Macungie is the second oldest borough in Lehigh County, United States and a suburb of Allentown, Pennsylvania in the Lehigh Valley region. Macungie is included in the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the New York City-Newark, New Jersey, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area. Macungie was founded as Millerstown in 1776 by Peter Miller. On November 15, 1857, the village of Millerstown was incorporated as a borough. During Fries's Rebellion in 1800, the U. S. Marshal began arresting people for tax resistance, arrests were made without much incident until the marshal reached Millerstown, where a crowd formed to protect a man from arrest. Failing to make that arrest, the marshal arrested a few others and returned to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania with his prisoners. Two separate groups of rebels independently vowed to liberate the prisoners and marched on Bethlehem; the militia prevailed, John Fries, leader of the rebellion, others were arrested. In 1875, the borough was renamed Macungie to avoid confusion with another town by the same name: Millerstown in Perry County, Pennsylvania.
Macungie lies in the eastern part of the historic Pennsylvania Dutch Country. Macungie is derived from "Maguntsche", a place name used as early as 1730 to describe the region, now Macungie and Emmaus, Pennsylvania. "Maguntsche" is a Lenape word, meaning either "bear swamp" or "feeding place of the bears". The borough's current seal depicts a bear coming to drink at water near some cattails. Other names for Macungie have included Kunshi, Maccongy, Machk-unschi, Machts Kunski, Macungy and Mauck-Kuntshy; the Valentine Weaver House was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. Macungie is located at 40°30′50″N 75°33′9″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.0 square mile, all of it land. Macungie is completely surrounded by Lower Macungie Township except for a small area in the SE that neighbors Upper Milford Township. Swabia Creek flows from the west through the borough, receives Mountain Creek, flows out of the borough to the northeast before draining into the Little Lehigh Creek.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,039 people, 1,366 households, 835 families residing in the borough. The population density was 3,057.0 people per square mile. There were 1,418 housing units at an average density of 1,426.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 94.87% White, 1.35% African American, 0.07% Native American, 2.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.82% from other races, 0.76% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.35% of the population. There were 1,366 households, out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.8% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.81. In the borough the population was spread out, with 20.5% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 90.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $51,721, the median income for a family was $56,848. Males had a median income of $44,821 versus $34,722 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $26,965. About 1.7% of families and 3.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.1% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Mayor: Gary CordnerBorough council: Chris L. Boehm, Manager Cynthia Hartzell, Administrative Assistant Rosemarie Nonnemacher, Clerk/Assistant Treasurer Jean E. Nagle, President Chris Becker, Vice-President Joseph Sikorski Debra Cope Linn Walker Gregory Hutchison Macungie is the headquarters for the Allen Organ Company, a global manufacturer and distributor of organs; the primary manufacturing facility of Mack Trucks is located in neighboring Lower Macungie Township. The Borough is served by the East Penn School District.
Emmaus High School serves grades nine through 12. Eyer Middle School and Lower Macungie Middle School serve grades six through eight. Students in kindergarten through grade five attend either Macungie Elementary School, Shoemaker Elementary School, or Willow Lane Elementary School. Salem Christian School, a private Christian school serving preschool through high school, is based in Macungie. Pennsylvania Route 100 crosses. Other outlet streets include Church Street to the SW, Chestnut Street to the SW and east and Lehigh Streets east to Brookside Road, Willow Lane to the north. LANTA provides bus service to Macungie with LANtaFlex Route 501, which provides flexible bus service through advance reservations and offers connections to fixed-route buses in Trexlertown, at Lehigh Valley Hospital. Bear Creek Ski and Recreation Area, a locally popular ski resort, is located just west of Macungie in Longswamp Township. Das Awkscht Fescht is an antique car festival, held annually the beginning of August in Macungie's Memorial Park.
Wheels of Time, a hot rod and custom car show, is held annually on the weekend before Labor Day weekend in Macungie's Memorial Park. The Macungie Farmer's Market is held every Thursday evening from May-October in Macungie's Memorial Park. Macungie Flower Park is located on Main Street in the center of the borough; the park contains over 10,000 flowers and highlights the old ti
Alburtis is a borough in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is a suburb of Allentown, in the Lehigh Valley region of the state. Alburtis is included in the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the New York City-Newark, New Jersey, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area; the population of Alburtis was 2,361 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.7 square miles, all of it land. However, the Alburtis ZIP code comprises two separate areas stretching from south of Trexlertown well into District township of neighboring Berks County. Local tradition holds that the town was named after Edward K. Alburtis, a civil engineer involved in the construction of the East Pennsylvania Branch of the Philadelphia and Reading Railway; when a railroad station was established in the town, the railroad's Board of Directors named it in honor of Alburtis in 1859. The Lock Ridge Furnace Complex and George F. Schlicher Hotel are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,117 people, 774 households and 593 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,993.2 per square mile. There were 799 housing units at an average density of 1,129.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 97.21% White, 0.33% African American, 0.05% Native American, 1.42% Asian, 0.24% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 0.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.85% of the population. There were 774 households, of which 42.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.5% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.3% were non-families. 18.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 5.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.13. In the borough the population was spread out, with 29.7% of the population under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 38.6% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, 7.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 99.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $52,361, the median income for a family was $57,863. Males had a median income of $36,915 compared with $27,094 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $20,611. About 2.8% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.4% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. The Borough is served by the East Penn School District. Emmaus High School serves grades nine through 12. Eyer Middle School and Lower Macungie Middle School serve grades six through eight. Lock Ridge Park is the predominant public park in Alburtis. Swabia Creek flows through the borough. Gibby Hatton, track cyclist Borough of Alburtis
Lehigh County, Pennsylvania
Lehigh County is a county located in the Lehigh Valley region of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 349,497, its county seat is the state's third-largest city behind Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. The county, first settled around 1730, was formed in 1812 with the division of Northampton County into two counties, it is named after the Lehigh River, whose name is derived from the Delaware Indian term Lechauweki or Lechauwekink, meaning "where there are forks". Lehigh County is part of the New York City metropolitan area, but borders the Delaware Valley and is a part of the Philadelphia media market, it is one of the fastest-growing counties in Pennsylvania. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 348 square miles, of which 345 square miles is land and 3.1 square miles is water. The Lehigh Valley, which includes all of Lehigh and Northampton counties, is bounded on the north by Blue Mountain, a ridge of the Appalachian mountain range with an altitude of 1,300 to 1,604 feet, on the south by South Mountain, a ridge of 700 to 1,100 feet that cuts through the southern portions of the two counties.
The highest point in Lehigh County is Bake Oven Knob, a mass of Tuscarora conglomeratic rocks that rise about 100 feet above the main ridge of the Blue Mountain in northwestern Heidelberg Township. Lehigh County is in the Delaware River watershed. While most of the county is drained by the Lehigh River and its tributaries, the Schuylkill River drains regions in the south of the county via the Perkiomen Creek and the northwest via the Maiden Creek. Berks County Bucks County Carbon County Montgomery County Northampton County Schuylkill County Most of the county's climate is considered to fall in the humid continental climate zone. Summers are hot and muggy and spring are mild, winter is cold. Precipitation is uniformly distributed throughout the year. For the city of Allentown, January lows average −6 °C and highs average 1.3 °C. The lowest recorded temperature was −26.7 °C in 1912. July lows average 17.6 °C and highs average 29.2 °C, with an average relative humidity of 82%. The highest temperature on record was 40.6 °C in 1966.
Early fall and mid winter are driest, with October being the driest month with only 74.7 mm of average precipitation. Snowfall is variable, with some winters bringing light snow and others bringing numerous significant snowstorms. Average snowfall is 82.3 centimetres per year, with the months of January and February receiving the highest at just over 22.86 centimetres each. Rainfall is spread throughout the year, with eight to twelve wet days per month, at an average annual rate of 110.54 centimetres. As of the 2010 census, the county was 71.6% White Non-Hispanic, 6.1% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American or Alaskan Native, 2.9% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian, 2.9% were two or more races, 8.6% were some other race. 18.8% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 312,090 people, 121,906 households, 82,164 families residing in the county; the population density was 900 people per square mile. There were 128,910 housing units at an average density of 372 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 87.02% White, 3.56% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 2.10% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.28% from other races, 1.83% from two or more races. 10.22% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 27.1 % were of 7.9 % Italian, 7.7 % Irish, 6.2 % Pennsylvania German and 5.6 % American ancestry. 85.0 % spoke 8.4 % Spanish and 1.2 % Arabic as their first language. There were 121,906 households out of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.00% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.60% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.90% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 29.20% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 15.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.60 males. As of January 2010, there were 223,867 registered voters in Lehigh County: Democratic: 112,412 Republican: 76,904 Other Parties: 34,551 Lehigh County and neighboring Northampton County are part of Pennsylvania's 15th Congressional district; the 15th Congressional district is a contentious swing district with neither Republicans nor Democrats winning the district consistently. Voters elected Republican Charlie Dent in 2004, 2006 and 2008 and Republican Pat Toomey in 1998, 2000, 2002. In 2004, the county narrowly voted for John Kerry over George W. Bush for President, in 2008 the county gave all statewide Democratic candidates significant leads and Barack Obama a victory of more than 15 points over John McCain, 57.1% to 41.5%. In 2012, President Obama carried the county again, but by a narrower margin: 53.17% to 45.52%. All five statewide winners carried it in November 2004.
Although the Republican Party has been dominant in county-level politics, the Democratic Party has made substantial inroads this decade. In 2005, Bethlehem Mayor Don Cunningham unseated incumbent County Executive Jane Ervin to
Rodale Organic Gardening Experimental Farm
Rodale Organic Gardening Experimental Farm known as the Working Tree Center, is a historic home and farm located at Lynn Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. The home is farmhouse dated to about 1830, altered by J. I. Rodale for his residence and work, 1940 to 1971. Other contributing buildings and structures pre-dating Rodale's purchase in 1940, are the Pennsylvania bank barn, implement shed, corn crib, chicken coop. Added by Rodale are the farm office and greenhouse, turkey / goose coop, tennis court and pool, pavilion and the clapboard and fieldstone bake house, he added the five garden sites: the cultivated gardens, the stone gardens, the Sir Albert Howard test plots, the aerobic and anaerobic compost heaps. The farm is important in the history of organic farming in the 20th century, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1999. Rodale Inc. history
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Swabia Creek is a tributary of Little Lehigh Creek in Berks and Lehigh Counties, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The primary branch of Swabia Creek begins in the Bear Creek Ski and Recreation Area, near Rittenhouse Gap in Longswamp Township, Berks County. Two other tributary streams, unnamed begin in Berks County; the east branch begins with numerous seeps and rivulets feeding into Hensingersville Dam in Lower Macungie Township, Lehigh County. Two tributaries, Mountain Creek and an unnamed stream, begin in Upper Milford Township, Lehigh County. All streams begin on the South Mountain ridge, although surface and ground waters enter from Lock Ridge. A tributary of the west branch flows past the village of Red Lion and joins the primary branch and another tributary in the village of Maple Grove; the west branch of Swabia Creek runs along the Lock Ridge south face. The east branch passes through Hensingersville Dam; the east and west branches connect in Hensingersville. Swabia creek runs north to Alburtis through Lock Ridge Park.
The creek turns east, running parallel to railroad tracks. Three intermittent runs feed Swabia Creek in the upper alluvial plain between Macungie; each starts on South Mountain, flows north, after crossing Mountain Road parallels an historic road. The western two pass through "The Hills at Lock Ridge" development; the Schoeneck Road run provides the back boundary line for houses located on Seip Road and Knerr Drive. The Orchard Road run was relocated and channelized west of Orchard Road; the Gehman Road run passes the Allen Organ headquarters and Mack Trucks assembly plant. After Gehman Road, Swabia Creek enters Macungie. In Macungie, Swabia creek is joined by Mountain Creek. Mountain Creek starts in Upper Milford Township, behind a South Mountain promontory known locally as "Macungie Mountain"; the creek flows past Reimert Memorial Bird Haven and various springs in the Macungie watershed before entering Macungie at Kalmbach Park. Mountain Creek flows along the west side of Memorial Park before joining Swabia Creek.
After receiving Mountain Creek, Swabia Creek turns northeast. Indian Creek, a final intermittent brook, joins Swabia Creek just downstream of Brookside Country Club after meandering past a large group of petroleum tank farms and is fed, in part, from Brinker Pond. After receiving Indian Creek, Swabia Creek joins Little Lehigh Creek; the majority of Swabia Creek's route is in Lower Macungie Township, Lehigh County, with some sources beginning in Berks County and Upper Milford Township, Lehigh County. Swabia Creek has a drainage area of 12.37 square miles. Swabia Creek is in the Pennsylvania State Water Plan watershed #2C-Lehigh River; the Swabia Creek watershed includes Mountain Creek. Mountain Creek joins Swabia Creek in Macungie. Mountain Creek and adjacent springs have provided water to Macungie. South Mountain and Lock Ridge expose the region's pre-Cambrian, metamorphic basement rock granitic Byram gneiss with some hornblendic gneiss. Above the village of Maple Grove and along the north face of South Mountain, the descending Swabia Creek branches and tributaries encounter a band of quartzite, variously referred to as Hardyston quartzite and Potsdam sandstone.
Skolithos fossils can be found embedded in this quartzite along Lock Ridge. After Maple Grove, the west branch flows along a depression created by a fault where the ancient crystalline gneiss of Lock Ridge erupts through the Leithsville formation; the Leithsville formation is composed of dolostone with shale and chert and is sometimes referred to as Tomstown dolomite. The same progression in surface geology occurs for Mountain Creek. Swabia Creek passes through Leithsville formation from Lock Ridge through Alburtis to Macungie. In the lower alluvial plain after Macungie, the Leithsville formation submerges under the Allentown formation, which contains limestone mixed with dolostone; the Leithsville and nearby Epler formations are all part of the Kittatinny supergroup. Many limonite mines were located in the upper and lower Swabian valleys and the upper alluvial plain. Many of these mines were operated by the Thomas Iron Company. Several magnetite and hematite mines were situated near the upper portion of the east branch.
The iron ore was located near the surface in shale present in interfaces between the various formations. Limestone quarries are found in the lower alluvial plain. Gneiss quarries are found near Hensingersville. A site where Indians quarried jasper is found near the upper portion of Mountain Creek. Soils in the alluvial plain from Alburtis to Little Lehigh Creek are silt loams, such as Lindside and Melvin series. Many freshwater forested wetlands, emergent wetlands, ponds found along Swabia Creek are listed in the National Wetlands Inventory; the wetlands are listed as temporarily flooded palustrine systems containing broad-leaved deciduous forest, shrubland, or reeds. The Macungie watershed, through which Mountain Creek flows, contains Northern Appalachian circumneutral seeps natural community which can support diverse threatened or endangered plants. South Mountain is dominated by tulip tree, sweet birch, red oak, silky dogwood. Common undergrowth includes jewelweed, poison ivy, Virginia creeper, fox grape.
Native plants growing in the alluvial plain include vervain, boneset, sedges, Joe-Pye weed, dwarf bluestar, black eyed susan, golden ragwort, red swamp mallow, redtwig dogwood and river birch, dogwood. Common introduced. Invasive plants in the al
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups