Benton County, Arkansas
Benton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 221,339, making it the second-most populous county in Arkansas; the county seat is Bentonville. The county was formed on September 30, 1836 and was named after Thomas Hart Benton, a U. S. Senator from Missouri. In 2012, Benton County voters elected to make the county wet, or a non-alcohol prohibition location. Benton County is part of the Northwest Arkansas region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 884 square miles, of which 847 square miles is land and 37 square miles is water. Most of the water is in Beaver Lake. Barry County, Missouri Carroll County Madison County Washington County Adair County, Oklahoma Delaware County, Oklahoma McDonald County, Missouri Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge Ozark National Forest Pea Ridge National Military Park As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 153,406 people, 58,212 households, 43,484 families residing in the county.
The population density was 181 people per square mile. There were 64,281 housing units at an average density of 76 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.87% White, 0.41% Black or African American, 1.65% Native American, 1.09% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 4.08% from other races, 1.82% from two or more races. 8.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of 2005 Benton County's population was 81.7% non-Hispanic white, while the percentage of Latinos grew by 60 percent in the time period. Latinos are attracted to the growth of light industrial jobs, home construction and service sector in the county. 1.1% of the population was African-American. 1.6% reported two or more races not black-white due to a minuscule African-American population. And 12.8% was Latino, but the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce believed the official estimate is underreported and Latinos could well be 20 percent of the population. There were 58,212 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.00% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.30% were non-families.
21.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 21.10% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,281, the median income for a family was $45,235. Males had a median income of $30,327 versus $22,469 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,377. About 7.30% of families and 10.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 7.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 221,339; the racial makeup of the county was 76.18% Non-Hispanic white, 1.27% Black or African American, 1.69% Native American, 2.85% Asian, 0.30% Pacific Islander.
15.49 % of the population was Latino. Politically, Benton County is arguably one of the most Republican-Leaning Counties in Arkansas. Benton County has not voted Democrat in a Presidential election since 1948 when a former senator from bordering Missouri, Harry S. Truman won Benton County along with winning Arkansas as a whole. Walmart corporate headquarters is located in Bentonville. Daisy Outdoor Products, known for its air rifles, is headquartered in Rogers. JB Hunt Transport Services corporate headquarters is located in Lowell. Tyson Foods, based in nearby Springdale, has a distribution center located in Rogers; the historic Trail of Tears is on US highways 62 and 71 and connects with U. S. Route 412 in nearby Washington County. Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport is located near Highfill. Rogers Municipal Airport serves surrounding communities; the Arkansas and Missouri Railroad parallels US Highways 71 in the county. Like all of the conservative Bible Belt of the Ozarks and Ouachitas, Benton County is Republican.
It voted Republican in 1928 and 1944, the last Democratic presidential nominee to carry the county was Harry S. Truman in 1948, along with nearby Sebastian County it was one of the few counties in Arkansas to resist the appeal of southern “favorite sons” George Wallace, Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. Avoca Garfield Gateway Highfill Springtown Cherokee City Hiwasse Lost Bridge Village Maysville Prairie Creek Note: Most Arkansas counties have names for their townships. Benton County, has numbers instead of names. Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town o
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Northwest Arkansas includes Fayetteville, Springdale and Bentonville, the third, fourth and tenth largest cities in Arkansas. These cities are located within Washington counties; as per the 2016 United States Census Bureau estimates, NWA is the 105th largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. and the 22nd fastest growing in the United States. The MSA covers 3,213.01 sq mi, located within the Boston Mountains and Springfield Plateau subsets of The Ozarks. Northwest Arkansas doubled in population between 1990 and 2010. Growth has been driven by the three Fortune 500 companies based in NWA: Walmart, Tyson Foods, J. B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc. as well as over 1,300 suppliers and vendors drawn to the region by these large businesses and NWA's business climate. The region has seen significant investment in amenities, including the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, the Walmart AMP, the NWA Razorback Regional Greenway. Constituent counties of the MSA include: Benton County Madison County Washington County Fayetteville is the county seat of Washington County and home to the University of Arkansas.
As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 76,899. The city is the third most populous in Arkansas and serves as the county seat of Washington County. It's known for Dickson Street the most prominent entertainment district in the state of Arkansas, which itself contains the Walton Arts Center. Blocks from Dickson Street is the Fayetteville Historic Square, which hosts the nation's number one ranked Fayetteville's Farmer's Market. Fayetteville was ranked 8th on Forbes Magazine's Top 10 Best Places in America for Business and Careers in 2007. Business insider named Fayetteville the 2nd best place to live in the South in 2016. Springdale is a city in Benton Counties. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 73,123. Springdale is Arkansas's fourth-largest city, behind Little Rock, Fort Smith, Fayetteville. Springdale is the location of the headquarters of Tyson Foods Inc. the largest meat producing company in the world, has been dubbed the "Chicken Capital of the World" by several publications.
In 2008, the Wichita Wranglers of AA minor league baseball's Texas League moved to Springdale and play in Arvest Ballpark as the Northwest Arkansas Naturals. Rogers is a city in Benton County; as of the 2010 census, the city is the eighth most populous in the state, with a total population of 58,895. Rogers is famous as the location of the first Wal-Mart. In June 2007, BusinessWeek magazine ranked Rogers 18th in the 25 best affordable suburbs in the South. In 2010, CNN Money magazine ranked Rogers as the 10th Best Place to Live in the United States. Two of the city's biggest attractions are the outdoor concert venue the Walmart AMP and the open air shopping mall the Pinnacle Hills Promenade; the city is the home town of American country music singer/songwriter Joe Nichols, Marty Perry, as well as David Noland. It is where comedian Will Rogers married Betty Blake. Bentonville is the county seat of Benton County. At the 2010 census, the population was 38,284, up from 20,308 in 2000 ranking it as the state's 10th largest city.
Bentonville is the county seat of Benton County and home to the headquarters of Walmart, the largest retailer in the world. Bentonville has the location of the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art. Founded by Sam Walton's daughter Alice Walton and designed by world-renowned architect Moshe Safdie, this museum is home to some of America's finest works of art. Southern Living magazine cited Bentonville as "the South's next cultural mecca." Northwest Arkansas is located in the Southern United States. It is within the Upper South, characterized by the Ozarks; the southern part of NWA is a high and dissected plateau, full of sparsely populated oak-hickory forest, separating the region from the Arkansas River Valley to the south. NWA is located within the Ozark Mountains, a dissected plateau within the U. S. Interior Highlands, the largest mountainous region between the Appalachians and the Rocky Mountains. Although the topography varies within the region, the Ozark geology is present throughout. At Fayetteville, the geology splits between the Boston Mountains to the south and the Springfield Plateau to the north.
The Ouachita orogeny exposed the older limestones of the Springfield Plateau, resulting in a softer terrain, while the Boston Mountains retained steep, sharp grade changes. The Ozarks are covered by an oak-hickory-pine forest, with large portions of protected forestland remaining NWA. 25% of this forest has been cleared for development and agricultural uses. Most of NWA is within the White River watershed, with the western portions being contained within the Illinois River watershed. Within NWA, the White River is impounded at several locations, the most important of, at Beaver Dam, forming the 13,700 acres Beaver Lake; this reservoir was created in the 1960s for flood control and energy production uses. It serves as the water supply for most of NWA, with Beaver Water District treating potable water and selling it directly to the four largest NWA municipalities; the Illinois River watershed is a sensitive watershed, the subject of controversy within the area for many years. The phosphorus load of the Illinois has been subject of controversy resulting in litigation between Oklahoma and Arkansas reaching the United States Supreme Court in 1992.
The Environmental Protection Agency has classified the Illino
Washington County, Arkansas
Washington County is a county located in the northwest part of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 203,065, making it the third-most populous county in Arkansas; the county seat is Fayetteville. It is Arkansas's 17th county, formed on October 17, 1828, named for George Washington, the first President of the United States. Washington County is part of the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO Metropolitan Statistical Area. Washington County began following an 1817 treaty; the area was next known as Lovely County, one year Washington County was created after another Cherokee treaty. The court house was centrally located in the city of Washington, modern-day Fayetteville; the Lee Creek Valley in southern Washington County contained many of the county's early settlements, including Cane Hill and Evansville. Arkansas College and Cane Hill College were both founded in Washington County within a day of each other in 1834, with the University of Arkansas being founded in Fayetteville in 1871.
The county witnessed major battles during the American Civil War, including the Battle of Fayetteville, the Battle of Prairie Grove, the Battle of Cane Hill. The county was sparsely settled and the residents were divided in their allegiance, since slaves were few, plantations nonexistent, political news came by White River travelers, not from the pro-Confederate southern part of the state. A Butterfield Overland Mail route was established through the county in 1858, causing more families to settle there; the economy of Washington County was based on apples in the late 19th century. A mixture of wet weather and loamy soils provided a good environment for apple orchards. First planted in areas around Lincoln and Cane Hill in the 1830s, apple orchards began all across the county; the United States Census reported a crop of 614,924 bushels of apples produced by the county in 1900, the highest in the state. Several varieties of apple were discovered in the area including Shannon Pippin, Wilson June, most notably the Arkansas Black.
The Ben Davis became the apple of choice in the area for shipment across the region. Corn became the dominant crop, outselling apples by $500,000 in 1900. Arkansas Industrial University was founded in the growing community of Fayetteville in 1871 after William McIlroy a donated farmland for the site; the university changed its name in 1899 to the University of Arkansas. Railroads came to Washington County after the St. Louis – San Francisco Railway decided to build a line to Texas through Fort Smith. Two possible routes were proposed, one passing through Prairie Grove, the other through Fayetteville. Many Fayetteville residents and farmers sold or donated land for the right of way to influence the choice, they were successful and in 1881 the first passenger train arrived at Fayetteville. The county continued to grow with more schools after the railroad's completion. Rural parts of the county began losing population in the 1920s during the Great Depression, when high taxes forcing residents to move to Fayetteville or west to Oklahoma.
The rural areas became the Ozark National Forest and Devil's Den State Park. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 952 square miles, of which 942 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water, it is the fourth-largest county by area in Arkansas. The county is in a subdivision of the Ozark Mountains. Devil's Den State Park in southern Washington County is known for its picturesque views and mountain vistas. Washington County contains Lake Wedington, located in scenic country west of Fayetteville on Wedington Drive. Washington County sits on a basement of Precambrian granite and rhyolite, as most of the continental interior of the United States does. Much of the county's geologic history must be inferred from nearby Oklahoma and Missouri research, due to the steepness of the more formed mountains that did not form in the neighboring states; this igneous material was eroded until the Paleozoic. These oceans came and retreated for 300 million years, depositing various different sedements during that time.
This created fossiliferous limestone and ripple marked-sandstone, both present throughout the north part of the county as evidence of ancient oceans. Sediments were deposited from the Devonian and Pennsylvanian periods. During this deposition period, the county had a climate similar to that of the present-day Bahamas, as the equator was north of Washington County; the Devonian brought shales, the Mississippian brought the limestones and chert visible in the bluffs. This chert is present throughout most of the county; the county is home to the Boone Formation, white limestones, the Wedington Sandstone, the Bastesville Sandstone, the Pitkin formation, the Fayetteville Shale. Settlers were attracted to the area by its numerous streams, used to power gristmills and clays for use in construction, lime-sweetened soil, chert for road construction. Today, Washington County consists of two main formations, the Boston Mountains and the Springfield Plateau. During the late Pennsylvanian, sediments were deposited on top of the Springfield Plateau.
The area was uplifted during the Ouachita orogeny and subsequent erosion formed the rugged Boston Mountains. Erosion of these sediments causes the Boston Mountains to be carved steeply in the south, while in the north of the county, the Boston Mountain sediments are entirely eroded, exposing the older rocks of the Springfield Plateau. Benton Cou
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Madison County, Arkansas
Madison County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,717; the county seat is Huntsville. The county was formed on September 30, 1836, named for James Madison, fourth President of the United States. Madison County is part of the Northwest Arkansas region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 837 square miles, of which 834 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water. Carroll County Newton County Johnson County Franklin County Crawford County Washington County Benton County Ozark National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 14,243 people, 5,463 households, 4,080 families residing in the county; the population density was 7/km². There were 6,537 housing units at an average density of 3/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 95.94% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 1.22% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.47% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races. 3.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,463 households out of which 33.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.00% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.30% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.80% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,895, the median income for a family was $32,910. Males had a median income of $24,911 versus $18,786 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,736. About 14.70% of families and 18.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.60% of those under age 18 and 18.00% of those age 65 or over.
During the Secession Convention of 1861, Arkansas voted to leave the Union and join the Confederate States of America. When Chairman David Walker called for a second vote seeking a unanimous decision, only Madison County representative Isaac Murphy refused to change his vote. Murphy would be appointed Governor of Arkansas during Reconstruction under Abraham Lincoln's conciliatory policy. Madison County is Republican, voted for the Republican candidate several times when Arkansas was part of the "Solid South". U. S. Highway 412 Highway 12 Highway 16 Highway 21 Highway 23 Highway 45 Highway 74 The Huntsville Municipal Airport is a public-use airport located two nautical miles southwest of the central business district of Huntsville. Huntsville Hindsville St. Paul Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships.
Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research. Each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications; the townships of Madison County are listed below. Orval E. Faubus, governor of Arkansas during the desegregation days, was from the Combs community near Huntsville, he is buried in Combs Cemetery. Ronnie Hawkins, rockabilly singer, his backing band, The Hawks played with Bob Dylan and became The Band. Danny L. Patrick, Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from Madison and Carroll counties from 1967 to 1970. John Selman and lawman, best known for killing John Wesley Hardin in 1895, was born in Madison County. List of lakes in Madison County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison County, Arkansas Madison County Map Official Site
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti