Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Area code 604
Area code 604 is a telephone area code that serves southwestern British Columbia: the Lower Mainland, Sunshine Coast, Howe Sound/Sea to Sky Corridor, Fraser Valley and the lower Fraser Canyon regions. It serves the city of Vancouver and surrounding regions. 604 is one of the original 86 area codes assigned in 1947 in the contiguous United States and the then-nine provinces of Canada, served the entire province of British Columbia. Until 1988, area code 604 included Point Roberts, Washington, a pene-enclave of the United States. Despite British Columbia's growth in the second half of the 20th century, 604 remained the province's sole area code for over 50 years. By the mid-1990s, the need for a new area code in the province could no longer be staved off due to Canada's number allocation system; every competitive local exchange carrier in the country is allocated blocks of 10,000 numbers—corresponding to a single three-digit prefix—for every rate centre where it offers service for the smallest hamlets.
While smaller rate centres do not need that many numbers, once a number is assigned to a carrier and rate centre, it cannot be moved elsewhere to a larger rate centre. Additionally, some larger cities are split between multiple rate centres that have never been amalgamated; this resulted in thousands of wasted numbers, the growing popularity of cell phones and fax machines only exacerbated this. The number shortage was severe in the Lower Mainland, home to most of the province's landlines, as well as most of its cell phones and fax machines. In 1997, 604 was cut back to the Lower Mainland, with the new area code 250 created for the remainder of the province; the 1997 split was intended as a long-term solution for the Lower Mainland. However, within three years, 604 was close to exhaustion once again due to the aforementioned number allocation problem and the continued proliferation of cell phones and pagers. While numbers tended to be used up quickly in the Vancouver area due to its rapid growth, the number allocation problem was still severe in the Lower Mainland as a whole.
On November 3, 2001, area code 778 was implemented as a concentrated overlay for the two largest regional districts in the Lower Mainland, Metro Vancouver and the Fraser Valley Regional District. This experiment was announced in NANP planning letter PL-246. While the remainder of the Lower Mainland continued to use only 604, the addition of area code 778 required the implementation of ten-digit dialing throughout the region; the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission announced on June 7, 2007, that 778 would become an overlay for the entire province on July 4, 2007, after the same number allocation problem that afflicted 604 brought 250 close to exhaustion. Effective June 23, 2008, ten-digit dialing became mandatory in BC, attempts to make a seven-digit call triggered an intercept message with a reminder of the new rule. After September 12, 2008, seven-digit dialing was no longer functional. Overlays have become the preferred method of relief in Canada, as they offer an easy workaround for the number allocation problem.
The incumbent local exchange carrier in 604 and 778 is Telus. Through "number portability" and sub-allocation of all numbers in some exchanges to a competitor, many numbers in the 778 area code are now serviced by Shaw Cablesystems. Abbotsford 217 226 302 504 556 557 615 621 743 744 746 751 752 755 756 768 776 832 850 851 852 853 854 855 859 864 870 Agassiz-Kent-Harrison Hot Springs-Chehalis 796 Aldergrove 308 309 409 607 613 614 624 625 626 627 807 825 835 856 857 866 897 996 Anmore 461 469 Boston Bar 867 Bowen Island 947 Burnaby 250 290 291 292 293 294 296 297 298 299 311 312 327 328 341 412 419 420 421 422 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 444 450 451 453 454 456 473 570 571 610 611 612 619 803 880 Chilliwack 316 378 391 392 393 402 407 490 701 702 703 784 791 792 793 794 795 798 799 819 823 824 843 845 846 847 858 991 997 Coquitlam 931 936 939 Delta 940 943 946 948 952 963 Gibsons 840 885 886 887 989 Hope 201 206 712 749 750 860 869 Langley and 427 455 508 509 513 514 530 532 533 534 539 546 757 881 882 888 994 Maple Ridge 460 462 463 465 466 467 Mission 286 287 289 410 814 820 826 New Westminster 200 202 209 237 239 245 306 351 357 374 375 376 377 395 512 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 537 540 544 545 551 553 616 617 636 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 777 787 788 805 808 813 818 822 828 833 838 862 868 878 889 908 920 North Vancouver and 210 243 770 903 904 914 924 929 960 971 973 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 990 995 998 Pemberton 894 Pender Harbour 883 Pitt Meadows 458 460 465 Port Coquitlam 342 464 468 471 472 474 552 554 927 941 942 944 945 Port Moody 461 469 492 917 931 933 934 936 937 939 949 Powell River 208 223 344 413 414 483 485 486 487 489 578 Richmond 204 207 214 227 231 232 233 234 241 242 244 246 247 248 249 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 284 285 288 295 303 304 330 370 394 448 821 Roberts Creek See Gibsons Sechelt 740 741 747 989 885 Squamish 213 389 390 405 567 815 848 849 890 892 898 919 Surrey is divided into the following local rate centres: Cloverdale 574 575 576 577 579 Newton 501 502 503 507 543 547 561 562 572 573 590 591 592 594 595 596 597 598 599 635 Whalley 495 496 497 498 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 634 930 951 953 954 955 957 White Rock 305 385 531 535 536 538 541 542 548 Vancouver 205 215 216 218 219 220 221 222 224 225 228 230 235 240 250 251 252 253 254 255 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 266 267 268 269 280 281 282 290 291 292 293 294 296 297 298 299 301 307 312 313 314 315 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327
Chinese Canadians in Greater Vancouver
Chinese Canadians are a sizable part of the population in Greater Vancouver in the Chinese communities in the city of Vancouver and the adjoining suburban city of Richmond. The legacy of Chinese immigration is prevalent throughout the Vancouver area. Chinese Canadians have been a presence in Vancouver since its 1886 incorporation. Shifts in the economy of smaller towns in British Columbia and immigration caused the size of Vancouver's ethnic Chinese community to increase. Like those of other areas of North America, Vancouver's initial Chinese population was from Guangdong province. A new wave of immigration started in the middle of the 20th century; the first wave originated from Hong Kong, subsequent waves of immigration from Taiwan and Mainland China changed the composition of the Chinese community. There were 114 Chinese in the Burrard Inlet area in 1884; the population included 60 sawmill hands, 30 cooks and washing persons, ten store clerks, five merchants, three married women, one prostitute.
The sawmill hands worked at Hasting's Sawmill. Additional Chinese settled an area north of False Creek after an 1885 announcement that the terminus of the railway was to be extended to that area. Former railroad workers caused Vancouver's population to increase; the city of Vancouver incorporated in April 1886, at the time the city had a pre-existing Chinese population. The Chinese coming to Vancouver had originated from Guangdong. Many Chinese worked at Hastings Sawmill upon arrival, many Chinese worked in logging camps, in forest-clearing crews. Property owners hired Chinese to clear forests because the Chinese were the cheapest laborers available. Vancouver gained the Chinese name Erbu, which means "Second Port"; however New Westminster had the name "Erbu". To disambiguate the two cities, Chinese persons referred to Vancouver as Xianshui Erbu, which means "the Second Port on Brackish Water"; this name was used in place of Erbu and continues to be used as of 2007. Discriminatory actions against Chinese occurred early in the city's history, including mob violence, newspaper articles asking for preventing Chinese from living in Vancouver, post-Great Vancouver Fire street resolutions asking for preventing the return of the Chinese.
In the period's newspaper articles, according to James Morton, author of In the Sea of Sterile Mountains, "anti-Chinese sentiment appeared to be unanimous". The practice of contractors hiring labour crews of only one race had caused the wage disparity between whites and Chinese, according to Paul Yee, author of Saltwater City: Story of Vancouver's Chinese Community, the lower pay of the Chinese workers was the "classic explanation" for anti-Chinese sentiment among whites. Morton stated that "Greedy speculators" had chosen to use Chinese labourers despite the abundance of White labourers; some historians argued that whites desiring a racially homogenous White Canada was another strong factor in anti-Chinese sentiment. In early 1886 one party in the mayoral election in Vancouver prevented Chinese from voting. In 1900 there were 36 Chinese laundries in Chinatown; the city government had passed a law in 1893 that the section of Pender Street between Carrall and Columbia was the only place which could have laundry businesses.
The city government passed laws that harmed smaller Chinese laundries to benefit white-owned laundries, so the Chinese hired Wilson V. Sekler, a lawyer, to get the laws overturned. In 1907 the Asiatic Exclusion League sponsored a parade in Vancouver that opposed persons of Asian origin; this parade developed into a riot that caused damage to Japantown. The 1911 census stated that Vancouver had 3,559 Chinese, giving it the largest Chinese population in all of Canada. Around that year 3,500 persons alone lived in Vancouver's Chinatown, it was Canada's largest Chinatown. According to the census, Vancouver's Chinese population increased to 6,500, including about 600 women and over 500 children attending public schools, due to immigration from 1911-1914 and in the immediate post-World War I period, by 1921. A 1919 missionary report stated that of Vancouver's Chinese, 7% were born in Canada, that there were a total of 210 Chinese families; the Chinese community was served by one hospital by the 1920s.
During the same decade, the community had two Chinese theatres providing recreation. As part of the Great Depression many Chinese began leaving small towns and settling in Vancouver and Victoria. In 1931 the Chinese populations of Vancouver and Victoria combined became more numerous than the Chinese elsewhere in British Columbia. In the mid-20th Century Chinese began moving from smaller British Columbia towns to Vancouver and eastern Canada because of the collapse of some of British Columbia's agricultural industries; the rise of agricultural operations in the United States in the market in the 1950s made local British Columbia market gardening unprofitable, this deprived Chinese remaining in the province's interior of their livelihood. The consequence was a decline in small town Chinese populations. In 1961-1962 about 18,000 ethnic Chinese were resident in the Vancouver area; some Mainland Chinese were fleeing political developments in the mid-20th century, while tensions between the Mainland and Taiwan resulted in some Taiwanese moving to Vancouver.
In the late 1980s and 1990s a wave of Chinese from Hong Kong came to Vancouver, prompted by anxieties related to the upcoming 1997 Handover of Hong Kong. Levels of Chinese coming from Hong Kong declined. Vivienne Poy wrote that instances of antagonism towards Chinese and incidents of racial
South Asian Canadians in Greater Vancouver
South Asian Canadians in Metro Vancouver form the third-largest ethnic group in the region, comprising 291,005 or 12% of the total population. Sizable South Asian communities exist within the city of Vancouver along with the adjoining city of Surrey, which houses one of the world's largest South Asian enclaves. Most South Asian-Canadians in Greater Vancouver and cities adjacent to it are Punjabi Sikhs; this differs from the overall composition of South Asians in Canada. Canadian-raised Punjabi Sikhs living in the Vancouver area, which comprises the western half of the Lower Mainland region, perceive "Punjabi" and "Sikh" as being the same thing, therefore they use the two words interchangeably. Hugh Johnston, the author of "The Development of the Punjabi Community in Vancouver since 1961," wrote that "Sikhs are Punjabi". Margaret Walton-Roberts and Daniel Hiebert, the authors of Immigration and the Family, wrote that "The history of Indo-Canadian settlement in Vancouver began in the late 19th century".
The Empress of India arrived in Vancouver in 1904. On board were the first members of Vancouver's South Asian community. At the turn of the century the Mayor of Vancouver did not permit cremation, so when the first Sikh died in 1907 he could not be cremated in the Vancouver city limits. Christian missionaries did not permit him to be buried with whites. Though the missionaries promoted burial, the Sikhs instead cremated the man in a distant wilderness; this prompted Sikhs to establish their own religious institutions. In 1908 the Canadian Dominion government had a plan to obtain labour for sugar plantations in British Honduras, now Belize, by recruiting Punjabis in Vancouver; the plan was not tested because the Punjabis had found employment. In 1914 Sikhs in Vancouver protested after authorities turned away the Komagata Maru and most of its passengers. Shelley Sang-Hee Lee, the author of A New History of Asian America, wrote that the incident had persuaded persons of Indian origin residing on the North American West Coast to oppose discrimination against their ethnic groups.
The system of sponsoring Vancouver-based South Asians sponsoring relatives in India to immigrate to Vancouver began in 1919, when the Canadian government began permitting children and women based in India entry into Canada. By 1923 Vancouver became the primary cultural and religious centre of British Columbia Indo-Canadians and it had the largest East Indian-origin population of any city in North America. Walton-Roberts and Hiebert stated that until the 1960s the Indo-Canadian community in Vancouver "was small". In 1961 the immigration patterns of Sikhs arriving to Canada changed, with Ontario becoming a major centre of immigration. Prior to 1961 Vancouver was the sole major point of Sikh immigration to Canada; the first significant non-Sikh immigration occurred. Additional immigration of those of Indian background residing in India and England occurred in the late 1960s. Immigration from Fiji continued to occur in the 1969-1979 period. Other groups immigrating from 1969 through 1979 included Pakistanis, Sri Lankans, Ismaili Muslims and Gujarati Hindus from East Africa.
In the period 1971 through 1981 East Indians from South Asia, England, East Africa, East Asia, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia arrived in Vancouver. These immigrants included non-Sikhs. Punjabi Canadians began occupying all areas of Vancouver in the 1960s. In the 1970s Punjabi populations began appearing in Delta and Surrey. Vandalism against houses owned by Indo-Canadians and a Sikh gurdwara occurred in the 1970s in 1974-1975 in Surrey. 71,801 South Asian immigrants moved to Vancouver during the period 1980 to 2001. As of 1981 there were about 25,000 ethnic Punjabis in Vancouver, including about 2,288 Hindus with the remainder being Sikhs. In the period 1980 to 2001, India supplied 75 % of the Indo-Canadians. 14% originated from Fiji. Others originated from Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. In 2001, according to Statistics Canada data on 250,095 immigrants into Vancouver, 12,385 were born in India; some passengers on board Air India Flight 182, which crashed in 1985, were from Greater Vancouver. The bomb that went on AI182 was first placed on a connecting flight.
Since there have been memorial services held at Stanley Park. The Ceperley Playground at Stanley Park has a memorial listing the names of the passengers. By the mid-1980s wealthier Indo-Canadians were moving to Surrey from South Vancouver because land in Surrey was more inexpensive; the 1992 Census stated that in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area there were about 75,000 persons of South Asian origin. In 1996 a controversy occurred when Dr. Stephens, a doctor in San Jose, put advertisements for sex-selection services which would allow parents to reject female children; the Coalition of Women's Organizations Against Sex Selection, organized by Mahila, a women's group headquartered in Vancouver, criticized Stephens. In 2006 the Royal Canadian Mounted Police stated that there had been attempts to extort and kidnap people in Surrey; the RCMP stated. In response, the president of Sikh Alliance Against Violence, stated that the warning
An ethnic group or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, history, culture or nation. Ethnicity is an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, origin myth, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion and ritual, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool. By way of language shift, acculturation and religious conversion, it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another. Ethnicity is used synonymously with terms such as nation or people. In English, it can have the connotation of something exotic related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the dominant population of an area was established; the largest ethnic groups in modern times comprise hundreds of millions of individuals, while the smallest are limited to a few dozen individuals.
Larger ethnic groups may be subdivided into smaller sub-groups known variously as tribes or clans, which over time may become separate ethnic groups themselves due to endogamy or physical isolation from the parent group. Conversely separate ethnicities can merge to form a pan-ethnicity and may merge into one single ethnicity. Whether through division or amalgamation, the formation of a separate ethnic identity is referred to as ethnogenesis; the term ethnic is derived from the Greek word ἔθνος ethnos. The inherited English language term for this concept is folk, used alongside the latinate people since the late Middle English period. In Early Modern English and until the mid-19th century, ethnic was used to mean heathen or pagan, as the Septuagint used ta ethne to translate the Hebrew goyim "the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews"; the Greek term in early antiquity could refer to any large group, a host of men, a band of comrades as well as a swarm or flock of animals. In Classical Greek, the term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group" translated as "nation, people".
In the 19th century, the term came to be used in the sense of "peculiar to a race, people or nation", in a return to the original Greek meaning. The sense of "different cultural groups", in American English "racial, cultural or national minority group" arises in the 1930s to 1940s, serving as a replacement of the term race which had earlier taken this sense but was now becoming deprecated due to its association with ideological racism; the abstract ethnicity had been used for "paganism" in the 18th century, but now came to express the meaning of an "ethnic character". The term ethnic group was first recorded in 1935 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972. Depending on the context, used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity, or synonymously with citizenship; the process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, a term in use in ethnological literature since about 1950. Depending on which source of group identity is emphasized to define membership, the following types of groups can be identified: Ethno-linguistic, emphasizing shared language, dialect – example: French Canadians Ethno-national, emphasizing a shared polity or sense of national identity – example: Armenians Ethno-racial, emphasizing shared physical appearance based on genetic origins – example: African Americans Ethno-regional, emphasizing a distinct local sense of belonging stemming from relative geographic isolation – example: South Islanders Ethno-religious, emphasizing shared affiliation with a particular religion, denomination or sect – example: JewsIn many cases – for instance, the sense of Jewish peoplehood – more than one aspect determines membership.
Ethnography begins in classical antiquity. The Greeks at this time did not describe foreign nations but had developed a concept of their own "ethnicity", which they grouped under the name of Hellenes. Herodotus gave a famous account of what defined Greek ethnic identity in his day, enumerating shared descent, shared language shared sanctuaries and sacrifices shared customs. Whether ethnicity qualifies as a cultural universal is to some extent dependent on the exact definition used. According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and reality", in Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and Reality: Proceedings of the Joint Canada-United States Conference on the Measurement of Ethni
Sunshine Coast (British Columbia)
The Sunshine Coast is a region of the southern mainland coast of British Columbia, Canada, on the eastern shore of the Strait of Georgia, just northwest of Greater Vancouver. The region includes the coastal areas of the regional district of Sunshine Coast, where the name originated, the regional district of Powell River up to and including the village of Lund and into Desolation Sound, much farther up the coast. While populous and visited by tourists, the Sunshine Coast can be reached only by ferry or by float/airplane. Population centres on the Southern Sunshine Coast include Gibsons. On the Sechelt Peninsula are Halfmoon Bay, Secret Cove and Pender Harbour. At the north end of the peninsula, the ferry to Powell River docks north of Egmont at Earl's Cove; these small settlements are near Skookumchuck Narrows, where the skookumchuck or "strong water", the world's biggest tidal marine rapids, channels the tidal flow in and out of the fjord known as Sechelt Inlet. On the Northern Sunshine Coast, a popular boating destination is Desolation Sound, beyond the end of Highway 101 in Lund.
The Sunshine Coast boasts some of the best outdoor recreation. Mountain biking and ocean paddling draw in locals; some of the most popular outdoor recreation activities include: Mountain biking Kayaking/Paddle Board/Canoe Cycling Hiking/Backpacking Snowshoe and skiing Scuba diving Fishing Rock climbing The Sunshine Coast Trail is Canada's longest hut-to-hut hiking trail, at 180km stretching from mountains to shorelines to lakes. It begins at Sarah Point in Desolation Sound, ends at Saltery Bay. Not only is it free, but hikers can access the trail at multiple points along the length if they do not feel like tackling the entire route; the Powell Forest Canoe Route is a 57-km, 8-lake, 5-portage journey that takes 5 days. Portages range from 0.7 km – 2.8 km, paddling stretches from 1 km – 28.5 km. The best time to travel the route is from June – October. Coast Gravity Park - Canada's first low elevation mountain bike park. Located 10km from Sechelt the park has trails for all riding levels, as well as a shuttle system to access the trails crafted by world-renowned builders and riders.
Sprockids Mountain Bike Park - Sprockids Mountain Bike Park is the first recognized mountain bike skills park in North America, is perfect for younger riders. The park is located in Langdale and contains 14km of downhill, ramps and teeter-bars. Powell River Bike and Skate Park - Funded and supported by the Powell River Community Forest Foundation and the City of Powell River, this dynamic park contains a beginner pumptrack, slopestyle dirt jump trails, downhill flow trails, a beginner flow line. Admission is open to the public year round. There are four breweries on the Sunshine Coast, together they make up the Sunshine Coast Ale Trail. Three are located in Gibsons: Persephone Brewing Company, Gibsons Tapworks, The 101 Brewhouse + Distillery. One is located in Powell River: Townsite Brewing; the Bricker Cider Company is a recent addition to the Sunshine Coast, serves a variety of drinks on a beautiful 5-acre farm. The four breweries along with Bricker Cider Company, comprise Brewers Coast; the Sunshine Coast is home to more artists per capita than any other Canadian region.
Throughout the year you can follow the Purple Banner Flags - artists hang them outside their studios to signal they are open - from Langdale to Lund and see everything from painting to pottery to glass-blowing. The Sunshine Coast Art Crawl is one of the signature events of the region. Occurring annually in the Fall, visitors flock to the area from all over the world for a three day journey through 100+ galleries and studios; this is Canada´s longest running summer gathering of Canadian writers and readers, features established literary stars alongside new voices. Powell River Historical Museum and Archives - Telling the rich stories of Sliammon First Nations and the first pulp and paper mill on the west coast of Canada, the museum is open year round. Sunshine Coast Museum and Archives - Located in Gibsons, the Sunshine Coast Museum and Archives tells the story of the region and its inhabitants Tems Swiya Museum - Located in Sechelt, this museum is home to an extensive and growing collection of artifacts from the shíshálh Nation Texada Island Heritage Society - Texada Island Heritage Society operates two museums that tell the history of the area.
Sunshine Coast Arts Council and Arts Centre - Located in Sechelt, the Sunshine Arts Centre houses a public gallery of local and guest artists, a music studio and a public art studio. The Arts Centre hosts a variety of events such as concerts, literary readings, lectures. Wildlife that can be encountered include cougars, black bears, marbled murrelet, great blue herons, sea lions, bald eagles. There are abundant tide pools where hikers can see a variety of molluscs, sea anemones and fish. Hikers are instructed how to react to possible encounters with dangerous animals at the mandatory orientation session prior to starting the trail. During certain times of the year, there is the possibility of encountering seal pups on the beach, they should not be approached, as the mother may abandon them. All wildlife on the trail sh
Metro Vancouver Regional District
Metro Vancouver is a political body and corporate entity designated by provincial legislation as one of the regional districts in British Columbia, Canada. The official legal name is the Metro Vancouver Regional District, the organization was known as the Greater Vancouver Regional District from 1968 to 2017. Further, it was known as the Regional District of Fraser–Burrard for nearly one year upon incorporating in 1967; the MVRD is under the direction of 23 local authorities. The regional district's most populous city is Vancouver, Metro Vancouver's administrative offices are located in the City of Burnaby; the MVRD's boundaries match those of the Vancouver census metropolitan area as identified by Statistics Canada. The Greater Vancouver Water District and the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District were established in 1924 and 1956 respectively; the Government of British Columbia incorporated a regional district for this western portion of the Lower Mainland named the Regional District of Fraser-Burrard on June 29, 1967.
Just under a year the regional district was renamed as the Greater Vancouver Regional District on June 13, 1968. In 2007, the GVRD applied to change its official legal name a second time to "Metro Vancouver", deemed more recognizable at the time. British Columbia's Minister of Community Services denied the application due to the absence of the term "regional district" within the proposed new name, though it was suggested that the GVRD could brand itself under the unofficial name of Metro Vancouver. After nine years, with growing public recognition of Metro Vancouver, the overall success of the brand, confusion between the brand and the official legal name of the regional district, the GVRD motioned in 2016 to change its name to the Metro Vancouver Regional District; the regional district was therefore formally renamed a second time by the Government of British Columbia on January 30, 2017 to the Metro Vancouver Regional District. The Metro Vancouver Regional District is located east of the Strait of Georgia and north of the State of Washington and is bisected by the Fraser River.
The boundaries of the MVRD match those of the Vancouver CMA. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Metro Vancouver Regional District recorded a population of 2,463,431 living in 960,894 of its 1,027,613 total private dwellings, a change of 6.5% from its revised 2011 population of 2,313,328. With a land area of 2,882.68 km2, it had a population density of 854.6/km2 in 2016, making it the regional district in British Columbia with the greatest population and population density in British Columbia. This regional district comprises 23 local authorities as members: 21 municipalities, one electoral area and one treaty First Nation. Electoral Area A comprises all unincorporated land within the regional district boundaries, which totals about 818 square kilometres. Most of the area is in the northernmost part of the district, including residential areas and isolated dwellings on Howe Sound between Lions Bay and Horseshoe Bay, on Indian Arm to the north of Deep Cove and Belcarra/Anmore and on the west side of Pitt Lake to the north of Port Coquitlam.
Other areas included are Barnston Island on the Fraser River, Passage Island between Bowen Island and West Vancouver, the urban communities of the University of British Columbia and the University Endowment Lands, in which 98% of the population of Electoral Area A lives. There are seventeen Indian reserves within the geographical area that are not subject to governance by local authorities or the regional district; the cities of Abbotsford and Chilliwack and the district of Mission, located to the east, although linked to Vancouver in promotions and tourism, are part of a separate regional district, the Fraser Valley Regional District. Metro Vancouver technically comprises four separate corporate entities: the Metro Vancouver Regional District, the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District, the Greater Vancouver Water District and the Metro Vancouver Housing Corporation; each of these is governed by a board of directors. The board of the MVRD has 40 directors coming from the 23 local authorities.
The number of directors coming from each local authority is determined by population, the number of votes allocated to each director further helps proportionally represent the population distribution of the region. Each board director is an elected official of one of the local authorities, with the exception of the representative for Electoral Area A, which has no elected council; as of 2017, the organization had about 1,500 employees. The current organizational structure shows ten departments reporting to the Chief Administrative Officer: Human Resources & Corporate Services; the principal function of Metro Vancouver is to administer resources and services which are common across the metropolitan area. The Metro Vancouver Board has defined its strategic priorities for 2015 through 2018 in its Board Strategic Plan; the organization categorizes its work into eight action areas, as described in the following subsections. However, 84% of the organization's budget is spent in three of those areas - the three utilities.
Metro Vancouver's commitments and its members' commitments to each action area are outlined in eight board-approved management plans as referenced bel