucharistic action looks backward as a memorial of Christ's sacrifice, forward as a foretaste of the heavenly banquet and to the present as an incarnation of Christ in the lives of the community and of individual believers. Anglican doctrine concerning the eucharist is contained in Article XXVIII - Of the Lord's Supper and XXIX - Of the Wicked which eat not the Body of Christ of the Thirty-Nine Articles; the Catechism of the Church of England, the foundational church of the Anglican Communion, is found in the Book of Common Prayer and states that, as with other sacraments, the eucharist is "an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace given unto us, ordained by Christ himself, as a means whereby we receive the same, a pledge to assure us thereof."
The outward sign, in this instance, is the wine. Because of the various theological movements which have influenced Anglicanism throughout history, there is no one sacramental theory accepted by all Anglicans. Early Anglican theologians, such as Thomas Cranmer and Richard Hooker, held to a sacramental theology similar to John Calvin. Cranmer's belief was Calvinist and virtualism, as shown by Peter Brooks in 1965. Hooker's was a more nuanced combination of receptionism and real presence but agnostic as to what the elements were in themselves but insistent that "the sacrament is a true and a real participation of Christ, who thereby imparteth himself in his whole entire Person as a Mystical Head..." He brushes aside transubstantiation and consubstantiation and urges people to meditate in silence and less to dispute the manner'how.' The views were congenial for centuries to the majority of Anglicans. The 19th-century Oxford Movement sought to give the Eucharist a more prominent place and upheld belief in the real presence of Christ in the sacrament.
Anglicans now hold a variety of sacramenta
Charles I of England
Charles I was the monarch over the three kingdoms of England and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life, he became heir apparent to the thrones of England and Ireland on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead. After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings, was determined to govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch.
His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, failed to aid Protestant forces during the Thirty Years' War, his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments, helped precipitate his own downfall. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England.
Charles was tried and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared; the monarchy would be restored to Charles's son, Charles II, in 1660. The second son of King James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. At a Protestant ceremony in the Chapel Royal of Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh on 23 December 1600, he was baptised by David Lindsay, Bishop of Ross, created Duke of Albany, the traditional title of the second son of the King of Scotland, with the subsidiary titles of Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch. James VI was the first cousin twice removed of Queen Elizabeth I of England, when she died childless in March 1603, he became King of England as James I. Charles was a weak and sickly infant, while his parents and older siblings left for England in April and early June that year, due to his fragile health, he remained in Scotland with his father's friend Lord Fyvie, appointed as his guardian.
By 1604, when Charles was three-and-a-half, he was able to walk the length of the great hall at Dunfermline Palace without assistance, it was decided that he was strong enough to make the journey to England to be reunited with his family. In mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. In England, Charles was placed under the charge of Elizabeth, Lady Carey, the wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who put him in boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles, his speech development was slow, he retained a stammer, or hesitant speech, for the rest of his life. In January 1605, Charles was created Duke of York, as is customary in the case of the English sovereign's second son, made a Knight of the Bath. Thomas Murray, a presbyterian Scot, was appointed as a tutor. Charles learnt the usual subjects of classics, languages and religion. In 1611, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Charles conquered his physical infirmity, which might have been caused by rickets.
He became an adept horseman and marksman, took up fencing. So, his public profile remained low in contrast to that of his physically stronger and taller elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, whom Charles adored and attempted to emulate. However, in early November 1612, Henry died at the age of 18 of what is suspected to have been typhoid. Charles, who turned 12 two weeks became heir apparent; as the eldest surviving son of the sovereign, Charles automatically gained several titles. Four years in November 1616, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. In 1613, his sister Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector Palatine, moved to Heidelberg. In 1617, the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, a Catholic, was elected king of Bohemia; the following year, the Bohemians rebelled. In August 1619, the Bohemian diet chose as their monarch Frederick V, leader of the Protestant Union, while Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor in the imperial election. Frederick's acceptance of the Bohemian crown in defiance of the emperor marked the beginning of the turmoil that would develop into the Thirty Years' War.
The conflict confined to Bohemia, spiralled into a wider European war, which the English Parliament and public grew to see
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice. Such study concentrates upon the texts of the Old Testament and of the New Testament, as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use rational analysis and argument. Theologians may undertake the study of Christian theology for a variety of reasons, such as in order to: help them better understand Christian tenets make comparisons between Christianity and other traditions defend Christianity against objections and criticism facilitate reforms in the Christian church assist in the propagation of Christianity draw on the resources of the Christian tradition to address some present situation or perceived needChristian theology has permeated much of Western culture in pre-modern Europe. Systematic theology as a discipline of Christian theology formulates an orderly and coherent account of Christian faith and beliefs. Systematic theology draws on the foundational sacred texts of Christianity, while investigating the development of Christian doctrine over the course of history through philosophical evolution.
Inherent to a system of theological thought is the development of a method: one which one can apply both broadly and particularly. Christian systematic theology will explore: God the attributes of God the Trinity as espoused by trinitarian Christians revelation biblical hermeneutics - the interpretation of Biblical texts the creation divine providence theodicy - accounting for a benign God's tolerance of evil philosophy hamartiology - the study of sin Christology - the study of the nature and person of Christ pneumatology - the study of the Holy Spirit soteriology - the study of salvation ecclesiology - the study of the Christian church missiology - the study of the Christian message and of missions spirituality and mysticism sacramental theology eschatology - the ultimate destiny of humankind moral theology Christian anthropology the afterlife Revelation is the revealing or disclosing, or making something obvious through active or passive communication with God, can originate directly from God, or through an agent, such as an angel.
One who has experienced such contact is called a prophet. Christianity considers the Bible as supernaturally revealed or inspired; such revelation does not always require the presence of an angel. For instance, in the concept called of interior locution by Catholics, supernatural revelation can include just an inner voice heard by the recipient. Thomas Aquinas first described in two types of revelation in Christianity as general revelation and special revelation. General revelation occurs through observation of the created order; such observations can logically lead to important conclusions, such as the existence of God and some of God's attributes. General revelation is an element of Christian apologetics. Certain specifics, such as the Trinity and the Incarnation, are revealed in the teachings in the Scriptures and can not otherwise be deduced except by special revelation; the Bible contains many passages in which the authors claim divine inspiration for their message or report the effects of such inspiration on others.
Besides the direct accounts of written revelation, such as Moses receiving the Ten Commandments, the Prophets of the Old Testament claimed that their message was of divine origin by prefacing the revelation using the following phrase: "Thus says the LORD". The Second Epistle of Peter claims that "no prophecy of Scripture... was produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit". The Second Epistle of Peter implies that Paul's writings are inspired. Many Christians cite a verse in Paul's letter to Timothy, 2 Timothy 3:16-17, as evidence that "all scripture is given by inspiration of God, is profitable..." Here St. Paul is referring to the Old Testament, since the scriptures have been known by Timothy from "infancy". Others offer an alternative reading for the passage. A similar translation appears in the New English Bible, in the Revised English Bible, in the New Revised Standard Version; the Latin Vulgate can be so read. Yet others defend the "traditional" interpretation.
Christianity regards the collections of books known as the Bible as authoritative and written by human authors under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Some Christians believe that the Bible is infallible. In addition, for some Christians, it may be inferred that the Bible cannot both refer to itself as being divinely inspired and be errant or fallible. For if the Bible were divinely inspired the source of inspiration being divine, would not be subject to fallibility or error in that, produced. For them, the doctrines of the divine inspiration and inerrancy, are inseparably tied together; the idea of biblical integrity is a further concept of infallibility, by suggesting that current biblical text is complete and without error, that the integrity of biblical text has never been corrupted or degraded. Historians note, or claim