National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
The Merrimack River is a 117-mile-long river in the northeastern United States. From Pawtucket Falls in Lowell, onward, the Massachusetts–New Hampshire border is roughly calculated as the three miles north of the river. The Merrimack is an important regional focus in both New Hampshire and Massachusetts, the central-southern part of New Hampshire and most of northeast Massachusetts is known as the Merrimack Valley. Several U. S. naval ships have been named the USS Merrimack, prior to glaciation, the Merrimack continued its southward course far beyond the present day New Hampshire-Massachusetts border to enter the Atlantic Ocean near Boston. Upon the glaciers retreat, debris deposited north of Boston filled the lower Merrimack Valley, the Neville archaeological site is located along the rivers banks in New Hampshire. The total watershed of the river is approximately 4,700 square miles, covering much of southern New Hampshire, at the mouth of the river is the small city of Newburyport. Prior to the construction of the Middlesex Canal, Newburyport was an important shipbuilding city, the river is perhaps best known for the early American literary classic A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers by Henry David Thoreau.
The Merrimack is listed as one of the Navigable Waters of the United States, subject to Section 10, the etymology of the name of the Merrimack River - from which all subsequent uses derive, such as the name of the Civil War ironclad - remains uncertain. There is some evidence that it is Native American, in 1604 the natives of New England told Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts, who was leading a colony of French language speakers to Acadia, of a beautiful river to the south. The French promptly pronounced its name as Merremack. In 1605 Samuel de Champlain followed this lead, found the river, the French and their name did not remain on the Merrimack. These were all members of a nation of Algonquian speakers known as the Nipmuck, according to Joseph B. the rivers rapids. Potter was an authority on Native American affairs in colonial New England, by contrast, in A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, Henry David Thoreau implies that its name signifies the Sturgeon River. William Woods New Englands Prospect of 1634 calls the river the Merrimacke and it hosts, he says, Sturgeon and Basse, and divers other kinds of fish.
Merrimac, settled in 1638 and originally part of Amesbury, was called West Amesbury until 1876, at time it adopted its current name. Merrimack, New Hampshire, was incorporated in 1746, spelling its name Marrymac in the record of its first town meeting. It is referred to as Merrimac into the early 19th century, in the 1810 decennial census, it was spelled Merrimac, in 1914, US Congressman John Jacob Rogers petitioned that the official spelling be Merrimack. Reports of total rainfall vary, but most areas appear to have received around a foot of rain with some receiving as much as 17 inches
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements, Architecture can mean, A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures, the style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure Knowledge of art, technology, the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering services in connection with the design and construction of buildings. The earliest surviving work on the subject of architecture is De architectura. According to Vitruvius, a building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas, commonly known by the original translation – firmness, commodity.
An equivalent in modern English would be, Durability – a building should stand up robustly, utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing, according to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, for Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only true Christian form of architecture. The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, Architecture was the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men. That the sight of them contributes to his health, power.
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance and his work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way adorned. For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, but suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say, This is beautiful, le Corbusiers contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said Architecture starts when you carefully put two bricks together. The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design, function came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural
National Historic Site (United States)
A National Historic Site is a protected area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS usually contains a historical feature directly associated with its subject. As of 2015, there are 50 NHPs and 90 NHSs, most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service. Some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or privately owned, one property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service. As of October 15,1966, all areas, including NHPs and NHSs. There are about 80,000 NRHP sites, the majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites, National Historic Sites are generally federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are currently 90 NHSs, of which 78 are official NPS units,11 are NPS affiliated areas, one is managed by the US Forest Service, and one by the Bureau of Land Management.
Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, in 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies, in the United States, sites are historic, while parks are historical. The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a legal invention. As such, a park is not itself historic, but can be called historical when it contains historic resources and it is the resources which are historic, not the park. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, and Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia.
It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon, list of World Heritage Sites in the Americas Designation of National Park System Units
A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads, the precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary, but the basic function is the same. The word loom is derived from the Old English geloma formed from ge- and loma, a root of unknown origin, in 1404 it was used to mean a machine to enable weaving thread into cloth. By 1838 it had gained the meaning of a machine for interlacing thread. Weaving is done by intersecting the longitudinal threads, the warp, i. e. that which is thrown across, with the transverse threads, the major components of the loom are the warp beam, harnesses or shafts, shuttle and takeup roll. In the loom, yarn processing includes shedding, battening, shedding is the raising of part of the warp yarn to form a shed, through which the filling yarn, carried by the shuttle, can be inserted. On the modern loom and intricate shedding operations are performed automatically by the heddle or heald frame and this is a rectangular frame to which a series of wires, called heddles or healds, are attached.
The yarns are passed through the eye holes of the heddles, the weave pattern determines which harness controls which warp yarns, and the number of harnesses used depends on the complexity of the weave. Two common methods of controlling the heddles are dobbies and a Jacquard Head, as the harnesses raise the heddles or healds, which raise the warp yarns, the shed is created. The filling yarn is inserted through the shed by a carrier device called a shuttle. The shuttle is normally pointed at each end to allow passage through the shed, in a traditional shuttle loom, the filling yarn is wound onto a quill, which in turn is mounted in the shuttle. The filling yarn emerges through a hole in the shuttle as it moves across the loom, a single crossing of the shuttle from one side of the loom to the other is known as a pick. As the shuttle back and forth across the shed, it weaves an edge, or selvage. Between the heddles and the roll, the warp threads pass through another frame called the reed. The portion of the fabric that has already been formed but not yet rolled up on the roll is called the fell.
After the shuttle moves across the loom laying down the fill yarn, conventional shuttle looms can operate at speeds of about 150 to 160 picks per minute. There are two motions, because with each weaving operation the newly constructed fabric must be wound on a cloth beam. This process is called taking up, at the same time, the warp yarns must be let off or released from the warp beams
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
A textile or cloth is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting, or felting. The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres, a fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is often a piece of fabric used for a specific purpose. The word textile is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning woven, from textus, the word cloth derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made even in prehistoric times.
The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for such as bags. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in the workplace they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Textiles are used in traditional crafts such as sewing, quilting. Textiles for industrial purposes, and chosen for other than their appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met, woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of self-powering nanosystems using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements.
Fashion designers commonly rely on textile designs to set their fashion collections apart from others, the late Gianni Versace, and Emilio Pucci can be easily recognized by their signature print driven designs. Textiles can be made from many materials and these materials come from four main sources, plant and synthetic. In the past, all textiles were made from natural fibres, including plant, animal, in the 20th century, these were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum. Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest gossamer to the sturdiest canvas, microfibre refers to fibres made of strands thinner than one denier
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
Pawtucket Falls (Massachusetts)
Pawtucket Falls is the name of a waterfall on the Merrimack River at Lowell, Massachusetts. The waterfall and rapids below it drop a total of 32 feet in a little under a mile, from there a line was to be drawn due west. The existence of these falls as a barrier to travel along the river necessitated the construction of the Pawtucket Canal in the last decade of the 18th century. In the 1820s, the falls, the canal, and the hydropower they provided lead to the choosing of this site as Americas first planned factory town, over the next 30 years, hydropower from the falls exclusively ran Lowells numerous textile factories via the citys canal system. To maximize the head the canals provided, increase volume, and regulate flow, the final structure, which exists in the same form today, is a stone dam topped with wooden flashings, capable during much of the year of channeling the entire Merrimack into the canal system. The effect being the Pawtucket Falls are dry, when heavy flow tops the dam, the waterfall created, which is a fraction of the total loss in elevation of 32 feet, is referred to as the Pawtucket Falls.
Pawtucket is an Algonkian word meaning at the falls in the river, list of place names in New England of aboriginal origin
The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James B. Francis in Lowell, Massachusetts. It is a reaction turbine that combines radial and axial flow concepts. Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today and they operate in a water head from 40 to 600 m and are primarily used for electrical power production. The electric generators that most often use this type of turbine have an output that generally ranges just a few kilowatts up to 800 MW. Penstock diameters are between 3 and 33 ft, the speed range of the turbine is from 75 to 1000 rpm. A wicket gate around the outside of the turbines rotating runner controls the rate of flow through the turbine for different power production rates. Francis turbines are almost always mounted with the vertical to isolate water from the generator. This facilitates installation and maintenance, water wheels of different types have been used historically for more than 1,000 years to power mills of all types, but they were relatively inefficient.
Nineteenth-century efficiency improvements of water turbines allowed them to nearly all water wheel applications. After electric generators were developed in the late 1800s turbines were a source of generator power where potential hydro-power sources existed. In 1826 Benoit Fourneyron developed a high efficiency outward-flow water turbine, water was directed tangentially through the turbine runner, causing it to spin. Jean-Victor Poncelet designed a turbine in about 1820 that used the same principles. Howd obtained a US patent in 1838 for a similar design and he applied scientific principles and testing methods to produce a very efficient turbine design. More importantly, his mathematical and graphical calculation methods improved turbine design and his analytical methods allowed confident design of high efficiency turbines to precisely match a sites water flow and pressure. A Francis turbine consists of the main parts, Spiral casing. Throughout its length, it has openings at regular intervals to allow the working fluid to impinge on the blades of the runner.
These openings convert the energy of the fluid into momentum energy just before the fluid impinges on the blades. Guide or stay vanes, The primary function of the guide or stay vanes is to convert the energy of the fluid into the momentum energy
History of Lowell, Massachusetts
The city of Lowell was started in the 1820s as a money-making venture and social project referred to as The Lowell Experiment, and quickly became the United States largest textile center. However, within approximately a century, the decline and collapse of industry in New England placed the city into a deep recession. Lowell is considered the Cradle of the American Industrial Revolution, as it was the first large-scale factory town in the country, the area around what is now Lowell was an important hub for the Pennacook Indians. The land above the Pawtucket Falls on the bank of the Merrimack was inhabited by the Pawtucket group. At the time that the colonists first substantively encountered the tribes, Daniel Gookin that they had a population of 12,000. The first interactions between the colonists and the Pawtucket group occurred through trade and religious conversion, during the 1640s, Major Simon Willard traded extensively with the tribes, and in 1647 was accompanied in his expedition by the noted preacher John Eliot.
Eliot returned a year later, and quickly founded a church there with a native convert named Samuel as the pastor, a dedicated church building was built in 1653, remaining until 1824, when it was demolished. Colonists began to move closer to the tribes with the founding of Chelmsford in 1653. Subsequent grants of land extended the town to cover most of the territory Lowell now occupies, by the time the war ended in 1676, the community was much reduced. Wannalancit, the son of Passaconaway and the Pawtucket leader after his fathers retirement, took the surviving tribesmen, the tribe moved to Canada, wandering with the Abenaki before briefly returning in 1692 to negotiate with hostile tribes on behalf of Chelmsford during King Williams War. The final parts of Pawtucket territory were finally purchased in the early 18th century, with a deed issued in 1714 removing their last legal claim, with that, what is now Lowell became entirely colonist-owned, existing as part of the towns of Chelmsford and Dracut.
Entrepreneurs and industrialists soon began using Chelmsford as a location for new mills, the presence of Pawtucket Falls offered a source of water power that enabled the construction of a sawmill and gristmill in the early 18th century, followed by a fulling mill in 1737. The regions forests made it an area for logging. The Pawtucket Falls made this difficult, as they included a 32-foot drop, in 1792, the Proprietors of Locks and Canals association was formed, and completed a canal to bypass Pawtucket Falls in 1797. This would allow the shipping of lumber and other products to the shipyards at Newburyport, unfortunately the creation of the Middlesex Canal, which formed a direct route to Boston, severely harmed the Pawtucket Canals prospects, and it swiftly fell into disuse. Francis Cabot Lowell, an American businessman and textile merchant, visited Britain in 1810 to investigate their textile machinery, because British law prohibited the export of the machines, Lowell instead memorized the designs, and on his returned helped build a replica.
In 1813 he organised the Boston Manufacturing Company and created a cotton mill in Waltham and this mill was the first one in America to use power looms, and proved so successful that Patrick Jackson saw a need to open a new plant. Waltham had been due to the power provided by the Charles River